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Child Development

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Child Development Theory and Milestones Importance of Early Years Conception to age six is the key to subsequent Growth Development Productivity Developmental Needs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Development


1
Child Development
  • Theory and Milestones

2
Importance of Early Years
  • Conception to age six is the key to subsequent
  • Growth
  • Development
  • Productivity

3
Developmental Needs
  • Infants need
  • Protection from physical danger
  • Adequate nutrition
  • Adequate health care
  • Adults with whom to form an attachment
  • Adults who understand and respond to their
    signals
  • Things to look at, touch, hear, smell, and taste
  • Opportunities to explore the world
  • Appropriate language stimulation

Donohue-Colletta, 1992
4
Developmental Needs
  • Toddlers need all of the above and
  • Support in acquiring new motor, language, and
    thinking skills
  • A chance to develop some independence
  • Help in learning how to control their behavior
  • Opportunities to begin to learn to care for
    themselves
  • Daily opportunities to play with a variety of
    objects

Donohue-Colletta, 1992
5
Developmental Needs
  • Preschoolers need all of the above and
  • Opportunities to develop and refine fine motor
    skills
  • Encouragement of language through talking,
    singing, books
  • Activities which will develop a positive sense of
    mastery
  • Opportunities to learn cooperation, helping,
    sharing
  • Experimentation with pre-writing and pre-reading
    skills

Donohue-Colletta, 1992
6
Child Development Principles
  • Development begins prenatally and learning is
    occurring at birth
  • Development has several interrelated dimensions
  • Children are active participants in their own
    development and learning
  • Development proceeds in predictable steps and
    learning occurs in recognized sequences, within
    which there is a great deal of individual and
    social variability
  • Development and learning occur continuously
    through interactions with people and objects in
    the environment

The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care
and Development
7
Rethinking the Brain
  • Old Thinking
  • How a brain develops depends on the genes you
    were born with
  • New Thinking
  • How a brain develops hinges on a complex
    interplay between the genes you are born with and
    the experiences you have

Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the
Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999
8
Rethinking the Brain
  • Old Thinking
  • The experiences you have before age three have a
    limited impact on future development
  • New Thinking
  • Early experiences have a decisive impact on the
    architecture of the brain, and on the nature and
    extent of adult capacities

Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the
Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999
9
Rethinking the Brain
  • Old Thinking
  • A secure relationship with a primary caregiver
    creates a favorable context for early development
    and learning
  • New Thinking
  • Early interactions dont just create the context,
    they directly affect the way the brain is wired.

Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the
Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999
10
Rethinking the Brain
  • Old Thinking
  • Brain development is linear the brains capacity
    to learn and change grows steadily as an infant
    progresses towards adulthood
  • New Thinking
  • Brain development is non-linear there are prime
    times for acquiring different kinds of knowledge
    and skills

Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the
Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999
11
Rethinking the Brain
  • Old Thinking
  • A toddlers brain is much less active than the
    brain of a college student
  • New Thinking
  • By the time children reach age three, their
    brains are twice as active as those of adults.
    Activity levels drop during adolescence.

Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the
Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999
12
Brain Development Facts
  • Development taking place before age one is more
    rapid and extensive than once thought
  • Development is much more vulnerable to
    environmental influences than suspected

Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994
13
Brain Development Facts, continued
  • Early environment has long-lasting influences on
    brain development
  • Environmental influences are not limited to
    number of brain cells and connections among them,
    also the way connections are wired

Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994
14
The Newborn
  • Maintain life sustaining functions
  • Supply oxygen
  • Root, suck, and swallow (reflexive)
  • Sneeze, cough, blink (reflexive)
  • Regulation of body temperature
  • Elimination of waste
  • Habituate
  • Taste
  • See
  • Hear
  • Other reflexes (e.g., Moro, grasp)

15
The Kindergartner
  • Beginning Kindergartners Knowledge and Skills
  • Reading proficiency
  • Print familiarity
  • Engagement in prosocial behavior
  • Approaches to learning

U. S. Department of Education, National Center
for Education Statistics, Early Childhood
Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of
1998-1999
16
SO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • What concepts and skills enable children to move
    from the reflexive stage of infancy to the stage
    of a kindergartner?

17
Principles and Patterns of Development
  • highly competent
  • socially interactive
  • active learners
  • sequence is universal
  • skills become more specialized
  • plasticity
  • critical learning periods
  • transitions occur
  • individual differences are seen in children

18
Composition
  • skills
  • complexity
  • fluidity/quality

19
Developmental areas
  • motor
  • language
  • cognition
  • social
  • activities of daily living (adaptive)

20
Motor Development
  • Components
  • flexion
  • extension
  • adduction
  • abduction
  • internal rotation
  • external rotation
  • Tonicity
  • Stability/mobility
  • Movement qualities
  • reflexive movements
  • goal directed movements

21
Language Development
  • Components of language
  • syntax
  • semantics
  • pragmatics
  • morphology
  • phonology
  • Early language development
  • perlocutionary
  • illocutionary
  • locutionary
  • Refinement of language

22
Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor period of development
  • Pre-operational period of development

23
Social Development
  • Attachment
  • initial pre-attachment
  • attachment-in-the-making
  • clear-cut attachment
  • multiple attachments
  • Peer relationships
  • Play

24
Activities of daily living (Adaptive
skill development)
  • Eating and drinking
  • Toileting
  • Self-help skills
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