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Vitamin D and Calcium

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Vitamin D can be consumed naturally in fatty fish such as tuna and salmon, and in eggs. Many cereals and milk products are also good sources of vitamin D due to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamin D and Calcium


1
Vitamin D and Calcium
  • Nutrients that prevent Cancer

2
Vitamin D
  • Fat-soluble vitamin
  • Sources
  • Foods
  • Naturally found in very few foods
  • Added to many foods on the market
  • Supplements
  • Sunlight

3
Vitamin D
  • Daily Recommended Intake
  • Current minimum intake recommendations
  • Birth-50 years 200 IU
  • 51-70 years 400 IU
  • 71 years 600 IU
  • Currently being debated

4
Food Sources of Vitamin D
  • 3 oz smoked salmon 583 IU
  • 3 oz light tuna, canned in oil 229 IU
  • 1 large, whole egg 29 IU

5
Foods Fortified with Vitamin D
  • 8 oz skim milk 115 IU
  • 8 oz orange juice 100 IU
  • 1 cup Cheerios 40 IU
  • ½ cup yogurt 40 IU

6
Calcium
  • Essential mineral
  • Daily Recommended Intakes
  • 9-18 years 1300 mg
  • 19-50 years 1000 mg
  • 51 years and older 1200 mg

7
Calcium
  • Sources in the diet
  • Milk
  • Yogurt
  • Cheese
  • Dark green vegetables
  • Fortified sources
  • Cereals
  • Bread
  • Orange Juice

8
Calcium content of foods
  • 8 oz milk 300 mg
  • 8 oz low-fat yogurt 230 mg
  • ½ cup cooked Spinach 120 mg
  • 1 cup Cheerios 100 mg

9
Dietary Supplements
  • Calcium
  • Carbonate or citrate
  • Dose dependent absorption
  • Two doses per day
  • Vitamin D
  • D2 or D3
  • D3 is best

10
  • A single serving 1 cup
  • 1 serving has 100 calories
  • 10 Daily Value of calcium
  • 1000mg 0.10 100mg
  • 10 Daily Value of vitamin D
  • 400IU 0.10 40 IU

http//www.fda.gov
11
Vitamin D Functions
  • Many uses in the body
  • Promotes absorption of calcium from the small
    intestine
  • Maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphate
    for bone formation, mineralization, growth, and
    repair
  • Improves muscle strength and immune function
  • Reduces inflammation

12
Vitamin D Deficiency
  • At risk populations
  • Breastfed infants
  • Older adults
  • People with limited sun exposure
  • Darker skin pigments
  • Certain religious groups

13
Vitamin D Related Diseases
  • Rickets
  • Osteomalacia
  • Osteoporosis

14
Calcium Functions
  • Major component of bones and teeth
  • A small amount of calcium circulates in the blood
  • Essential for clotting of the blood
  • Aids in the normal functioning of the nerves,
    muscles, and heart

15
Calcium Deficiency
  • At risk populations
  • Children and youth
  • Post-menopausal women
  • Elderly
  • People with poor diets, lacking in dairy foods

16
Vitamin D and Cancer
  • Roles in prevention of
  • Colon cancer
  • Breast cancer

17
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18
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19
Vitamin D and Cancer
  • How it prevents
  • Promotes cellular differentiation
  • Decreases cancer cell growth
  • Stimulates cell deaths

20
Vitamin D Cancer Research
  • Mostly observational studies, only show
    correlation
  • Food frequency questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Diet records

21
Vitamin D Colon Cancer Research
  • Third National Health and Nutrition Examination
    Survey
  • Epidemiologic study
  • 16,818 participants
  • Examined blood levels of vitamin D
  • Results
  • Blood levels 80nmol/L or higher reduced risk by
    72

22
Vitamin D Cancer Research
  • American Cancer Societys Cancer Prevention Study
    II Nutrition Cohort
  • Studied 120,000 men and women
  • Analyzed diet, medical history, and lifestyle
  • Results
  • Men with intakes of 520 IU or higher from both
    diet and supplementation slightly lowered risk
  • No effect in women

23
Vitamin D Breast Cancer Research
  • Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort
  • Participants
  • 68,567 postmenopausal women
  • Completed questionnaire on dietary intake, family
    history, and supplement use
  • Results
  • Women who consumed higher amounts of vitamin D
    and calcium from dairy products reduced their
    risk of breast cancer

24
  • True or False.
  • Vitamin D is not necessary for Calcium to be
    absorbed in the body.

25
  • True or False.
  • Vitamin D is not necessary for Calcium to be
    absorbed by the body.

26
Calcium and Cancer
  • Roles in prevention of
  • Colon cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Premenopausal women

27
Calcium and Cancer
  • How it prevents cancer
  • Exact mechanism is unclear
  • Biochemical level
  • Calcium binds to bile acids and fatty acids in
    the gastrointestinal tract to form insoluble
    complexes
  • Reduces the ability of the acids to damage cells
    in the lining of the colon and act directly in
    reducing cell proliferation in the lining of the
    colon

28
Calcium and Colon Cancer Research
  • Nurses Health Study and Health Professionals
    Follow-up study
  • Analyzed 135,000 men and women
  • Results
  • People who consumed 700mg or more per day reduced
    risk by 35-45
  • Effect was only recognized in distal area of
    colon

29
Calcium Colon Cancer Research
  • National Institutes of Health-American
    Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health
    Study
  • Results
  • High intakes of total calcium, dietary calcium,
    and calcium supplements lowered the risk of colon
    cancer
  • 20 among men
  • 30 among women

30
Calcium Colon Cancer Research
  • Study in Iowa
  • 34,000 women participated
  • Two groups
  • Intakes of 1280mg or more per day
  • Intakes of 800mg or less per day
  • Calcium intake from both diet and supplements
  • Results
  • 41 reduction in colon cancer risk associated
    with higher intake

31
Calcium and Breast Cancer Prevention
  • Nurses Health Study
  • 3,000 women
  • Calcium intakes 800 mg or more per day
  • Particularly from dairy products
  • Low-fat or non-fat milk
  • Yogurt
  • Cheese
  • Compared to intakes of 200 mg or less from dairy
  • Results
  • Reduced risk in premenopausal women but NOT
    postmenopausal.

32
Calcium and Breast Cancer Prevention
  • Womens Health Study
  • 30,000 women
  • Two groups
  • Intakes1366mg or more per day
  • Intakes less than 617mg per day
  • Results
  • Reduced risk in increased intake of calcium
  • Only in premenopausal women

33
What have we learned?
  • Vitamin D and calcium both plays roles in
    preventing cancer
  • The recommended intakes
  • Calcium 1000mg
  • Vitamin D 400 IU
  • Many ways to increase intake
  • Change diet
  • Include supplements
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