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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are better known as sugars and starches. Elements Hydrogen:1 Oxygen:2 Carbon:1 They are Present In a 1:2:1 Ratio Ex: C6H12O6 C:H:0 Ratio ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are better known as sugars and
starches.
2
Carbohydrates
3
Elements
  • Hydrogen1
  • Oxygen2
  • Carbon1
  • They are
  • Present
  • In a 121
  • Ratio
  • Ex C6H12O6

4
CH0 Ratio
  • They are found in a 121 Ratio
  • For Example Glucose
  • 6C 12H 6O
  • What would fructose be if there were 10 H?

5
Sugar structure
  • 5C 6C sugars form rings in solution

Where do you find solutions? In cells!
Carbons are numbered
6
Numbered carbons
C
6'
C
O
5'
C
C
1'
4'
energy stored in C-C bonds
C
C
2'
3'
7
Simple complex sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • simple 1 monomer sugars
  • glucose
  • Disaccharides
  • 2 monomers
  • sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
  • large polymers
  • starch

8
Role in Living Things
  • Quick Energy
  • Structural components
  • (as complex sugars)

9
Monosaccharides
  • Building blocks
  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Galactose

10
Simple Sugars areMonosaccharides such as glucose
and fructose (C6H12O6) and function as an energy
source in cells during cellular respiration and
are also used to build cell structures and other
organic molecules within the cells.
  • MONOSACCHARIDES 1 SUGAR
  • As you look at the examples, try to find out what
    all the names of the sugars have in common.

11
Sugars
  • Most names for sugars end in -ose
  • Classified by number of carbons
  • 6C hexose (glucose)
  • 5C pentose (ribose)
  • 3C triose (glyceraldehyde)

6
5
3
12
Examples of Monosaccharides
  • Glucose- most common monomer found in all
    polysaccharides like starch used to make ATP
  • Fructose- found in fruits
  • Galactose- found in milk
  • Ribose RNA sugar

13
Glucose
  • Plant and animal tissue
  • Principle sugar (Breaks down into ATP)
  • Main energy source

14
Fructose
  • Fruit sugar
  • Honey and fruit juices
  • Found in sucrose
  • Sweet tasting
  • high fructose corn syrup
  • Chemically enhanced
  • HFCS 42

15
Galactose
Notice that glucose, fructose, and galactose
have the same molecular formula, C6H12O6, but
different structural formulas. Compounds like
these sugars, with a single chemical formula But
different forms are called ISOMERS.
  • 1/3 as sweet as sucrose
  • Forms nerve tissue
  • Found in Milk, yeast, Liver, seaweed
  • Converted to glucose

16
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17
Disaccharides are two monosaccharides combined
in a condensation (dehydration synthesis)
reaction. Sucrose, lactose and maltoseare
examples of disaccharides.
  • Sucrose made from glucose and fructose
  • Lactose made from galactose and glucose
  • Maltose made from glucose and glucose

18
  • Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides
    joined together.
  • Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide composed
    of one glucose and one fructose molecule.

19
Building sugars DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (OR
CONDENSATION) REACTION
monosaccharides
disaccharide
glucose
glucose
maltose
glycosidic linkage
20
  • The most important thing to understand about
    dehydration synthesis is why it is named what it
    is (i.e., dehydration synthesis or condensation
    reaction).
  • These are reactions in which a water molecule is
    removed from two reactants.
  • After the removal of the water, what is left of
    the two reactants are bonded together,
    synthesis Dehydration synthesis (or
    condensation) removal of water to achieve
    synthesis.

21
Building sugars
  • Synthesis

monosaccharides
disaccharide
fructose
glucose
sucrose (table sugar)
Lets go to the videotape!
22
  • Polysaccharides are long chains of
    monosaccharides bond together.

23
How do plants store excess sugars?
  • Plants store excess glucose in the form of
    starch, a polysaccharide composed of long chains
    of glucose.
  • Starches can be found in potatoes, rice, wheat,
    corn, bananas, peas, beans, lentils, and other
    tubers, seeds and fruits of plants.

24
  • How do animals store excess sugar?
  • Animals (and humans) store excess glucose in the
    form of glycogen in the liver and muscles.
  • Between meals the liver breaks down glycogen to
    glucose and releases it into the blood stream to
    supply glucose to cells in need.

25
Cellulose
  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth
  • herbivores can digest cellulose
  • most carnivores cannot digest cellulose
  • thats why they eat meat to get their energy
    nutrients
  • cellulose roughage

BIG DEAL!Who can liveon this stuff?!
26
The function of Chitin Cellulose
  • Other important polysaccharides are cellulose and
    chitin.
  • Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants.
  • Chitin provides structure to fungi and the
    exoskeleton of arthropods.

27
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28
BREAK DOWN POLYSACCHARIDES AND DISACCARIDES WITH
THE ADDITION OF WATERCALLED HYDROLYSIS
29
hydrolysis
30
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31
Food Groups
  • Carbohydrates are mostly part of the Bread,
    Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group
  • Though they can be found in any food group.
  • You should about 6-11 servings of the food group
    a day.

32
Credits
  • http//chemistry2.csudh.edu/rpendarvis/monosacch.h
    tml
  • http//www.answers.com/topic/glucose
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