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WILDLIFE-LIVESTOCK INTERFACE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

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Approaches could include: - ecotourism -community based wildlife sanctuaries such as Ilngwesi and Naibunga conservancies in Laikipia and Namunyak in Samburu. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WILDLIFE-LIVESTOCK INTERFACE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT


1

WILDLIFE-LIVESTOCK INTERFACE IN A CHANGING
ENVIRONMENT
  • Gerald M. Muchemi
  • Department of Public Health Pharmacology and
    Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary
    Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.o Box
    29053-00625, Kangemi, Kenya.

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Wildlife-livestock interface defines the
    interaction between free ranging wildlife and
    livestock and livestock husbandry practices.
  • This occurs when domestic and wild animals
    utilize the same or bordering ecosystems or when
    they share resources.
  • Livestock and wildlife grazing together

3
INTRODUCTION (contd)
  • In the past the interface was largely transient
    such as pastoralist livestock passing through
    wildlife concentration areas in search of pasture
    and water, but changes have occurred that have
    led to livestock and wildlife utilizing the same
    resources in common.

4
Consequences of W-L Interface
  • This has led to wildlife and livestock sharing
    sometimes very limited grazing pastures and
    common watering points.
  • Cattle and warthog in Northern Kenya

5
Consequences of W-L Interface (contd)
  • Interacting along fences as shown in the
    picture, cattle grazing next to buffaloes on the
    opposite sides of the Aberdare's National Park
    fence boundary.

6
Consequences of W-L Interface (contd)
  • Sharing boundaries with wildlife protected areas.
  • Elephants next to Aberdares N.P. fence

7
  • Livestock predation mainly by lions, leopards,
    and hyenas

8
Cross-breeding between Species(Zebra/Donkey)
  • PICTURE SHOWING A ZONKEY IN A HERD OF ZEBRAS IN
    KIKOPEY AREA IN NAKURU

9
Effect of Climatic and Environmental Changes
  • Climatic and environmental changes which include
  • drought,
  • flooding,
  • variation in climatic elements such as,
    temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction
    over the years have led to seasonal and annual
    fluctuations in wildlife and livestock movements.

10
Effect of Climatic and Environmental Changes
(contd)
  • As a result, this has led to habitat changes and
    environmental degradation.
  • With increased human population in a fixed land
    mass and inherent changes in land use and land
    tenure, crop farmers and pastoralists have now
    invaded areas that were formerly wildlife range.

11
Women carrying fuelwood from Aberdares
Conservation Area
12
Disease sharing(RefBengis et al,2002)
  • Wildlife/livestock interface diseases may be
  • 1. Linear eg. Along a fence line
  • 2. Patchy- reflecting habitat preferences of
    host.
  • 3. Focal at shared water points
  • 4. Diffuse where range and resources are shared.
  • There is also increased sharing of diseases and
    parasite vectors between wildlife and livestock.

13
Disease sharing ( contd)
  • The disease problems encountered are frequently
    bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock
    interface
  • Veterinary regulatory authorities have now to
    deal with emerging sylvatic foci diseases
  • Examples include
  • - Bovine tuberculosis (Lion/Buffalo)
  • - Bovine brucellosis (Cattle/Buffalo)
  • - Rinderpest (Cattle/Buffalo)

14
Sociocultural changes
  • There is also manifestation of sociocultural
    changes such as sedenterization of pastoral
    communities and the inherent adaptation
    practices.
  • Poultry keeping in a pastoral community in
    Northern Kenya

15
Coping strategies
  • Coping strategies for these environmental and
    climatic changes have included
  • pastoral livestock movement through protected
    areas exposing livestock to predation and
    diseases
  • moving livestock to areas unsuitable for their
    health and production.

16
Way forward
  • Development of adaptable policies on livestock
    and wildlife management.
  • Sustainable natural resource management
    strategies to address these challenges.
  • Approaches could include
  • - ecotourism
  • -community based wildlife sanctuaries such as
    Ilngwesi and Naibunga conservancies in Laikipia
    and Namunyak in Samburu.
  •  

17
MAP SHOWING NAIBUNGA AND NAMUNYAK CONSERVANCIES
NAMUNYAK
18
Acknowledgements
  • Dr. Stephen Chege (KWS)
  • Dr. Edward Kariuki (KWS)
  • Mr. Simon Wachiuri (KWS)
  • Dr. Joseph Olesarioyo (KMC)
  • Mr. David Mbugua (BSc. Wildlife Management)
  • Mr. Alfred Mainga (PHPT)

19
  • THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS YOU!
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