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Computer software

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Computer software Overview Computer software: overview of various types Computer (disk) operating system(s) User interface program(s) Utility package(s) Local area ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computer software


1
Computer software
  • Overview

2
Computer softwareoverview of various types
  • Computer (disk) operating system(s)
  • User interface program(s)
  • Utility package(s)
  • Local area network software
  • Application software package(s)
  • Training package(s)
  • Data clipart, sounds, video,...
  • Documentation / manual(s) / README files

3
Computer softwarebetween user and computer

4
Computer software
  • Computer (disk) operating systems

5
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?

List and discuss widespread computer operating
systems.
6
Computer operating systems for microcomputers
  • For microcomputers with Intel compatible CPU
  • DOS DOS Windows 3.x Windows 95 Windows 98
    Windows 98 SE Windows ME,
  • (OS/2)
  • Windows NT 4 Workstation Windows 2000
    Professional,...
  • Linux,
  • Apple operating systems

7
Computer operating systems for server computers
  • Unix (and variants such as Linux)
  • Windows NT 4 Server Windows 2000 server
    versions...

8
Computer operating systems properties
--
Operating system Multi-user? Multitaskin
g? Long descriptive file names?
Unix DOS DOS OS/2 Windows NT Linux
Windows 3.x Windows 95 Windows 2000
Windows 98

- - - - -
- -
9
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Why can multitasking on computers be
useful? (even though people mostly work on 1
activity at the same time)
10
Multitasking uses
-
  • Switching among programs
  • the ability to load several programs and easily
    and quickly switch among them
  • Running tasks in the background
  • for instance
  • downloading data,
  • printing,
  • monitoring disk space,
  • receiving electronic mail,...

11
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Unix and Linuxhave many positive properties,
but have not been used on most microcomputers.
Why?
12
Computer operating systems Unixproblems and
drawbacks (Part 1)
--
  • The code requires more disk space than most
    operating systems developed for small personal
    computers up to 2000.
  • The system is suited for more multiple users on
    the same computer, and therefore it is more
    complex than most operating systems developed for
    small, single-user personal computers.

13
Computer operating systems Unixproblems and
drawbacks (Part 2)
--
  • Does not support as many microcomputers hardware
    devices and commercial applications as Microsoft
    Windows.
  • The many versions and interfaces may confuse
    users.

14
Computer operating systems Unixcharacter-based
interface commands
---Example
  • cat
  • cd
  • cp
  • ls -la
  • man
  • mkdir
  • more
  • mv
  • rm rmdir
  • Views the contents of text files
  • Changes directory
  • Copies files
  • Lists files
  • Accesses the reference manual online
  • Makes a new directory
  • Displays a text file, 1 page at the time
  • Moves or renames files
  • Removes a file Removes a directory

15
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Windows NT4 and Windows 2000have many positive
properties, but are not used on most low-end
PCs.Why?
16
Computer operating systems DOScharacter-based
interface commands
---Example
  • cd
  • copy xcopy
  • dir
  • Mkdir, md
  • rename
  • rm del
  • rmdir
  • Changes directory
  • Copies files
  • Lists files
  • Makes a new directory
  • Renames files
  • Removes a file
  • Removes a directory

17
User interface software for DOS some
character-based packages
---
  • DOSShell
  • PCTools / PCShell
  • Norton Commander
  • Desqview
  • ...

18
User interface software for DOS some
graphics-based packages (GUIs)
---
  • DOSShell
  • Microsoft Windows 1, 2, 3.x
  • Norton Desktop for Windows
  • ...

