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Ecotourism and Environmental Education : Opportunities and Constraints for Sustainability. Case study in Phuket Island, Thailand.

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Title: Ecotourism and Environmental Education : Opportunities and Constraints for Sustainability. Case study in Phuket Island, Thailand.


1
Ecotourism and Environmental Education
Opportunities and Constraints for Sustainability.
Case study in Phuket Island, Thailand.
Perpignan University, France
Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
  • By
  • Mr.Aphirom PROMCHANYA
  • Prof.Jean-Louis CACCOMO

2
This research dedicated to tsunami in Baan Bang
Rong Village, Phuket Island.
26 December 2004 Time 836 a.m.
3
Introduction
  • Tourism can bring both benefits and problems to
    an area. If well planned, developed and managed.
  • Tourism generates local jobs and income and
    provides opportunities for local community.
  • If not well planned, developed and managed,
  • Tourism can result in congestion, pollution and
    environmental problems.

4
  • Since the publication of the Bruntland Report in
    1987, the Sustainable Development concept has
    made some steps. Even though it is ambiguous,
    one try to find ways to realize it. Because of
    its dependency on natural ecosystem and the
    importance of the tourism market.
  • Many researchers look towards Ecotourism.

5
Environmental Education
ECOTOURISM
Nature-Based Tourism
Sustainable Tourism
6
  • Ecotourism and Environmental Education in
    Thailand recommended
  • To foster clear awareness of, and concern about,
    economic, social, political and ecological.
  • To provide with opportunities the knowledge,
    values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed
    to protect and improve the environment
  • To create new patterns of behaviour of
    individuals, groups and society as a whole toward
    the environment.

7
Research objectives
  • To describe patterns and trends in environmental
    education and interpretation practice in the
    nature based tourism industry.
  • Establish and evaluate the ecotourism activities
    responses to sustainable development.
  • To determine changes in levels of knowledge,
    environmental awareness and commitment as a
    result of a nature based tour in Thailand.

8
Scope of the study
  • The purpose of this research is to examine
    critically the management practices, problems and
    challenges faced by ecotourist attractions
    located on Phuket Island in Thailand which is a
    private organization, is a large integrated
    ecotourism-based resort located on the Phuket
    island. Baan Bang Rong Mangroves forest Reserve,
    a public enterprise located in Amphoe Talang (the
    district of Phuket).

9
Mainly area research
Ecotourism in Bang Rong Village Phuket, Thailand.
10
People Involved in Tourism Development
  • Many year ago, people trespassed into the
    mangrove forest and cut the trees for making
    house and charcoal. A lot of them fished with
    harmful tools which decreased the number of
    marine life and destroyed the ecological balance.

11
  • Nowadays some of these problems have been solved
    by the strong cooperation of all sectors but
    there are still new problems raised by tourism
    and natural crisis.
  • TSUNAMI

After
Before
12
  • The Thai governors push tourism business into
    provincial development strategies in order to
    earn the maximum income.
  • Development plans are submitted by local
    authorities and if considered useful, they will
    be approved to be in those strategies.

13
  • The governors do not work alone but in
    cooperation with public and private sectors for
    example
  • Tourism Business Association
  • Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT)
  • Department of Fishery
  • National Park and
  • Prince Of Songkla University, Phuket Campus

14
Case study in Baan Bang Rong Mangrove Forest
Reserve.
  • From the interviews with local committee, we
    learned about roles in tourism development
    especially in the area of intensive tourism
    activities where tourist attractions,
    accommodation, agencies, shopping areas and pier
    located.

15
  • Due to plan and management, the environment is at
    risk. Baan Bang Rong has its own pier in mangrove
    forest where tourist can take a boat out for any
    islands or into the forests and canals for
    ECOTOURISM.

16
  • There are a lot of houses and properties, golf
    course and hotel projects and in next 5-10 years
    the lifestyle of the village is expected to
    change.
  • As a regulation authority Sub-district
    Administrative Organization (Or.Bor.Tor) must
    work very hard to satisfy everyone in a proper
    way.

17
Concepts of Ecologically Sustainable Development
(ESD)
  • The term Sustainable development was adopted by
    the Brutland Commission as the key concept behind
    1987 report,
  • Our Common Future.

that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs
(WCED, 1987, p.8)
18
Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) is
defined by the Commonwealth of Australia 1992,p.6
  • using, conserving and enhancing the communitys
    resources so that ecological processes, on which
    life depends, are maintained, and the total of
    life, now and in the future, can be increased.

19
Environmental Education for Sustainability.
  • The purpose of analysis is to develop an
    appropriate theoretical approach to training for
    ESD which may be used for the development of
    training programs for ecotourism operators and
    guides.

Ecotourism Training Program for community
20
  • The education component refers to learning about
    informed of the features of the environment.
  • The visitors can also absorb this information
    according to their own interest by asking deeper
    questions or spending a longer time.

21
Example Workshop Instructions Perceptions of
Ecotourism Time 10 mins Materials
required OHP and screen, OHT's on commonly used
terms to describe ecotourism, marking pens,
butchers paper, blue tack or drawing
pens Specific objectives 1. To determine groups
current perception of what is ecotourism. 2. To
provide the presenter with necessary insight into
the groups eco-consciousness to enable the
presenter to determine at which level to begin
discussions. Procedure 1. Ask the group to
think about what they understand by the term
"ecotourism". 2. Inform participants as to the
intentions of the brainstorm i.e. that of
preparing a list of words and phrases that they
currently believe the term ecotourism means, also
that this session is not intended for a
discussion of this list. 3. Record the groups'
ideas on a piece of butchers paper. 4. If
regarded as helpful for this group, present and
discuss results of other brainstorming session as
contained in the following notes. 5. Pin or
blue tack the list in the workshop room for later
referral.
22
  • Local participation is an important feature of
    ecotourism as it serves two purposes
  • To elevate the negative pressure on the
    environment by local communities,
  • by providing them with an alternative source of
    income, and to distribute the revenue back to the
    local community.

23
We were extremely concerned with local
participation within the limits of the carrying
capacities as following
  • Physical carrying capacity number of tourist
    is not too much.
  • Ecological carrying capacity is not to ruin
    the nature area sites.
  • Cultural carrying capacity the tour program
    has to manage the participant of tourist to keep
    the activity real, not be a show.

24
The interpretation system for Ecotourists.
Adapts from Hall and MacArthur, forthcoming
25
Product Formulation Resource Site selection
criteria (access, resilience, location of the
other facilities, characteristics, uniqueness,
and representative) Visitor Profile Demographic
and psychographic profile and understanding of
heritage Theme Themes and concepts (number and
complexity and Levels of information available
(underlying messages, has it been done before?)
Interpretive Delivery Technique Amount of
information and level of difficulty in the
presentation and Artwork, production and
presentation
Evaluation
Condition of the resource
The visitor experience
26
Conclusion
  • Environmental Education in an Ecotourism should
    be mixture of education and entertainment to suit
    the clientele. It does not take much to convert
    an existing tourism program into a responsible,
    up to date environmental education one. The in
    and the about concepts are built upon concern
    and responsibility increase because motivation
    and skills have increased. Values of conserving,
    the for will also increased.

27
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