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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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Each cell in the 8-cell embryo, here in red, can generate every cell in the body including the placenta and extra-embryonic tissues. These cells are called CLICK! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine


1
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
2
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

3
What is stem cell research?
  • Understand more about development, aging, disease
  • Experimental model systems
  • Prevent or treat diseases and injuries
  • Cell-based therapies
  • Pharmaceutical development
  • Includes testing and drug delivery

4
Trachea transplantationExample of stem
cell-based tissue regeneration
5
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

6
Pluripotent
Multi- potent
Fully mature
7
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsGenetically
engineering new stem cells
Skin cells
iPS cells
8
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

9
Conception in a dish
Day 1
In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs interact
in a dish leading to insemination. They literally
swim up to the egg and burrow toward the
nucleus. The first one to get there wins, and all
others are blocked out. Male fertility issue
Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate
the egg. They may choose to have
Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
10
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
11
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Day 1
12
Day 1
13
Day 2
14
Day 2
15
Day 3
16
Day 4
17
Day 5
18
At what point is this a fetus?
  • Days 7-14 Uterine implantation
  • Day 14 Three distinct layers begin to
    form (no more pluripotent stem cells)
  • Days 14-21 Beginning of future nervous system
  • Days 21-24 Beginning of future face, neck,
    mouth, and nose
  • Weeks 3-8 Beginning of organ formation
  • This picture is Week 5
  • Week 5-8 Now its called a fetus
  • (no consensus on a single timepoint)

19
Embryonic Development Fish model
Keller et al. 2008
20
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

21
Symmetric cell division
22
Asymmetric cell division
  1. Self-renews
  2. Differentiates

Progenitor cell
Stem cell
Stem cell
23
DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIATION
? SELF RENEWAL ?
24
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

25
Signals to Stem Cells
Little, et al. Chemical Reviews (2008).
26
Embryonic stem cells in the dishHow do we
culture ES cells?
27
Culture methods
28
Fluorescent imaging of embryonicstem cell
colonies.
29
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

30
Spinal cord injuryExample of embryonic stem
cell-based therapy
  • Geron video http//www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance
    /

31
Stem cells for drug deliveryMore focused
delivery, fewer side affects
Day 0
Day 7
Day 14
NSCs injected (no tumor)
NSCs injected (tumor)
Shah et al. Dev Neurosci 2004
32
Outline of Presentation
  • What is stem cell research?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • How do we culture stem cells?
  • What are examples of future stem cell therapies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

33
Why do researchers want to use embryonic stem
cells along with other technologies?
  • Pluripotent
  • Expanded developmental potential allows them
  • to be used in ways that adult stem cells cannot
  • Can proliferate indefinitely in culture
  • Easier to obtain than adult stem cells

34
Science is discovering the unknown
  • Stem cell field is still in its infancy
  • Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade
    old, adult stem cell research has 30-year head
    start
  • Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for
  • 70 diseases
  • How can you help to shape the direction of this
    field?

35
Take our survey please!
Students  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcell
2010   Teacher  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/s
temcellteach2010
36
If enough time!
  • Continue on to talk about chemical engineering.

37
Chemical engineering
  • Cells can be grown in 2D
  • Some chemical engineers find new surfaces to grow
    cells on/in that promote proliferation or
    differentiation

or 3D
38
Interpenetrating Polymer Network
Saha, K et al. J Biomed Mater Res A.
(2007) Harbers, G. M., et. al. Langmuir.
(2005) Bearinger, JP et al., J. Biomat. Sci.
Polym. Ed. (1998)
39
Selecting for adhesion molecules
  • Grow Bacteria having adhesion molecules stem
    cells
  • Wash away non-adherent bacteria
  • Identify the molecules that stuck

40
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