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Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior:


The basic premise of person-centered therapy is that the social values (conditions of worth) imposed on the individual by society underlie self-actualization. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior:

Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior

The History of Therapy
  • Historically, people with psychological disorders
    were subjected to such techniques as
    skull-holes, restoring body humors, and
    placement in insane asylums.
  • Only in recent historical times have people
    received decent, effect therapy for their
    psychological problems and disorders.

The Definition of Therapy
  • Psychotherapy is the process in which a client
    and a professional attempt to treat and to remedy
    the clients psychological difficulties.
  • Psychotherapy is defined as the establishment of
    a helping relationship between a patient and a
    trained professional who applies psychological
    principles to the treatment of emotional or
    behavioral problems.
  • Psychotherapy involves the treatment of
  • (1) disturbed thoughts (2) disturbed emotions
    (3) disturbed behaviors (4) interpersonal and
    life situation difficulties and (5) biomedical

Types of Therapists
  • Clinical Psychologists
  • Most are psychologists with PhDs or PsyDs and
    expertise in research, assessment, and therapy.
  • Usually have a supervised internship.
  • About half work in agencies and institutions
    half in private practice.
  • Psychiatrists
  • Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in
    the treatment of psychological disorders.
  • As MDs, they can prescribe medications.
  • They tend to see clients with the most serious
  • Many have private practice.

Types of Therapists
  • Psychiatric Social Workers
  • Professionals with a masters degree and
    specialized training in treating people in home
    and community.
  • Social workers offer psychotherapy, mostly to
    people with everyday personal and family
  • Counseling Psychologists
  • Marriage and family counselors specialize in
    problems arising from family relations.
  • Pastoral counselors are certified by the American
    Association of Pastoral counselors.
  • Abuse counselors work with substance abusers,
    spouse and child abusers, and their victims.

Types of Therapists
  • Psychoanalyst
  • Either an MD or a psychologist who specializes in
    psychoanalysis, the treatment technique first
    developed by Freud.
  • Psychiatric Nurses
  • Professionals who are trained nurses, usually
    with at least a BS and a MS.
  • Obtain additional specialized training in
    psychiatric problems.
  • Usually administer psychiatric drugs at
    in-patient and out-patient facilities.

Types of Therapy
  • There are 4 main types of therapy
  • Psychodynamic.
  • Humanistic.
  • Behavioral-Learning.
  • Cognitive.

The Psychodynamic Approachto Therapy
  • Psychodynamic Therapy emphasizes the role of
    unconscious conflict.
  • Therapy Focus bring the conflict to
  • Source of the problem childhood problems and
    unconscious conflicts.
  • Techniques of therapy psychoanalysis, free
    association, and dream analysis.
  • Psychological component emphasized emotions.

The Behavioral-Learning Approachto Therapy
  • Behavioral-Learning Therapy emphasizes the role
    of inappropriate learning.
  • Therapy Focus identify and correct specific
    undesirable behaviors.
  • Source of the problem inappropriate learning.
  • Techniques of therapy systematic
    desensitization and behavior modification.
  • Psychological component emphasized behaviors.

The Humanistic Approachto Therapy
  • Humanistic Therapy emphasizes the importance of
    being aware of one's emotions and feeling free to
    express them.
  • Therapy Focus discover true emotions and
    personal goals.
  • Source of the problem blocking of full
    development due to restricted growth potential.
  • Techniques of therapy conversations, largely
    guided by the client.
  • Types of humanistic therapies (1)
    Person-Centered Therapy (2) Gestalt Therapy and
    (3) Existential Therapy.

The Cognitive Approachto Therapy
  • Cognitive Therapy emphasizes the role of
    maladaptive and dysfunctional thinking.
  • Therapy Focus restructure/change maladaptive
    and dysfunctional thinking.
  • Source of the problem maladaptive thinking.
  • Techniques of therapy client conducts
    self-statement modification stress-inoculation.
  • Psychological component emphasized thoughts.

Psychoanalytic Therapy Sigmund Freud
  • The Psychoanalytic Orientation to Therapy After
    hearing Joseph Breuer's report of the benefits of
    catharsis in the case of Anna O., Sigmund Freud
    turned from a career in medicine and eventually
    developed psychoanalysis.
  • The Nature of Psychoanalysis Traditional
    psychoanalysis takes place with the client
    reclining on a couch and the therapist sitting
    nearby, just out of sight.
  • Psychoanalysis involves frequent sessions and
    often lasts for many years.