19
Computer operating systems evolution
  • More user-friendly interfaces
  • Increasing power

20
Computer software
--
  • Graphical user interface GUI

21
Graphical user interface GUI description
--
  • The interface on the display is built up using
    individual picture elements ( pixels) in an
    array.
  • Suitable for the application of WIMP techniques
  • Windows,
  • informative Icons,
  • a Mouse or another pointing device 8,
  • Pull-down menus / Pointing

22
Graphical user interfaces examples
--Examples
Operating system Apple Macintosh Unix DOS
Windows Windows 95 OS /2 Windows NT 4 Windows
98 Windows 2000
Graphical user interface Macintosh System Open
Look, OSF / Motif Microsoft Windows 1, 2,
3.x Windows 95 Presentation Manager similar to
Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000
23
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which benefits offer GUIs ?(in contrast with
character-based interfaces)
24
Graphical user interfaces benefits (Part 1)
--
  • The display can offer better WYSIWYG What You
    See (on the display) Is What You Get (on printed
    paper)
  • The user can change the size of windows on the
    information continuously.
  • The user can choose and use various types and
    sizes of characters in the user interface.

25
Graphical user interfaces benefits (Part 2)
--
  • The user can address every single pixel (using a
    pointing device such as a mouse) to generate an
    action by the computer.
  • The computer can create detailed icons.
  • ...

26
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which disadvantage have GUIs?
27
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
How can WYSIWYG work well? Why did earlier
systems not offer WYSIWYG as well?
28
Graphical user interfaces disadvantage
--
  • Requires a relatively fast computer system
  • fast processor,
  • fast video,
  • fast hard disk,
  • caching hard- and software,
  • ...

29
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
What is easier to do with a mouse than with a
keyboard?
30
Mouse is complementary to the keyboard
--
8
  • Drag to change size and/or shape of objects
    (windows, graphics, ...)
  • Point and click to activate
  • Drag and drop
  • Make selection, drag selection, and paste or put
    elsewhere
  • Select a document by its name or icon, drag it
    to the programs name or icon, release the button
    to make the program work with the document
  • Free-hand drawing

31
Computer software
--
  • Microsoft Windows an operating environment

32
Microsoft Windows an operating environment
--
Layers for Windows 1.x, 2.x, 3.x
Application programs Utility programs
33
Microsoft Windows benefits with all
applications (Part 1)
--
  • Offers a graphical user interface for DOS
    (shell).
  • Allows multi-tasking of programs.
  • The Windows package includes utility programs.
  • Due to the multi-tasking, utility programs
    provided by Windows can be used by application
    programs, so that each application program does
    not have to offer these utilities.

34
Microsoft Windows benefits with all
applications (Part 2)
--
  • The Windows package includes basic application
    programs for
  • text editing,
  • word processing,
  • communications,
  • file management,
  • calculations,
  • bitmap editing,
  • ...

35
Microsoft Windows benefits with all
applications (Part 3)
--
  • Allows cut ", copy and paste of data
  • in the same document managed by the same program!
  • between various documents managed by the same
    program!!
  • between various documents managed by various
    programs!!!

36
Microsoft Windows (all versions) benefits with
Windows applications
--
  • Interface is more uniform, consistent,
    standardised.
  • Saves time during installation of programs
    saves space on the hard disk, by providing
    drivers for output to video display(s),
    printer(s), sound board(s),... which can be used
    by all programs for Windows.
  • Allows software development which is more
    independent of display hardware.
  • DDE / Dynamic Data Exchange among documents

37
Microsoft Windows from version 3 benefits with
Windows applications
--
  • OLE / Object Linking and Embedding
  • Provides access to more than 640 K RAM, starting
    from version 3.0.
  • Provides TrueType technology for output to video
    display and printer, starting from version 3.1.
  • Allows drag and drop of files to the icons
    representing application programs.

38
Success of Microsoft Windows
--
  • Horizontal multi-purpose software ð
    inexpensive ð
  • many millions of copies of this package have
    already been distributed internationally.

