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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Carbohydrate hydrate of carbon Cn(H2O)m Glucose -blood sugar- C6H12O6 or C6(H2O ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
2
Carbohydrate
  • hydrate of carbon Cn(H2O)m
  • Glucose -blood sugar- C6H12O6 or C6(H2O)6
  • Sucrose -table sugar- C12H22O11 or C12(H2O)11

3
  • Not all carbohydrates have this exact form
  • old habits die slow or sometimes never at all

4
Monosaccharides
  • Formula CnH2nOn
  • One carbon is either an aldehyde or ketone
  • The suffix ose indicates that the molecule is a
    carbohydrate
  • Use prefix to indicate number of carbons tri ,
    tetr, pent, hex
  • Aldose contain an aldehyde group
  • Ketose contain a ketone group

5
Monosaccharides
  • Aldohexoses

other examples ketotetrose, aldotriose,
ketopentose
6
Fischer Projections
  • Emil Fischer (late 1800s)
  • Side groups come out of the plane (towards you)
  • Vertical groups go back away from you

7
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8
Naming Aldotriose and aldotetrose
  • Remember ET goes home left at T

9
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10
Naming AldoPentose
  • RAXL Ribose, Araginose, Xylose, Lyxose
  • Right Top Middle Top/Middle

11
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12
Naming Aldohexoses
  • All Altrose Gladly Make Gum in Gallon Tanks
  • Bottom all right
  • 2 up 4x4
  • 3 up 2x2 like Noahs Ark
  • 4 up alternate

13
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14
R/S and D/L
  • R D - dextrorotatory
  • S L - levarotatory
  • D A monosaccharide with the Penultimate OH
    group on the right in a Fischer Projection
  • L - A monosaccharide with the penultimate OH
    group on the left in a Fischer Projection

OK, so whats a penultimate????
15
Ketoses
triose
  • Note
  • The ketone is located on carbon 2

tetrose
pentoses
Penultimate is the next To last carbon
hexoses

16
Amino Sugars
  • Contain an NH2 group instead of an OH
  • 1st three are common in nature

17
Cyclic structure of monsacharides
  • Its the hemiacetal reaction all over
  • We draw them as Haworth Projections
  • Practice practice practice

From yahoo images
18
Reactions of Monosacharides
  • Practice

From yahoo images
19
The two Most Significant Sugars
  • Ketose
  • D-Fructose
  • Known as fruit sugar
  • Found combined with glucosein the disaccharide
    sucrose
  • Aldose
  • -D-glucose
  • -The most important
  • monosaccharide
  • -White solid
  • -Formula C6H12O6
  • - Sugar used in our bodies

20
Multiple Sugars
  • Monosaccharides Single Carbohydrate unit
  • Disaccharides - two monosaccharides combined
  • Oligosaccharides - three to ten monosaccharides
  • Polsaccharide More than ten monoscharides

21
Three Disaccharides
  • Sucrose
  • Lactose
  • Maltose

22
Disaccharides
  • Sucrose
  • A disaccharide
  • One D-glucose andone D-Fructose
  • Connected by two anomeric carbonsC-1 on glucose
    and C-2 on fructose linkages? linkage on
    glucose and? linkage on fructose

23
Disaccharides
  • Sucrose
  • Anomeric C are tied-upon both sugars
  • No oxidation can occurno hemi-acetals
  • Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar
  • Hydrolyzed by enzymes to form a mixture
    ofglucose and fructose - invert sugar

24
Disaccharides
  • Sucrose

25
Disaccharides
  • Lactose
  • A disaccharide
  • One D-galactose andone D-glucose
  • Connected by an ? linkagebetween D-Galactose C-1
    and D-Glucose C-4
  • Known as an ?-1,4 linkage
  • Found in mammalian milk

26
Disaccharides
27
Disaccharides
  • Maltose
  • A disaccharide
  • Two D-glucose monomers
  • Connected by an ? linkagebetween C-1 and C-4
  • Known as an ?-1,4 linkage (two D-glucose
    molecules)
  • An ingredient in most syrups
  • Malt sugar

28
Disaccharides
29
Polysaccharides
  • Starch - Amylose
  • Many units of ?-D-glucose
  • Linkages are ?-1,4 (same as Maltose)
  • Between 1000-2000 glucoseunits (polyglucose)
  • Random coils or helix

30
Polysaccharides
  • Starch - Amylopectin
  • Also many units of ?-D-glucose
  • Linkages are ?-1,4 and ?-1,6
  • Lots of branching
  • 20 to 25 glucose monomers inthe straight chain
    and then branching
  • A total of 105 to 106 glucose molecules
  • Use Iodine (I2) to test for starches

31
Polysaccharides
  • Glycogen
  • Animal energy storage (about 400 g in us)
  • ?-D-glucose polymer
  • Similar to amylopectin but smaller chains
  • Linkages are ?-1,4 and ?-1,6 (branching)
  • 10 to 20 glucose monomers in thestraight chain
    and then branching
  • A total of 105 to 106 glucose molecules

32
Polysaccharides
  • Cellulose
  • Linear polymer of D-glucose
  • Linkages are ?-1,4 !
  • The most abundant molecule inliving tissues
  • Cotton is about 95 cellulose
  • 300 to 3000 glucose units
  • Form fibrous rods

33
Polysaccharides
  • Cellulose
  • We cannot digest cellulose
  • ? glucose linkages!
  • Many bacteria and fungihave necessary enzyme
  • Ruminant mammals carrythese bacteria
  • Termites also have necessarymicroorganisms

34
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