Psychoanalysis History
  • Breuers Treatment of Anna O. involved catharsis
  • Talking led to emotional release.
  • Relieved symptoms of conversion hysteria.
  • Freuds Development of Psychoanalysis
  • Childhood conflicts repressed in the unconscious
    lead to psychological symptoms.
  • Used the talking cure to encourage insight.
  • Insight leads to catharsis and change.

Techniques of Psychoanalysis
  • Interpretation
  • Making suggestions about possible meaning of
    things to help the client break through defenses.
  • Therapist clarifies the importance of patients
  • The man you dreamt about has some of your
    fathers characteristics.
  • Free Associations
  • Patient says whatever comes to mind, regardless
    of how trivial or irrelevant it seems.
  • Clues about the content of the unconscious will
    eventually be revealed.

Techniques of Psychoanalysis
  • Resistance
  • Patients reluctance to focus on certain
    experiences or emotions.
  • Unconscious defense strategies designed to keep
    the therapist from understanding the clients
  • Dreams
  • The latent or unconscious meaning of dreams is
  • Versus the manifest dream content.

Techniques of Psychoanalysis
  • Transference
  • The patient reacts to the therapist in the same
    way that he/she reacts to other important people.
  • The Analysis of Transference
  • Strong feelings toward the therapist which are
    transferred from childhood reactions are used in
    therapy to help the patient resolve conflicts.

Humanistic TherapiesCarl Rogers
  • Person-Centered Therapy (Client-centered Therapy)
    by Carl Rogers This form of therapy uses
    reflection, genuineness, and accurate empathy to
    help clients come up with their own solutions to
    their problems and to help promote self
    understanding and acceptance.

Humanistic TherapiesCarl Rogers
  • Empathy
  • Looks at life from the clients perspective.
  • Active involvement in the clients world by
    imagining what it would be like to be the client.
  • Genuineness
  • Shows honesty with client.
  • Requires therapists to let their inner feelings
    appear open and honest during therapy.
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Shows warmth and caring for the client.
  • Caring acceptance of the clients individuality
    regardless of what the client says or does.
  • Reflection mirroring back of clients emotions.

Humanistic TherapiesCarl Rogers
  • Person-Centered Therapy provides a safe
    therapeutic climate, reflection and clarification
    of what the client says. In contrast to the
    psychodynamic therapist, the client-centered
    therapist does little to interpret, direct, or
    advise the client.
  • The basic premise of person-centered therapy is
    that the social values (conditions of worth)
    imposed on the individual by society underlie

Humanistic TherapiesGestalt Therapy
  • Gestalt Therapy This form of therapy is more
    directive than person-centered therapy and
    challenges clients to face their true feelings
    and to act on them.
  • Gestalt Therapy
  • Developed by Fritz Perls.
  • Encourages direct expression of emotion by client
    (can be confrontational).
  • Focus on the present rather than past or future.

Humanistic TherapiesGestalt Therapy
  • Gestalt Therapy emphasizes the importance of
    increasing an accurate perception of reality.
  • When perceptions become abnormally inaccurate,
    they can lead to psychopathology.
  • Therapist examples therapist sets example for
    client by being an open and aware person.
  • Role play therapist and/or client engages in
    role play to help the client manage feelings.
  • Nonverbal-behavior congruence therapist
    encourages client to be in touch with whether
    verbal behavior matches nonverbal behavior.

Humanistic Therapies Existential Therapy
  • Existential Therapy Existential therapists
    assume that emotional and behavioral problems
    stem from an inability to cope with the ultimate
    issues of life.
  • Existential therapists try to make their clients
    aware of the importance of free choice and the
    fact that they have the ultimate responsibility
    form making their own choices about their lives.

The Behavioral-LearningOrientation to Therapy
  • The behavioral orientation to therapy places more
    emphasis on changing maladaptive behaviors rather
    than on providing insight into unconscious
  • All behavior therapies are based on the
    fundamental principles that normal and abnormal
    behavior is learned, and therefore treatment is
    based on processes designed to change behavior.
  • 3 types of Behavioral-Learning approaches
  • Classical Conditioning Therapies.
  • Operant Conditioning Therapies.
  • Social Learning Therapies.