39
Microsoft Windows tutorials
-
  • Computer-assisted learning about Windows is
    offered by the Windows package itself.
  • Web-based learning about the basics of personal
    computers and about using Windows is available
    free of charge from http//www.nassets.com/bb/

40
Evolution of Microsoft operating systems for PCs
  • 1981 DOS 1
  • 1985 DOS Windows 1.0
  • 1990 DOS Windows 3.0
  • 1992 DOS Windows 3.1
  • 1995 Windows 95
  • 1996
  • 1997 Windows 95 upgrades Windows NT 4
    Workstation
  • 1998 Windows 98
  • 1999 Windows 98 SE
  • 2000 Windows ME Windows 2000 Professional

41
Computer software
--
  • Utility software packages

42
Utility software packages definition
--
  • Not a well defined term
  • One meaning isSoftware which helps to run the
    computer system,but which is not directly useful
    on the application level.
  • Operating systems include utility
    programsothers can be installed besides these
    or can replace these.

43
Utility software packages categories
--
  • Anti-virus scanning and shielding
  • Compression / decompression of files
  • Archiving / de-archiving of files
  • Encoding / decoding of files
  • Monitoring CPU-use, disk-space left, disk reading
    and writing, battery power in the case of
    portable computers,...
  • ...

44
Computer software
  • Local Area Network software packages

45
LAN software packages for homogeneous networks
examples
--Examples
  • Intel compatible processors
  • LANtastic,
  • Novell,
  • Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95, Windows 98,
    Windows 2000,...
  • ...
  • Apple, ...

46
LAN software packages for heterogeneous networks
examples
Examples
  • Based on TCP/IP (protocol suite used in Internet)
  • For DOS
  • NCSA ( National Center for Supercomputing
    Applications) CUTCP, PC/NFS,...
  • For Windows 3.x
  • PC/NFS, PC/TCP, Trumpet TCP Manager,...
  • For Windows 95, 98,... included!
  • For Windows NT, 2000,... included!

47
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?

Which basic network software can you use in your
institute?
48
Computer software
  • Application software packages

49
Categories of application software packages
  • Text editing...Word processing...Desktop
    publishing
  • Spreadsheet
  • Presentation creation
  • Graphics (bitmap/pixels and vector/object or
    mixed)
  • Multimedia authoring distribution
  • Data communications (basic layers applications)
  • Portable document software
  • Database management systems
  • ...

50
Software for text editing categories
  • Simple text editors
  • Simple word processing software
  • Powerful word processing software
  • Page-layout software / Desktop publishing software

51
Software for word processing examples
--Examples
  • For DOS
  • Microsoft Word (Microsoft)
  • WordPerfect
  • For Windows
  • Microsoft Word for Windows (Microsoft)
  • WordPerfect for Windows (Corel)
  • Word (Lotus-IBM)

52
Software for word processing screen shot
--Example
53
Design of documents on paper a brief checklist
(Part 1)
  • Is the general appearance attractive (not messy)?
  • Does the text look well (not squashed up)?
  • Do the pages have a basic shape?
  • Is there adequate white space?
  • Is the line length short enough?
  • Are letters in CAPITALS avoided?
  • Is underlining of letters avoided?
  • Are fonts chosen well?
  • Is the character size OK?

54
Design of documents on paper a brief checklist
(Part 2)
  • Is the typography consistent throughout the
    document?
  • Are colours used well?
  • Are illustrations/graphics/pictures used well?

55
Design of documents on paper a brief checklist
(Part 3)
  • Is it easy to see the main points?
  • Are there a sufficient number of chapter and
    sub-chapter headings?
  • Are the headings informative?
  • Is the number of heading levels not too high?
  • Are the differences in heading levels well
    supported by differences in formatting of chapter
    numbers and characters?

56
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Create a document with chapters, using heading
styles.
57
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Create a document with chapters, using heading
styles,and apply outlining.
58
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Create a document with chapters, using heading
styles,and create a table of contents on 1
page,using styles.
59
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
What are the benefits of using styles in word
processing?
60
Software for word processing as adatabase
system tools
-
  • Styles for paragraphs (for instance Heading
    level 1, 2, 3,)
  • Outline view (hiding levels low in the
    hierarchy)
  • Tables with rows and columns
  • Sorting
  • combinations of these

61
Software for word processing as adatabase
system input methods (1)
-
  • Each (small) database can correspond
  • with a whole document created with a program for
    word processing OR
  • with a chapter of a document created with a
    program for word processing then outlining can
    be used to view and select these chapters.

