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Internal Combustion Engines

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Summary Internal combustion engines have ultimately revolutionized the way we live. With the small and light weight design of the two cycle engine tasks like trimming ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Internal Combustion Engines


1
Internal Combustion Engines
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  • The brief history of internal combustion engines.
  • What is an internal combustion engine?
  • Why do we need them in todays world?
  • What do we use them for?
  • How do they work?
  • A brief discussion on diesel engines.


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History of Internal Combustion Engines
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  • Many designs have been made over the last 4
    centuries but only a few men were recognized as
    inventors.
  • The first person to invent a working internal
    combustion engine automobile was Francois Isaac
    de Rivaz of Switzerland in 1807. Mixing hydrogen
    and oxygen for fuel.
  • The first gasoline powered engine was built in
    1864 by a man named Siegfried Marcus and was said
    to be the forerunner to the modern automobile. It
    reached speeds up to ten mph.
  • In 1876 two of the greatest engines were
    invented. The two and four stroke engine by
    Nikolaus August Otto and Sir Dougald clerk.
    Starting the rise of even better and more
    efficient machine.


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Parts of a Internal Combusting Engine
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  • Spark plug
  • Piston
  • Piston rings
  • Intake valve
  • Crankshaft
  • Cylinder
  • Piston rod
  • Exhaust valve

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How Does it Work?
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  • The internal combustion of an engine is
    considered to be the heart of the automobile.
  • They are defined as any engine that uses an
    explosive combustion of fuel and air to push a
    piston within a cylinder. Forming the repeating
    cycle known as the strokes.
  • Intake, Compression, Power Stroke, and Exhaust
    are the four actions of one stroke.
  • The difference between the two cycle and four
    cycle engine is the number of strokes it uses to
    start the fuel reaction of internal combustion.
  • Diesel engines unlike gasoline do not need spark
    plugs to ignite the fuel. Instead it uses
    compression but undergoes the same principle of a
    stroke.

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Intake
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  • This starts at the highest point known as top
    dead center and ends at bottom dead center
  • The intake stroke allows the piston to suck fuel
    and air into the combustion chamber through the
    intake valve port.

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Compression
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  • Compression starts at bottom dead center and ends
    at top dead center.
  • The second motion of the stroke takes all the
    fuel and air that was stored and compresses it
    into one tenth its original sizes. Making the
    air/fuel mixture increase in temperature
    preparing it for the next stage in its combustion
    cycle.

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Power Stroke
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  • The power stroke starts as soon as the piston
    reaches top dead center allowing the spark plug
    to ignite.
  • This electric current created by the spark plug
    ignites the fuel and air mixture sending the
    piston back down the cylinder with a pressure
    reaching high as 600 PSI.

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Exhaust
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  • The final stage of the stroke releases all the
    burned fuel through the exhaust valve.
  • As the piston moves from bottom dead center to
    top dead center it takes all the burned fuel and
    pushes it out of the cylinder, preparing it for
    the next cycle of strokes.

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Drawing
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Diesel
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Diesel engines work on the same principle as the
two and four stroke engines. They do not need a
spark plug to ignite the fuel. During the intake
stroke, air does not mixed with the fuel in the
cylinder. Instead as the air reaches high enough
compression Fuel is then sprayed into the
cylinder creating ignition. This pushes the
piston down the cylinder at a pressure of 500
PSI, starting the stroke all over again.
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Summary
  • Internal combustion engines have ultimately
    revolutionized the way we live.
  • With the small and light weight design of the two
    cycle engine tasks like trimming the hedges and
    cutting down weeds became easier and more
    efficient. With the power of the four stroke we
    are now able to dig up dirt and cut down trees
    with out even breaking a sweat. Internal
    combustion engines have made life easier since
    the first one was built in the early 1800s .

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Need to know ?s
  • What are some machines that we use today that run
    on a two and four cycle engine?
  • In a four cycle engine how many strokes does it
    take to ignite the cylinder?
  • What is the difference between the two and four
    cycle engine?
  • How is the diesel engine similar to the gasoline
    engine?
  • Why are they different?
  • Who was the first person to invent the internal
    combustion engine?
  • What are the four cycles of a stroke?
  • What does each one do?

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Reference materials
  • All this information can be found at
  • Google-internal combustion engine
  • Small Gas Engines By, Alfred C. Roth
  • www.siu.edu/autoclub/frange.html
  • Yahoo-internal combustion engines
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