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Leadership, Management and Supervision

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Title: Leadership, Management and Supervision


1
Leadership, Management and Supervision
  • Thomas P. Holland, Ph.D.
  • Institute for Nonprofit Organizations
  • University of Georgia

2
Basic Definitions
  • Leadership drawing people together to identify
    shared values and goals and then formulating
    plans to achieve them
  • Management overseeing activities to carry out
    plan and accomplish goals, including planning,
    organizing, delegating, and coordinating
    activities
  • Supervision guiding production and procedures of
    staff to accomplish a delegated goal or objective
  • Overlap of skills
  • Distinctions made in larger organizations

3
Components of Leadership
  • Envisioning situations that are in line with
    values, vision for the future
  • Engaging others in shaping vision
  • Deciding together on our shared goals
  • Identifying ways to attain them
  • Inspiration rather than authority
  • Motivated by vision and purpose
  • Problems resolved by referring back to shared
    vision

4
Components of Management
  • Planning identifying ways, means, and resources
    to accomplish goals
  • Organizing creating structures and assignments
    to pursue goals
  • Coordinating overseeing the application of
    people and resources to accomplish goals
  • Monitoring assessing progress toward goals
    rearranging applications of resources to refine
    pursuit of goals

5
Core Skills of Management
  • Planning, goal setting
  • Problem-solving and decision-making
  • Delegating
  • Motivating
  • Sustaining communications
  • Facilitating meetings
  • Ensuring accomplishment of goals
  • Monitoring staff performance
  • Removing barriers to performance
  • Managing oneself, improving interpersonal skills

6
Components of Supervision
  • Guiding the activities of staff to accomplish
    delegated goal or objective
  • Identifying tasks and roles needed
  • Developing effective teams
  • Ensuring that the right competencies are being
    applied to tasks
  • Seeing that problems are resolved
  • Monitoring and refining staff/team performance
  • Conforming with organizational policies

7
Core Skills of Supervision
  • Translating delegated goals into action,
    including
  • Conducting feasibility studies to refine work
    plan and to identify required resources and
    skills
  • Mobilizing the right mix of people and skills to
    accomplish components of delegated goals
  • Team building
  • Ensuring understanding of work objectives and
    tasks
  • Facilitating meetings, sustaining progress
  • Monitoring progress toward goals and objectives
  • Trouble-shooting, resolving problems conflicts

8
Managing Staff Performance
  • Def. Processes that provide effective management
    of individuals and teams in order to achieve high
    levels of organizational success
  • Emphasizes strategic goals and application of
    organizations resources to accomplish them
  • Integrates all aspects of the organization into
    coordinated activities to accomplish goals
  • Encourages behavior that fosters good working
    relationships and ongoing improvement
  • Provides ongoing means for continuous quality
    improvement

9
Performance Management seeks to ensure that
staff members
  • Understand what is expected of them and how their
    work leads to organizations goals
  • Have the skills and abilities to deliver on those
    expectations
  • Meet those expectations
  • Are actively engaged in designing and
    implementing work tasks
  • Sustain positive relationships
  • Receive feedback on their performance
  • Have opportunities to improve performance

10
(Re)Designing the Organization
  • Start with a solid mission statement and clear
    strategic plan
  • Identify the skills and resources needed to
    accomplish strategic goals
  • Specify the activities needed to attain goals
  • Group up those activities into clusters for
    individuals/ teams
  • Establish structures of coordination and
    accountability
  • Depict positions in chart, showing lines of
    accountability
  • Delegate objectives and tasks, making sure that
    everyone understands expectations
  • Sustain clear communications
  • Monitor and evaluate results, use feedback loops

11
Key Components of Strategic Planning
  • Goals large, overall preferred results for the
    organization in the future
  • Mission goals must be consistent with mission
  • Market planning must engage important internal
    and external audiences, seeking their views and
    involvement
  • Strategies the overall methods or processes for
    accomplishing the goals
  • Objectives specific accomplishments that must be
    completed to reach the goals major milestones
    along the way
  • Criteria indicators of successful
    accomplishment of objectives and goals
  • Implementation delegation of tasks to people
    who will complete each objective
  • Evaluation monitoring progress toward goals

12
Basic Steps in Strategic Planning
  • Identify factors relevant to future of
    organization
  • SWOT analysis
  • Internal strengths and weaknesses
  • External opportunities and threats
  • Identify alternative futures for organization
  • Weigh options and draw conclusions
  • Set goals
  • Establish strategies to accomplish each goal
  • Specify objectives along way to each goal
  • Identify indicators of success for each
  • Allocate responsibilities and time lines
  • Communicate the plan widely
  • Address barriers and celebrate successes

