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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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1861-1865 The Civil War (1861-1865) a period of war between Northern + Southern states Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states Confederate States of America (C.S.A.)- 11 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


1
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
1861-1865
2
The Civil War (1861-1865)
  • a period of war between Northern Southern
    states
  • Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states
  • Confederate States of America (C.S.A.)- 11 states
  • 600,000 soldiers died
  • More than all the deaths of our other campaigns!
  • Over ½ die from disease than bullets

3
What was happening in the US before the War
started?
4
A Deeply Divided America
  • 31,000,000 citizens
  • 34 states (Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas)
  • 3,000,000 slaves in South (½ of total pop.)
  • Blacks born live in filth, disease, ignorance
  • Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan were
    Presidents between 1849-1861
  • Largely ineffective - inactions helped further
    the cause for war

5
Differences between northern and southern states
North
South
__________ economy
industrial
__________ economy
agricultural
free
slave
6
A Deeply Divided America
  • Secession had been suggested many times as only
    way to deal with slavery
  • South felt slavery only way to preserve economy
    - didnt know what to do w/o slaves
  • Slavery had been in America so long (1619) that
    it was called a peculiar institution

7
Societys Efforts to Stop Slavery
  • Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) - violent slavery
    story by Harriet B. Stowe moves many to join
    abolitionists
  • Sold 300,000 copies inthe first year.
  • 2 million in a decade!

8
Societys Efforts to Stop Slavery
  • Underground Railroad created by Harriet Tubman
    conductors to evacuate slaves from South-
    almost 50,000 saved by railroad
  • Tubman rescued over 300 slaves after her escape

9
The Issue of Slavery
  • RACISM RULED throughout country
  • Abolitionists racist by modern standards
    Churches, schools, cemeteries wouldnt accept
    them workers didnt trust them worried about
    their own jobs
  • Mistreated in South
  • Girls used sold as breeders for more slaves
  • Southerners see their slaves as property, which
    could be moved with them to new lands

10
The Wilmot Proviso (1846)
  • Before Mexican War was over, slaverys future in
    southwestern lands caused strong debate in the
    U.S.
  • 1846 Wilmot Proviso divides country along
    sectional lines

11
What caused the Civil War to occur?
12
An America Free, or Slave?
  • Several attempts made to deal with slavery NONE
    WERE SUCCESSFUL
  • The Missouri Compromise (1820) Maine (FREE) and
    Missouri (SLAVE) enter the Union
  • The Compromise of 1850 California (FREE) and
    Congress makes no laws regarding territories won
    in M/A War

13
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16
Path to War (1850-1856)
  • Bleeding Kansas (1856)
  • Popular Sovereignty decides slavery in Kansas
    (Henry Clay)
  • FAILED - Lawrence burned by pro-slavery radicals
  • State collapsed into civil war - 200 people
    killed a territory of mobs and gangs, of
    lynchings, shootings at night, rigged elections,
    and literally murderous rivalries.
  • Debate spills over into violence in the nations
    capital

17
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18
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO)
Dred Scott
19
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS
Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four
years.
Dred Scott
20
Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS
Scotts owner died after returning to Missouri.
Dred Scott
21
Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS
Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he
should be a free man since he lived in a free
territory (WI) for four years.
Dred Scott
22
SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
Q Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue?
A NO
Q Did living in a free territory make Scott a
free man?
A NO
Q Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery
in any territory?
A NO
23
RESULTS
Dred Scott was not given his freedom.
The Missouri Compromise was found to be
unconstitutional.
Open to slavery through popular sovereignty
(Compromise of 1850)
Open to slavery through popular sovereignty
(KS-NE Act)
Missouri Compromise line is declared
unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)
24
The Final Straw (1859-1860)
  • John Browns Raid (1859)
  • Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry
    - hoped to use weapons to free all slaves
  • Failed- captured, hanged

25
Abraham Lincolns Election
  • Lincolns election in 1860 angers South
    slaveholders call him The Black Republican - S.
    Carolina secedes on Dec. 20, 1860

26
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28
Events During The Civil War
29
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30
1860 Election Results
31
1860 Election A Nation Coming Apart?!
32
Secession! SC? Dec. 20, 1860
33
The Union and Confederacy in 1861
34
Leadership during the War
Abraham Lincoln (US)
Jefferson Davis (CSA)
35
Realities of the Campaign
  • Each side made critical errors in the early years
    of the War
  • Lincoln seriously underestimates the will of the
    South not prepared for response his army
    receives in early years of the War
  • The South wrongly assumes Britain will come to
    its aid all of Europe has banned slavery by
    1860

36
Ranking North v. South 1861
37
Resources
38
Advantages of the Union (North)?
  • Population - 22 million
  • 90 of industry - goods, esp. munitions
  • Efficient railroad system
  • Controlled the navy, which could be used to
    blockade southern ports and shutdown the Souths
    economy but would have to fight an offensive war
    (long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...)
  • Capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant

39
Confederate (Rebel) advantages (South) and
disadvantages
  • Confederates had excellent generals too -Robert
    E. Lee and Thomas Jackson
  • Defending is always easier than attacking -
    (familiar w/climate and territory, possible
    psychological advantages)
  • Farmers fight better than factory workers
  • Profitable eco. based on cotton exports
  • But disadvantagesa smaller pop. of 9 million
    (inc. 3.5 million slaves)
  • had to import industrial goods
    very little munitions production

40
Weapons of the Civil War
  • Most soldiers were issued smoothbore muskets that
    were difficult to load and could be fired at an
    accurate range of only about 100 yards, only
    three times in one minute. Rifled muskets were
    much more accurate and deadly with a range of up
    to 500 yards.