62
Software for word processing as adatabase
system input methods (2)
-
  • Methods to work with database records and fields
    in records
  • Using a table OR
  • Using paragraphs formatted with styles

63
Software for word processing as adatabase
system using a table
-
  • Methods to work with records and fields
  • Each record in one row
  • Each field of each record in a column. (This
    allows sorting of the records based on the
    content of a selected field.)

64
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Build a table and sort the rows (records /
items),based on the contents of the columns
(fields).
65
Software for word processing as adatabase
system using paragraphs
-
  • Using paragraphs formatted with styles
  • Each record consists of several paragraphs.
  • Each field corresponds to one of these
    paragraphs. (This allows sorting the records
    based on the first field, by using heading
    styles and outlining.)

66
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Use heading styles to create a small structured
list, such as a directory or bibliography. Use
outline view to look at this list. Sort some
records, using outline view.
67
Software for word processing as adatabase
system retrieval features
-
  • Searching / retrieval / queries can be made
  • By sequential string searching (fast enough with
    a fast computer and a small database)(can be
    slow with a slow computer or a large database)
  • Retrieval of record after record no selection of
    a record set
  • No Boolean retrieval no positional operators

68
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Test the speed of string searching with the
hard- and software that you use to store
information.
69
Software for word processing as adatabase
system output features
-
  • No sorting or relevance ranking of selected
    records in output.Databases perform better in
    this area.
  • When records consist of several paragraphs
    together
  • using styles for paragraphs allows efficient
    formatting of fields in such records
  • outlining allows to output only the first parts
    of records

70
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Prepare a printout on 1 sheet of a table with
visible borders, and 4 cells, that contain 1)
an image of an animal, 2) the name of that
animal, 3) your name,4) a very brief
description of the origin of the animal file(To
avoid that everyone does the same work the name
of the animal should start with the same
character as your family name.)
71
Spreadsheet software packages examples
--Examples
  • For DOS (without Windows)
  • Lotus 1 2 3
  • Quattro
  • ...
  • For Windows
  • Lotus 1 2 3
  • Quattro
  • Excel
  • ...

72
Spreadsheet software packages screen shot
---Example
73
Program typesthat handle graphics
--
  • Word processing programs...Lay-out programs
  • Presentation programs
  • Portable document software
  • ...
  • Bitmap / pixel oriented editing programs
  • Vector graphics / object oriented programs
  • Hybrids of the above
  • ...

74
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Why are bitmaps not ideal for the storage and
distribution of formatted documents?
75
Portable document software What is it? (Part 1)
--
  • Ideally, this type of programs
  • allows the distribution of a formatted document,
    while maintaining the visual integrity of the
    document
  • is independent of computer platform, (computer,
    operating system, application software, or fonts)
    that is used
  • to create the document, and
  • to view (read, search, ...) the document
  • compresses the document

76
Portable document software What is it? (Part 2)
--
  • allows printing the document
  • allows searching for character strings in the
    document
  • allows zooming in, without loss of details in the
    characters
  • allows copying text fragments
  • allows integration with a WWW browser
  • allows hyperlinks / WWW links in the document
  • ...

77
Portable document software applications
--
  • On-line help documents coming with software.
  • Electronic publications on CD-ROM and on-line,
    in particular when a version printed on paper
    also exists!

78
Portable document software some programs
--Examples
  • Adobe Acrobat !
  • Viewer software is available free of charge
  • Software to create PDF files is NOT free of
    charge a free trial is possible through the
    WWW
  • Catchword RealPage

79
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Display an existing PDF documentapply searching
for textzoom in.
80
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which disadvantages of PDF do you see (in
comparison with other document file formats)?
81
Software for multimedia authoring distribution
some programs
---Examples
  • Authorware
  • Iconauthor
  • Guide
  • Multimedia Toolbook
  • Multimedia Viewer
  • Tour Guide
  • programs for web development

82
Software for database management overlapping
categories
--
  • Relational
  • Object-oriented
  • Text-oriented
  • Graphics-oriented
  • ...