13
Project Planning I
  • State the problem (not the solution) clearly so
    everyone involved has the same, accurate
    understanding of the issue to be addressed and
    solved.
  • Identify the goal to be attained, solution (so
    the problem is resolved), how it is linked with
    mission.
  • Specify what the team needs to do, a framework or
    structure to organize work, tasks linked by
    structure, clear enough that person assigned task
    will know what to do.
  • Identify set of activities that together will
    accomplish the goal, with time ordering so they
    are completed in sequence and on time for
    subsequent tasks. Set times for beginning,
    milestones for accomplishment, project
    completion.
  • Organize into sequence diagram, flow chart
    (project management software is available for
    this Microsoft office has one see also
    www.viewpath.com and www.iteamwork.com )

14
Project Planning II
  • Task allocation assign specific tasks to
    individuals who have competencies to complete
    them. Include some stretching so people will
    develop/grow.
  • Resources ensure that needed resources are
    available on time for each task.
  • Record-keeping set up procedures to keep track
    of tasks, assignments, due dates.
  • Communications set up procedures for monitoring
    work, reporting on tasks, supporting
    collaboration, alerting others to barriers,
    testing for quality
  • Plan for errors and handling problems along the
    way convene team to address and resolve.
  • Protect team members from other demands on time.
  • Disseminate and celebrate results.

15
Problem Solving
  • Impulse is to react in ways that have been used
    before
  • Satisficing looking close to familiar solutions,
    selecting easiest one (fewest demands) to apply
  • Instead, seek to understand why you and others
    think there is a problem
  • Ask what do we see, where, how occurring, when,
    with whom, why, own role in it?
  • Seek to frame the issue in ways different from
    past
  • Engage others in examining definitions and
    potential solutions
  • Set priorities in addressing components

16
Further steps in problem-solving
  • Examine potential causes for the problem ask for
    views and advice from staff, peers, managers,
    outsiders
  • Brainstorm to identify creative alternative
    approaches to solving it in long term, including
    asking others views, opinions
  • Screen alternatives for feasibility, likelihood
    of long-term resolution, risks and benefits,
    potential consequences

17
Further steps in problem-solving
  • Identify the best solution, test with others
  • Identify what situation should look like when
    solution implemented
  • Specify steps to be taken, by whom, with what
    resources, in what time frame
  • Communicate plan to others
  • Monitor implementation, evaluate results, refine
    plan as needed

18
Delegation
  • Assign responsibility for accomplishing a goal or
    objective to a member of the staff
  • Allow that person to formulate activities needed
    to accomplish assignment
  • Builds motivation
  • Increases competencies
  • Risk of assuming Why bother? I could do the work
    in much less time.

19
Steps of delegation
  • Delegate whole tasks to individuals/ teams
  • Select the right person/team for tasks
  • Clearly specify results expected, not the methods
    for accomplishing them
  • Make sure recipient understands and agrees with
    assignment
  • Agree on criteria for monitoring progress, times
    for reporting feedback
  • Maintain open lines of communication
  • Set up means for addressing problems/ barriers
  • Evaluate and reward successful performance

20
Communications
  • Everyone should submit periodic progress reports
    to supervisors
  • Hold regular meetings with staff to discuss
    progress on assignments, with individual/team
    summaries, open feedback
  • Learn to listen actively ask for clarification,
    check to see if others understand your point
  • Demonstrate practices of open communications,
    asking for and giving feedback
  • Encourage staff to initiate discussions when
    tasks accomplished or barriers encountered
  • Solicit views of ways to deal with barriers
    invite others to help solve problems.
  • Spread news of successes show appreciation for
    others

21
Risk Management
  • Def Steps to ensure that critical assets and
    resources are protected from loss or damage
  • People
  • Screen applicants, clear job descriptions, fair
    reviews, adequate compensation, prevention of
    discrimination and harassment
  • Responsiveness to problems, complaints,
    grievances
  • Policies on conflicts of interest,
    whistle-blowing
  • Policies on giving public information
  • Property and resources
  • Careful accounting and regular audits
  • Monitor and ensure workplace safety
  • Insurance (liability, DO, property)
  • Policies on document retention, access, and
    destruction