Behavioral (Learning) Approachesto Therapy
  • Classical Conditioning Therapies
  • 1. Systematic Desensitization This approach
    uses progressive relaxation, the construction of
    an anxiety hierarchy, and counterconditioning.
  • 2. Aversion Therapy The goal of aversion
    therapy is to make a formerly pleasurable, but
    maladaptive, behavior become unpleasant.

Behavior (Learning) Therapies Abnormal
behaviors can be unlearned.
  • (1) Systematic Desensitization A relaxation
    response is repeatedly paired with a stimulus
    that evokes anxiety in the hope that the anxiety
    will be alleviated.
  • Client relaxes while thinking about increasingly
    more threatening images of phobic object.
  • Dog phobic remains relaxed while imagining a dog
    in the room, licking her hand, in her lap.
  • (2) Aversion Therapy Pair an unpleasant
    stimulus with an object that causes an
    inappropriate response.
  • Show a pedophile pictures of a child while
    delivering a shock.

Behavioral (Learning) Approachesto Therapy
  • Operant Conditioning Therapies
  • 1. Positive Reinforcement One of the main uses
    of positive reinforcement is the token economy,
    used often in institutional settings.
  • 2. Punishment The use of punishment is
    effective in eliminating inappropriate or
    dangerous behaviors, such as self-injurious
    behavior in autistic children.
  • 3. Extinction Both imaginal flooding and in
    vivo flooding are techniques used to extinguish
    maladaptive behavior.

Behavioral (Learning) Approachesto Therapy
  • Social Learning Therapies Social learning
    theory has contributed participant modeling as a
    way to overcome phobias.

Behavioral (Learning) Approachesto Therapy
Social Skills Training
  • Clients learns to be more outgoing or assertive
    in social settings.
  • Role Play
  • Therapist and client practice difficult social
  • Job interviews, asking for a date, refusing to
    pay for shoddy repairs.
  • Through shaping and positive reinforcement,
    client gradually improves social skills.

The Cognitive Orientation to Therapy
  • The cognitive orientation to therapy assumes that
    the interpretation of events, rather than the
    events themselves, causes psychological problems.
  • The cognitive approaches focus on the thought
    processes or cognitions that underlie and
    maintain behavior.
  • The basic premise is that changes in behavior
    should follow from changes in underlying

The Cognitive Orientation to Therapy
  • Three types of Cognitive Therapy
  • Stress-Inoculation therapy.
  • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.
  • Cognitive Therapy.

Cognitive Therapies Stress-Inoculation Therapy
  • Stress-Inoculation therapy, developed by
    Meichenbaum, uses inoculation training to help
    people think optimistically when in stressful
  • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
  • Developed by Meichenbaum.
  • Inoculation Training

Cognitive Therapies Rational-Emotive Behavior
  • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy In Albert
    Ellis's rational-emotive behavior therapy, the
    client learns to challenge and change
    dysfunctional-irrational thinking and,
    ultimately, behavior.
  • Ellis focuses on restructuring cognitions that
    are based on dysfunctional-irrational beliefs.
  • Challenge dysfunctional-irrational beliefs
  • I must be perfect or no one will love me!
  • I must be thoroughly competent, adequate, and
    successful in all possible respects if I am to be
  • It is horrible when things do not turn out the
    way I want them to.

Cognitive TherapiesCognitive Behavior Therapy
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  • Developed by Aaron Beck.
  • Replace negative or maladaptive thoughts with
    less harsh thoughts.
  • For example, change I never do anything right!
    to Just like everyone else, I do some things
  • According to Beck, perceptual and thought
    processes cause depression.
  • The types of cognitions that are targeted for
    change involve self-devaluation and pessimism
    about the future.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy Examples of
Maladaptive Cognitions
  • Overgeneralization
  • One person rejects your request for a date and
    you conclude that anyone you approach will also
    reject you.
  • Magnification/minimization
  • You miss exercising for two days and you tell
    yourself, Ill never get in shape.
  • Arbitrary Inference
  • Your girlfriend is late picking you up and you
    suspect she wants to break up with you.

Group Therapies
  • Therapy in which people discuss problems with a
  • Psychotherapy with 4 - 8 clients.
  • Some advantages over individual therapy
  • Experience interacting with other group members.
  • Discovering that others experience similar
  • Receiving support and advice from other members.