83
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which programs do you know that can quickly
offer an overview of pictures stored on a pc?
84
Software for image database management some
programs
--Examples
  • ACDSee
  • Paint Shop Pro
  • Thumbs Plus
  • ...
  • Shareware
  • Shareware
  • Shareware

85
Speech recognition software functions
--
  • Recognition and transfer of spoken commands to
    other programs.
  • Recognition of spoken text to create documents.

86
Speech recognition software
--
Ariadne / Campbell
87
Computer software
--
  • General evaluation criteria in the case of
    software packages

88
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which general factors should you consider in
the evaluation / selection of any software
package?
89
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 1)
--
  • Which operating system is required by the
    application software?
  • How good and reliable is the software producer
    its history, reputation, future,?How good and
    reliable is the software supplier / distributor /
    dealer?
  • How many installations and users are there
  • in the country?
  • in the region?
  • in the world?

90
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 2)
--
  • To which extent is the software compatible with
    hardware that is already available (such as
    computers, displays, printers)?
  • To which extent does the software require new
    hardware?
  • Does the software allow an efficient usage of a
    mouse?
  • Is the software package easy to use? Ergonomic
    aspects are important, as training of personnel
    is expensive and time consuming.

91
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 3)
--
  • Does the program use random access memory and
    other computer system resources efficiently?
  • Are good and up to date manual(s) for the package
    available?Is an online tutorial (computer-based
    training) available? Does the software provide
    online help? (in context?)

92
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 4)
--
  • Is good training and support available in your
    area, from the producer directly, or from the
    distributor, or from others? At what price?
  • Is communication with other users easily
    available for discussions and to solve problems?
    Online? Through the Internet?
  • What is the initial price per user, per site?
  • Are regular and substantial updates available?
    Online or only offline? At what price?

93
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 5)
--
  • Can the user program extensions?
  • When some computer system is already used, can
    existing, available data be exported from that
    system and can they be imported to be managed by
    the new system?

94
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 6)
--
  • Is using an ASP (Application Service Provider) /
    networking / co-operation / considered as an
    alternative for in-house implementation and
    development of computer software? Examples
    computer networks for libraries electronic
    mail through the WWW

95
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 7)
--
  • How well can data be exchanged with other
    persons, institutes, computer systems, databases
  • import of data? Example downloading of database
    records from an available database/catalogue of
    books, compact disks, films, videos
  • export of data? Example contributing database
    records to a union catalogue of journals, books

96
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 8)
--
  • Is the software compatible with standards used in
    data input, import from other systems, export to
    other systems,Examples availability in the
    case of software for a database system of a
    thesaurus module with standard relations among
    thesaurus terms book database record formatting
    according to Unimarc for export to another
    database import and export of HTML files used
    on a web

97
General evaluation criteria in the case of
software packages (Part 9)
--
  • Is the software suitable for use in an Internet
    context?Examples create or export files in
    HTML format to make them available through the
    WWW or an intranet the creation of e-mail
    messages by the software to alert users of
    problems, things to do

98
Computer software
-
  • Introduction to file formats

99
The relations between programs and file formats
-
  • Programs to edit/create/develop/maintain a file
    in a particular format
  • ?
  • File stored in a particular format
  • ?
  • Programs to read/view files in a particular
    format
  • Programs to saveconvertexport files from one
    format to another

?
100
The program functions editing, viewing,
converting
-
  • A program can incorporate only 1, 2, or all 3 of
    the functions
  • Editing / creating
  • Reading / viewing / interpreting
  • Converting / saving / exporting for particular
    file formats.