22
Managing Meetings I
  • Meetings are costly in staff time, so must be
    productive
  • Decide specifically what should be accomplished
    with meeting
  • Identify who should attend, based on purpose of
    meeting
  • Decide on meeting agenda and work plan
    (structure, format)
  • Make sure agenda to engage participants early and
    actively. What do you want them to do and why?
  • By each agenda item, indicate the type of action
    sought (decision, vote, brainstorming,
    assignment) and time estimates for each item

23
Managing Meetings II
  • Invite participants, providing clear statement of
    meeting purpose and expectations for participants
  • Make sure that agenda and background materials
    are distributed to participants well in advance
    of meeting
  • Open meeting with summary of purposes, making
    sure everyone understands expectations
  • Clarify ground rules (such as participate
    actively, stay focused on topic, maintain
    momentum, get to closure)
  • Make sure someone takes notes and distributes
    them
  • Clarify own role in meeting model the behavior
    you want others to follow

24
Managing Meetings III
  • Manage the time carefully, keep the process
    moving
  • Make sure that extraverts dont crowd out the
    introverts by calling on silent ones and
    reminding those who have spoken
  • Ask participants to help you keep track of time
  • If time gets out of hand, ask participants for
    input on resolution
  • Do periodic checks on satisfaction, suggestions
  • Check your conclusions with group on conclusions
    and delegated tasks
  • Leave 10-15 minutes at end for open evaluation
  • Try to end on time and on positive note

25
Presentations
  • Identify the goals and purposes of your
    presentation, what you want to accomplish with
    this audience
  • State clearly the top 2-3 things you want these
    listeners to hear and take away.
  • Start presentation with brief overview of the
    purposes and plan of the session, why topic is
    important for them.
  • Maintain positive tone, engagement with audience,
    use humor when possible, give examples of key
    points
  • Make sure that handouts or slides address key
    points, use consistent format. Check out computer
    in advance. DO NOT read slides or handouts.
  • Maintain eye contact, talk a bit louder and
    slower than usual in conversations, stand still,
    use gestures, smile
  • Invite questions and feedback.
  • Conclude with restatement of the major things you
    want audience to take away.

26
Managing Yourself I
  • Keep the mission in mind always.
  • Set priorities among tasks (urgent vs.
    important).
  • Recognize own signs of stress. Tell others and
    ask for feedback
  • Monitor own time and work hours take
    responsibility for personal rest and renewal
  • Set personal growth goals and follow plan to
    attain them.
  • Get and use a mentor or coach. Ask for help.
  • Always tell the truth, keep your promises, build
    trust.
  • Learn to delegate, as it builds others
    competencies
  • Understand your own style of learning, approach
    to power and to problems, dealing with criticism
    and conflict.

27
Managing Yourself II
  • Develop emotional intelligence
  • Communicate with staff, supervisors, partner,
    mentor (err on the side of too much)
  • Learn and practice active listening
  • Give constructive feedback to others on the spot
    dont let discontents fester
  • Resist impulse to jump in and fix things
  • Address underlying issues, not crises
  • Identify aspects of work that are satisfying
  • Know when to stop, quit, leave. Prepare
    successors and stay aware of founders
    syndrome.
  • Recognize and celebrate own accomplishments

28
There is never enough time! Signs of poor time
management
  • Staff meetings last too long and accomplish too
    little
  • Im spending too much time on e-mails and the
    telephone
  • My time gets consumed by unimportant things
  • My staff does not work productively when Im not
    in the office
  • I tend to get too involved with too many projects
    at once.
  • There are always so many interruptions.
  • I need to make so many urgent decisions that I
    cannot study them all
  • Im just a hands-on manager and like to be
    involve with everything
  • If there are problems, I can always finish the
    job myself.

29
Principles of time management
  • Planning
  • An hour of planning can save many hours of
    implementation
  • Start the day by deciding which issues are the
    most important and put them first
  • Save smaller issues for late in the day
  • Avoid accepting others definitions of each
    problem as a crisis
  • Someone elses procrastination isnt my emergency

30
More on time management
  • Organizing
  • make responsibility congruent with authority
  • have people report to only one supervisor
  • Staffing
  • Match person with task to optimize motivation
  • Orientation for newcomers can save time later
  • Learning from training programs should be
    reinforced on the job
  • Expect people to take initiative and
    responsibility for solutions, not just
    identifying problems

31
More on time management
  • Leading
  • If it cannot be changed, dont waste time on it
  • People adopt the organizations culture, so lead
    with solutions, not just complaints, and expect
    other to do same.
  • Focus on policies not complaints
  • Make sure plans are clear about tasks and
    responsibilities
  • Dont take on tasks that could be delegated to
    others
  • Delegate responsibility for whole tasks, not just
    parts
  • Communicate expectations clearly
  • Keep your eye on the long-term future

32
More on time management
  • Decision-making
  • Distinguish issues from causes
  • Focus on underlying issues, not complaints
  • Build on what works
  • Indecision is in fact a decision, one that wastes
    time
  • Decisions should be made at the front lines, not
    executive office, wherever possible
  • Decisions should be made by those who have the
    most information in the issue.