41
Destruction from Artillery
  • In the Civil War, some Cannons were rifled for
    better accuracy and more power.
  • Rifled cannons could accurately lob shells for
    almost 2000 yards that is almost one mile!.
  • Smoothbore cannons were not as accurate and could
    be lobbed 500 yards.

42
Technology made Civil War . . .
The Monitor
43
More efficient and deadly
44
First metal ships in world!
45
Key Battles
  • Fort Sumter (1861) War starts

46
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas), July 1861
  • Union defeat
  • Forces both sides to realize that the War will
    not end quickly

47
Fort Donelson February 1862
  • Attacks by Ulysses S. Grant gave the Union its
    first victory of the War

48
Shiloh - April 1862
  • Union Victory (24,000 casualties)

49
Antietam, 1862
  • Union Victory largest loss of life during the
    War (more than 25,000 casualties)

50
Emancipation Proclamation
  • January 1, 1863
  • Freed the slaves only in states that seceded from
    the Union.
  • It did not free slaves in border states.
  • Constitution forbid Lincoln to free slaves in the
    Union

51
Blacks in the Military
  • After the Emancipation Proclamation blacks began
    to join the Union Army
  • Initially they were only used for manual labor
  • Eventually, Blacks saw live combat
  • 54th regiment out of Massachusetts

William Carney
52
The 54th Regiment attack on Fort Wagner, SC- July
18, 1863
53
African-Americans in Civil War Battles
54
Gettysburg turning point
  • Lee realized that the South was in dire straits
    and decided that it was crucial to attack the
    North on its own territory
  • July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, Pa.
  • Confed. bombardment Union held firm
  • on July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed.
    Troops across open fields - Union mowed them down
    ( "Picketts Charge")
  • Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia
  • Gettysburg is the largest battle in the history
    of the Western hemisphere.
  • Over 100, 000 people died in 3 days ?It was the
    last time the South invaded the North.

55
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56
Vicksburg July 1863
  • won by U.S. Grant, cut South in 1/2 and gave the
    Union control of Mississippi River
  • Grant was then given control of all Union armies
    ? began a "scorched earth" policy to defeat the
    South

57
Shermans Total War March 1864
  • General Sherman given task of taking Atlanta his
    "March through Georgia" saw total destruction
    from Atlanta to Savannah tore up rail lines,
    destroyed crops, burned/looted towns

58
Presidential Election of 1864 Shermans Total
War Assures Victory
59
Surrender at Appomattox April 1865
  • April 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - final
    blow to Lee's army
  • Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865
  • Terms of surrender were lenient Lincoln didn't
    want a humiliated South and further conflict

60
Casualties on Both Sides
61
Civil War Casualtiesin Comparison to Other Wars
62
Effects of the Civil War
  • Creation of a single unified country
    (nationalism)
  • Abolition of slavery
  • Increased power of fed. gov't killed the issue
    of states rights
  • To cover war debts, Union gov't issued war bonds
    and intro'd income tax
  • In a further illustration of fed. gov't power,
    Lincoln's gov't restricted civil liberties so
    nothing would detract from Union war effort
    (suspended Habeas Corpus) - free press/ speech
    also interrupted
  • U.S. now an industrial nation
  • W. lands increasingly opened to settlement
  • South was economically and physically devastated,
    w/ the plantation system crippled...

63
thus Reconstruction (rebuilding the U.S.) - but
a deep hatred of the North remained...
64
Abraham Lincoln
  • Lincoln was an outspoken opponent of slavery
  • Abraham Lincolns speeches help define peoples
    perceptions of basic human rights the role of
    government in protecting it

65
Abraham Lincoln
  • A house divided against itself cannot stand. I
    believe this government cannot endure permanently
    half-slave and half-free. - (1858)

66
Abraham Lincoln
  • The mystic chords of memory, stretching from
    every battlefield and patriot grave to every
    living heart and hearth-stone all over this broad
    land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union,
    when again touched, as surely they will be, by
    the better angels of our nature." - 1st Inaugural
    Address (1861)

67
Abraham Lincoln
  • "...that we here highly resolve that these dead
    shall not have died in vain that this nation,
    under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and
    that this government of the people, by the
    people, for the people, shall not perish from the
    earth." - Gettysburg Address (1863)

68
Abraham Lincoln
  • "With malice toward none, with charity for all,
    with firmness in the right as God gives us to see
    the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
    are in to bind up the nation's wounds to care
    for him who shall have borne the battle, and for
    his widow and his orphan - to do all which may
    achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace,
    among ourselves, and with all nations." 2nd
    Inaugural Address (1865)
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