101
Examples of programs for editing, viewing,
converting
-Examples
  • Examples
  • Microsoft Word can create/edit view/read
    convert the file in the formats DOC, RTF, HTML.
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader can only view / read (but
    not create/edit or convert/save) files in PDF
    format.

102
Computer software
-
  • File formats for text only

103
File formats for text only examples
-
  • Type
  • Files containing unformatted ASCII text
  • Files with text coded by the Hypertext Markup
    Language
  • Normal file name extension
  • .TXT
  • .HTML or .HTM

104
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Why can HTML files be considered as text only,
even when many web pages made with HTML contain
graphics/images/photos?
105
Computer software
-
  • File formats for graphics/images

106
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Explain the differences between bitmap graphics
with vector graphics.
107
Graphics formats bitmaps and vector graphics
--
  • Bitmap graphics used in programs for
    painting
  • Vector-based graphics used in programs for
    drawing

108
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Draw a small circle with a paint program for
bitmaps and save this. Draw a small circle with a
draw program for vector graphics and save
this. Select each drawing and enlarge it. What
is the difference between the resulting drawings?
109
Graphics formats bitmaps compared with vector
graphics
--
Bitmaps - large
  • Property
  • Suited for painting and retouching
  • Resolution adapted to output medium
  • Size of files

Vector graphics - small
110
Graphics formats for bitmaps only
-Examples
File name extension BMP GIF JPG PCX,
PCC PNG RLE TIF ...
Origin Microsoft CompuServe / Unisys JPEG Z-Soft
PaintbrushW3C Aldus PageMaker ...
Maximum number of colours maximum 256
colours more than 256 colours more than 256
colours
111
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which properties of graphics file formats for
bitmap images are important?
112
Graphics formats for bitmap images a comparison
  • Maximum number of colours in one image?
  • Compression of file size?
  • Compression without loss of quality?
  • Animation possible?
  • GIF
  • 256

JPG 256256256 - -
113
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Estimate the typical size of a computer file
that contains a bitmap image in colours, that
has been obtained by using a typical scanner,
and that can cover a complete typical display
or projection screen directly at optimal
resolution without enlargement, when no
compression is applied.
114
Graphics formats for vector graphics ( bitmaps)
--Examples
File name extension CDR CGM EPSIMG PPT or
PPS WPG ...
Origin Corel Draw! Graphics Metafile Encapsulated
PostScript GEM Microsoft PowerPoint WordPerfect
Graphics ...
115
Graphics formats the problem of exchange
--
  • The differences in all the graphics file formats
    cause the requirement of filter / conversion
    programs, when a graphics file must be inserted
    in a document which is managed by an application
    program which works primarily with another
    graphics file format.

116
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Insert a picture, stored in a graphics file, in
a document created by your program for word
processing.
117
Computer software
-
  • File formats for documents with text and images

118
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which concrete file formats for storage of
documents with text and images do you know?
119
Documents with text and images available file
formats (Part 1)
-
  • Many! Too many?
  • Examples
  • formats of the various programs for word
    processing and page design, in their various
    versions (DOC,)
  • Rich Text Format (RTF)
  • PostScript (PS)
  • Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) Catchword
    RealPage,...

120
Documents with text and images available file
formats (Part 2)
-
  • bitmap-related format, primarily for graphics,
    but they can also show characters BMP, GIF,
    JPG/JPEG, PCX, PNG, TIFF...
  • SGML, HTML, XML,... considered here together with
    the graphics files that they link to

121
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which properties of computer file formats for
storage of documents with text and images do
you consider as important?
122
Documents with text and images properties of
file formats (Part 1)
--
  • Is the format platform independent? (for instance
    usable with software on Windows, Macintosh,
    Unix,)
  • Is the format not proprietary?
  • Is the format rich, allowing to derive less
    rich formats from a file in this format? (for
    instance from Microsoft Word to RTF or HTML or
    PDF, from SGML to XML to HTML,...)