Group TherapiesThe Social Relations Orientation
to Therapy
  • The social relations orientation assumes that
    many psychological problems involve interpersonal
    relationships thus, people cannot be
    therapeutically treated as individuals.
  • 3 Types of Social Relations Therapy
  • 1. Psychoanalytic Group Therapies Psychodrama
    and transactional analysis are two types of group
    therapy derived from the psychoanalytic approach.
  • 2. Behavioral Group Therapies Social skills
    training and assertiveness training are two group
    therapy techniques derived from the behavioral
  • 3. Humanistic Group Therapies Sensitivity
    groups and encounter groups are two types of
    group therapy derived from the humanistic

Group TherapiesTransactional Analysis
  • Transactional Analysis (TA) focuses on the
    transactions (i.e., interactions) that people
    perform within themselves and with other people.
  • Transactional Analysis emphasizes the roles of
    parent, adult, and child.
  • People sometimes try to act toward others as if
    they are that persons parent or child.
  • Goal of TA therapy help people to relate to
    others as adults.
  • Interpersonal games and scripts are other
    processes emphasized in Transactional Analysis.

Feminist Psychotherapy
  • Therapeutic change involves becoming aware of and
    challenging societys views of women.
  • Assumption Societys expectations for women
    emphasize roles of dependency.
  • Women are encouraged to value themselves as
    highly as they value others (partners, children).
  • Anger towards institutions which oppress women
    should be constructively used to change society.

Family Therapy
  • In family therapy, the family system as a
    whole--not just one family member identified as
    having the problem--is treated.
  • Family therapy deals with problems involving
    family structure and family interaction patterns.
  • Many family therapists assume that family members
    fall into rigid roles, with one person acting as
    the scapegoat (i.e., as the disturbed family

Family Therapy (continued)
  • In family therapy, the main goals are the
    constructive expression of feelings and the
    establishment of rules that family members agree
    to follow.
  • Family members learn to express their emotions
    and to provide feedback to each other.
  • Virginia Satir's conjoint family therapy and
    Salvador Minuchin's structured family therapy.
  • Family therapy has been used to increase marital
    intimacy, to treat adolescent drug abusers, and

Marital - Couples Therapy
  • Marital - Couples Therapy couples learn about
    compromises and expectations.
  • Compromises Couples learn how about the
    give-and-take of intimate relationships.
  • Expectations Couples learn that they sometimes
    have unconscious/conscious expectations about how
    they expect their partners to behave
  • expect males to car care, lawn care, etc.
  • expect females to clean house, child care, etc.

The BiopsychologicalOrientation to Therapy
  • The biopsychological approach uses medical
    procedures to treat psychological disorders.
  • This approach is based on the assumption that
    rather than focusing on a patients psychological
    conflicts, past traumas, or environmental
    variables that may support abnormal behavior, it
    is more appropriate to directly treat brain
    chemistry and other neurological factors.
  • 3 types of biopsychological approaches to
  • (1). Psychosurgery (2). ECT and (3). Drugs.

Drug Approaches to Therapy
  • Drug Therapy Since its introduction in the
    1950s, drug therapy has become the most widely
    used form of medical therapy.
  • Four types of Drug Therapy
  • Anti-anxiety drugs.
  • Anti-depression drugs.
  • Anti-mania drugs.
  • Anti-psychotic drugs.

Drug Approaches to Therapy
  • 1. Anti-anxiety Drugs (tranquilizers)
  • The most widely prescribed antianxiety drugs are
    the benzodiazepines (e.g.,Xanax, Valium, and
  • Do tranquilizers treat symptoms or problem cause?
  • 2. Anti-depressant Drugs (improve mood)
  • (a) The tricyclic antidepressants work by
    increasing the levels of serotonin and
    norepinephrine in the brain and by preventing
    their reuptake.
  • (b) Recently, drugs known as serotonin-reuptake
    inhibitors (e.g., Prozac, Zoloft and Paxil) have
    become widely used.

Drug Approaches to Therapy (continued)
  • 3. Anti-mania Drugs
  • The drug lithium carbonate is frequently
    prescribed to prevent the extreme mood swings of
    bipolar disorder.