33
Emotional Intelligence
  • Identifying emotions the ability to perceive and
    recognize emotions in oneself and others
  • Using emotions the ability to generate and feel
    emotions in communication
  • Understanding emotions the ability to
    understand emotional information, how they arise
    and combine
  • Managing emotions the ability to regulate
    expressions of emotions in oneself and others so
    as to promote interpersonal understanding and
    growth.

34
Personal Emotional Competencies
  • Self-awareness of ones own inner states
  • Recognition of how ones emotions influence
    attitudes and communications
  • Self-confidence in ones own worth and
    capabilities
  • Self-management and control of ones own
    feelings, impulses, resources
  • Trustworthiness in maintaining personal honesty
    and integrity
  • Conscientiousness, taking responsibility for
    personal performance
  • Adaptability, flexibility in handling change
  • Initiative, readiness to act on opportunities
  • Achievement-orientation, internal readiness to
    improve or meet higher standards of excellence

35
Social-emotional competencies
  • Social awareness of others feelings, needs,
    concerns
  • Body language reading voice, movement,
    gestures, eye contact, volume, posture, silence,
    timing
  • Empathy sensing others feelings, perspectives,
    taking active interest in their concerns
  • Organizational awareness reading a groups
    emotional currents and power relationships
  • Service orientation anticipating, recognizing,
    acting on consumers needs and interests
  • Social skills in inducing desirable responses in
    others
  • Developing others sensing others developmental
    needs and bolstering their competencies

36
More social-emotional competencies
  • Leadership inspiring and guiding others, using
    effective tactics for persuasion
  • Communication listening actively and openly and
    sending convincing messages
  • Change catalyst initiating and managing change
    in relationships
  • Conflict management negotiating and resolving
    disagreements
  • Teamwork and collaboration working well with
    others toward shared goals creating group
    synergy in pursuing collective goals show
    appreciation to others for accomplishments.

37
Staff Motivation
  • Motivating others starts with motivating
    yourself. Enthusiasm is contagious. What
    energizes you?
  • Find out what motivates other individuals (ask,
    listen, observe, recognize differences)
  • Note important distinction between satisfiers and
    hygiene factors
  • Link assignments and rewards with individual
    motivations, and keep fresh on this as work and
    people change over time
  • Align tasks with mission and goals of
    organizations, and help others stay clear of
    those links. Heres why you and your skills are
    so essential for our success.
  • While positive relationships are important, make
    sure policies, assignments, and procedures are
    clear and fair to everyone
  • Recognize and celebrate successes in variety of
    ways

38
Performance Appraisals
  • Provide informal feedback on performance when
    first noted in work. Dont allow negative
    build-up.
  • Design formal appraisal method based on job
    description, assignments, and expectations
  • Use standardized forms, available to everyone
  • Include closed-ended ratings and space for
    comments
  • Announce schedule to everyone, then stick to it
  • Remind individuals of scheduled reviews
  • Invite individuals to offer changes to job
    description and to evaluation forms

39
More on Performance Appraisals
  • Record accomplishments, exhibited strengths and
    limitations, recommendations for improvement
  • Use observed behaviors of that employee, not
    hearsay or rumor
  • Invite employees input, self-assessments,
    accomplishments, needs for improvement
  • Provide honest, constructive feedback based on
    own observations
  • Disagreements are acceptable note them
  • Nothing should be surprising if you have given
    informal feedback as work has proceeded
  • Allow employee to add own statement at end of
    form
  • Conclude with next steps for improving
    performance, resources, and expectations for
    demonstrating change

40
Firing
  • Should come only after several attempts to change
    behavior, with documented feedback and warnings
    to employee and based on specific personnel
    policies
  • Take time to talk with supervisors and managers
    about step, gathering ideas and suggestions
  • Meet with employee promptly and speak clearly,
    constructively, avoiding blaming
  • Document decision in letter to employee with copy
    to personnel file
  • Restrict employees access to organizational
    files and resources
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