123
Documents with text and images properties of
file formats (Part 2)
--
  • Are files in this format small in comparison to
    the corresponding files in other formats?
  • Is compression applied? If yes, is this
    compression without loss of information?
  • Are viewers (programs) for users easily
    available?
  • Does the format allow text retrieval? Is the
    content of a file in this format searchable on a
    microcomputer?
  • Does the format allow text retrieval by common
    Internet indexes? Is the contents searchable
    through the WWW or through an intranet?

124
Documents with text and images properties of
file formats (Part 3)
--
  • Can a file in this format be loaded in a program
    and be edited and saved? (or can it only be
    derived from a master file in another format?)
  • Can the text be reformatted to another size or
    font?
  • Can a selection be made from the displayed
    contents of a file in this format, by copy or
    cut, to be pasted in another document?

125
Documents with text and images properties of
file formats (Part 4)
--
  • Does the format not suffer from the existence of
    various versions that may confuse the users and
    that require an appropriate, up-to-date program?
  • Is the format suitable when hard-copy documents
    are converted to computer-based documents?
  • Is a program to produce the format already
    available or not expensive?

126
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Discuss the properties (advantages and
disadvantages) of each important file
format DOC, RTF, PS, PDF, SGML, HTML, GIF, JPG,
TIFFfor storage of documents with text and
images? Summarize all this in the form of a table!
127
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
What is the main conclusion of the overview of
the properties of file formats for storage of
text and images?
128
File formats the problem of exchange
--
  • The differences in all the file formats cause the
    requirement of filter / conversion programs, when
    a file must be viewed or edited by an application
    program that is not exactly the same as the one
    used to create the file.

129
Computer software
-
  • File compression, archiving and conversion

130
File compression, archiving and conversion
-
  • Compressionto make files smaller
  • Archiving to keep related files together
  • Conversion for transfer via computer networks

131
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
-
Which benefits are offered by compression of
files?
132
Data compression benefits
-
  • Storage capacity required on magnetic or optical
    disks is smaller
  • In data communication
  • transmission times are shorter
  • transfer of less bits ð less network congestion

133
Data compression redundancy
--
  • Compression is (in many cases) based on the
    elimination of redundancy present in the source
    data
  • Spatial redundancy
  • repeated occurrence of the same text or picture
    elements
  • Temporal redundancy
  • occurrence of the same picture elements in
    subsequent pictures

134
Data compression lossless versus lossy
--
  • Compression without loss of data /
    qualitylossless compression
  • Compression with loss of data / quality lossy
    compression

135
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which concrete products, tools and methods for
file compression do you know?
136
Data compression some CODECS
--Examples
  • Compression without loss of data, and archiving
  • ARC, BOO, CAB, LHZ, ZIP, ZOO,...
  • Lossless compression of bitmap graphics
  • GIF, TIFF, ... in various versions
  • Lossy compression of graphics with many colours
  • JPEG, ... in various versions
  • Lossy compression of video with sound
  • AVI, MPEG, Quicktime, RM, ... in various versions

137
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Find a file in .ZIP format and decompress it.
138
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Why is it not useful to apply a compression
procedure like ZIP for instance, to a video
file in formats like AVI or MPG?
139
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Which programs do you know and which program do
you use to save images as JPEG files?
140
!? Question !? Task !? Problem !?
--
Select or create an appropriate photograph bitmap
file. Save this file as a JPEG file under a
different name. Repeat this at about 3 very
different levels of compression and thus of
image quality(always starting from the
appropriate original photo file, because JPEG is
a final storage format). Load all the resulting
photo files in a program to edit such files
zoom in to 400 for instanceuse tiling to
display the photo files simultaneously on the
screen compare their quality. Determine also
the file size of each photo file. Decide finally
which compression level is appropriate or your
aims.
141
Essential skills in computer use
  • Task
  • File management
  • Finding files
  • Text editing and formatting
  • Copy and paste from one document to the same
    or to another document
  • Printing
  • Software used
  • Operating system
  • Word processing software(e.g. Word for Windows)
  • Operating system applications software
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