Drug Approaches to Therapy (continued)4.
Anti-psychotic Drugs
  • Commonly used anti-psychotic drugs (e.g., the
    phenothiazines) work by blocking brain receptor
    sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine.
  • Phenothiazines, particularly Thorazine, have been
    effective in making schizophrenics less agitated
    and aggressive and in reducing delusions and
  • A new drug, clozapine, produces fewer side
    effects than traditionally prescribed
    anti-psychotic drugs.
  • Anti-psychotic drugs have been a significant
    factor in the reduction of mental hospital
    populations over the last few decades.
  • These anti-psychotic agents are also known as

Biopsychological TreatmentsPsychiatric Drugs
PsychosurgeryApproach to Therapy
  • Although psychosurgery was once considered a
    humane alternative to locking agitated patients
    in rooms, its contemporary use has declined
  • Psychosurgery involves operating on the human
  • Psychosurgery is rarely used today.

Biopsychological TreatmentsPsychosurgery
  • Destroy brain tissue to alter behavior.
  • Used with violent or agitated patients.
  • Prefrontal lobotomy
  • Separate parts of the frontal lobes from
  • Side effects
  • Apathy, withdrawal, seizures.
  • Lack of goal directed behavior.
  • Cingulotomy
  • Cingulate cortex partially destroyed.
  • Effective for treatment resistant OCD.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  • While Electroconvulsive Therapy was originally
    used for treating agitated patients, it proved
    more successful in elevating the mood of severely
    depressed patients who failed to respond to drug
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy involves the
    administration of electrical shock to the human

Biopsychological Treatments Electroconvulsive
Therapy (ECT)
  • Brief, electrical current induces 30 second
    convulsion or seizure.
  • Electrodes attached to non-dominant hemisphere.
  • Loss of consciousness for 30 - 60 minutes.
  • Can reawaken confused and disoriented, with
    headache and memory loss.
  • Used mostly for depression treatment failures.
  • Sometimes works faster than anti-depressants.
  • Mechanism of improvement unknown.

Thinking About PsychologyIs Psychotherapy
  • Is Psychotherapy Effective?
  • In 1952, Hans Eysenck challenged psychotherapists
    by claiming that people who received
    psychotherapy improved no more than those who did
    not receive therapy.
  • Evaluation of Psychotherapy Research conducted
    subsequent to Eysenck's claims has shown that
    psychotherapy is better than no therapy, and
    better than placebo therapy, although no single
    kind of therapy has been shown to be clearly
    superior to the rest.

Is Psychotherapy Effective?
  • Psychotherapy leads to more improvement than no
    therapy but no particular therapy is more
    effective than any other.
  • Are some therapies more effective for some
    problems than other therapies?
  • For panic disorder, cognitive therapy and
    behavior therapy were more effective than either
    anti-anxiety drugs or anti-depressants.

Thinking About PsychologyIs Psychotherapy
  • Research has shown that although there is some
    spontaneous remission (improvement over time with
    no therapy), therapy is clearly more beneficial
    than no therapy for individuals with emotional
    and behavioral problems.
  • Therapy has been shown to be effective for
    anxiety disorders and depression, but much less
    effective for schizophrenia and other psychotic
  • There are no overall differences in effectiveness
    among the major therapies, but some forms of
    treatment might be better for some problems than

Factors in the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
  • 1. Therapy Characteristics Research suggests
    that the most important therapy characteristic is
    the number of therapy sessionsthe more
    sessions,the more improvement.
  • 2. Client Characteristics According to
    psychology research, clients were more likely to
    improve if they had more education, higher
    intelligence, and higher socioeconomic status.
  • 3. Therapist Characteristics Research
    consistently has found that clients are more
    likely to improve if their therapists are
    perceived as being empathetic.

Factors in the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
  • Regardless of the specific type of therapy, there
    are certain common denominators important to a
    positive outcome
  • a trusting, caring, supportive relationship
  • hope for the demoralized and
  • insight.

Community Mental Health
  • Community psychology aims to prevent or minimize
    psychological disorders.
  • The community mental-health movement was
    stimulated by deinstitutionalization, the process
    of treating people in community settings instead
    of mental hospitals.
  • Deinstitutionalization also brought the
    development of halfway houses, residences in
    which formerly hospitalized mental patients, drug
    addicts, and others can be housed.

Community Mental Health
  • The Rights of Hospitalized Patients Patients
    have the right to refuse treatment and the right
    to receive treatment.
  • The Right to Confidentiality Generally,
    therapists are ethically bound to keep
    confidential the information revealed by their
    clients, although recent legal decisions have
    imposed the duty to warn upon therapists.