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Earth Science Oceanography

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Water World Oceanography The application of science to the study of phenomena in the oceans . Oceanography is a broad Science 4 Disciplines Geological ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Science Oceanography


1
Earth Science Oceanography
Water World
2
Oceanography
  • The application of science to the study of
    phenomena in the oceans.
  • Oceanography is a broad Science

3
4 Disciplines
  • Geological Oceanography
  • Structure of the sea floor
  • Chemical Oceanography
  • Chemical composition and properties of seawater
  • Physical Oceanography
  • Waves, tides, currents
  • Biological Oceanography
  • Oceanic life forms

4
Why Study Oceanography?
  • Oceans comprise 71 of the Earths surface
  • Oceans contain 97.2 of the water on or near the
    Earths surface
  • Source of Food
  • Transportation and Travel
  • Weather
  • Shoreline
  • Interface between land and ocean

5
CLIMATE
6
WEATHER
7
Shoreline Waves Baby
8
(No Transcript)
9
Food Marine Life
10
(No Transcript)
11
The 5 Oceans
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Largest and deepest ocean
  • Mariana Trench 11 km., 36,000 ft.
  • (Mt. Everest 29,000 ft.)
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • About ½ the size of the Pacific
  • Indian Ocean
  • Southern hemisphere
  • Arctic Ocean
  • ¼ as deep, much smaller, sea ice
  • Southern Ocean
  • South of 50 deg. South latitude

12
Just the Facts
  • Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii, measures
    10,600 m from the ocean floor, making it the
    tallest mountain on the planet (surpassing even
    Mt. Everest).
  • If the Earths contours were leveled to a smooth
    ball, the ocean would cover it to a depth of 2686
    m.

13
Just the Facts
  • The ocean contains some 5 trillion tons of salts
  • If dried and spread evenly, that mass would cover
    the entire planet to a depth of 45 m.
  • On a planetary scale the ocean is insignificant.
  • Its average depth is a tiny fraction of the
    Earths radius.

14
Historical Review of Oceanography
  • Roots traced to ocean exploration.
  • Describing the oceans

15
Herodotus (ca 450 BCE) Where is . ?
16
Historical Review of Oceanography
  • The 18th century was marked by
  • Improvements in navigation and mapping
  • Accumulation of data for charts
  • Temperature, currents

17
Historical Review of Oceanography (Cont.)
  • In the United States, Benjamin Franklin
    (1769-1770) published the first chart of the Gulf
    Stream

18
Historical Review of Oceanography (Cont.)
  • In Britain, James Cook (1768-1779)
  • Constructed charts of coastlines especially for
    the South Pacific
  • Secondary discovery the Hawaiian Islands

19
Historical Review of Oceanography (Cont.)
  • In the 19th century curiosity about the oceans
    increased and voyages for scientific purposes
    were initiated

20
  • Charles Darwin British naturalist
  • Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), studied geology
    and biology of the South American coastline
  • Developed theory of organic evolution based on
    natural selection
  • Published On the Origin of the Species (1859)

21
The Voyage of the HMS Beagle
Charles Darwin
Route of the HMS Beagle
22
Historical Review of Oceanography (Cont.)
  • C. Wyville Thompson British explorer
  • Directed the Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)
  • First major scientific expedition
  • Globe-encircling voyage
  • Chemical, physical, and biological measurements
    and collections

23
The Challenger Expedition
24
What is Oceanography Today?
25
Geological Oceanography (Marine Geology)
  • Study of rocks and sediments processes
    responsible for their formation.

26
Marine Geophysics
  • Study of rock structure in the ocean basin,
    properties of rocks such as magnetism, occurrence
    of earthquakes.

27
Physical Oceanography
  • How and why ocean currents flow, air-sea
    interactions such as the generation of waves by
    the wind.

28
Chemical Oceanography
  • Composition of sea water and the processes
    controlling and altering its composition,
    including marine pollution.

29
Biological Oceanography (Marine Biology)
  • Organisms that live in the oceans and their
    relationships to the environment.

30
Ocean Engineering
  • Design and installation of oceanographic
    instrumentation and vehicles

31
Summary What is Oceanography?
  • Broad science focused on the oceans
  • Geology/geophysics, chemistry, physics, biology,
    engineering
  • Highly interdisciplinary
  • Also highly collaborative
  • We are still exploring (!) but
  • Feeds also into ocean policy, management, and
    conservation
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