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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Chapter 13: Server Management and Monitoring MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory


1
MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows
Server 2008 Active Directory
  • Chapter 13 Server Management and Monitoring

2
Objectives
  • Perform Active Directory maintenance tasks
  • Monitor an Active Directory environment
  • Manage a Server Core installation
  • Use several command-line tools to manage a
    Windows Server 2008 environment

2
3
Windows Server Backup and Restore
  • Windows Server Backup is new in Windows Server
    2008 and supersedes NTBackup.exe
  • Must be installed with Server Manager
  • Some features and limitations
  • Backups can be run manually or scheduled with
    Task Scheduler
  • Separate files or folders cant be backed up, you
    can only choose which volumes to backup
  • Scheduled backups require a dedicated fixed or
    removable disk as the backup destination when
    youre using Windows Server Backup
  • Select one of the following options
  • Always perform full backup
  • Always perform incremental backup
  • Custom

4
Windows Server Backup and Restore (cont.)
5
Creating Scheduled Backups
  • Scheduled backups give you the flexibility to run
    a backup at a particular time of the day, once
    per day, or multiple times per day
  • Before using the Backup Schedule Wizard, know
  • What do you want to backup?
  • When and how often should the backup occur?
  • Where will backups be stored?

6
Creating Scheduled Backups (cont.)
7
Data Recovery
  • You can recover files and folders, the system
    state, Active Directory, or the entire server
    from a backup
  • Windows Server Backup can recover only files,
    folders, and volumes
  • Command-line utilities used for more complete
    recovery
  • To start the recovery process, click recover in
    the Actions pane of Windows Server Backup

8
Data Recovery (cont.)
9
Data Recovery (cont.)
10
Backup and Restore from the Command Line
  • Windows Server Backup has less flexibility than
    its command line equivalent utilities
  • Wbadmin.exe can perform all tasks available in
    Windows Server Backup, and more
  • Perform a system state backup
  • Recover the system state
  • Delete a system state backup
  • Restore or delete a backup catalog
  • Most tasks with Wbadmin require you to be a
    member of the Backup Operators or Administrators
    group

11
Perform a System Recovery
  • If full recovery is necessary, you need the
    Windows Server 2008 installation disk or access
    to Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE)
  • Can be installed on a servers hard drive by
    pressing F8 when the boot process starts
  • Can also be accessed from the Windows Server 2008
    installation DVD
  • You can restore a complete backup from a local or
    removable disk or a network location

12
Active Directory Backup and Restoration
  • Active Directory is backed up when you perform a
    full backup of a domain controller or when you
    back up the volumes containing system recovery
    information
  • Restoration can be authoritative or
    nonauthoritative
  • Nonauthoritative restore restores the Active
    Directory database, or portions of it, and allows
    it to be updated through replication. Requires a
    restart into Domain Services Restore Mode (DSRM)
  • Authoritative restore ensures that restored
    objects arent overwritten by changes from other
    domain controllers through replication

13
Active Directory Backup and Restoration
14
Active Directory Defragmentation
  • Active Directory database requires periodic
    maintenance in the form of defragmentation and
    compaction
  • Online defragmenation occurs when garbage
    collection is performed
  • Objects that have been deleted for more than 180
    days are removed by garbage collection
  • Object marked for removal after a period of time
    has been tombstoned
  • Online defragmentation removes deleted objects
    but doesnt compact the database
  • Offline defragmentation compacts the database
  • Compaction is performed with the Ntdsutil program

15
Active Directory Monitoring
  • Windows Server 2008 provides tools to manage and
    monitor server operation and resources, including
    the following
  • Event Viewer
  • Task Manager
  • Reliability and Performance Monitor
  • Windows Server Resource Manager

16
Event Viewer
  • Used to examine event log entries generated by
    system services and applications
  • Events categorized by levels
  • Information
  • Indicated by blue i in a white circle
  • Warning
  • Indicated by a black ! inside a yellow triangle
  • Error
  • Indicated by a white ! inside a red circle
  • Selecting an event shows more detailed information

17
Event Viewer (cont.)
18
Task Manager
  • Provides a simple interface for viewing the
    performance of a Windows computer
  • Started by pressing Ctrl alt delete and then
    clicking Task Manager, by right-clicking the
    taskbar and clicking Task manager, or by typing
    Taskmgr into a command prompt
  • Windows Server 2008 adds the Services and
    Resource Monitor tabs
  • Shows real-time graphical display of
  • CPU utilization
  • Disk utilization
  • Network utilization
  • Memory utilization

19
Task Manager (cont.)
20
Reliability and Performance Monitor
  • Consists of a collection of tools
  • Can be opened from Administrative tools folder or
    the Diagnostics node in Server Manager
  • Contains the following folders
  • Monitoring Tools
  • Data Collector sets
  • Reports

21
Performance Monitor
  • Uses counters to track performance of a variety
    of objects
  • A counter is a value representing some aspect of
    an objects performance
  • Counters exist for virtually every hardware and
    OS component on a server
  • Performance monitor can track counters with a
    line graph, histogram, or as raw data saved to a
    report
  • Can display counters in real time or from a saved
    log file

22
Performance Monitor (cont.)
23
Collecting Baseline Performance Data
  • Using real-time monitoring can be difficult since
    there is no point of reference, or baseline, for
    comparing data
  • To create a baseline, you create a data collector
    set that specifies the performance counters you
    want to collect
  • Performance monitoring uses system resources
  • Monitoring remotely can reduce the strain on a
    system

24
Collecting Baseline Performance Data (cont.)
25
Data Collector Sets
  • A data collector set can contain a variety of
    types of information
  • Performance counters
  • Counter alerts
  • Event traces
  • System configuration
  • Common use is to create a baseline
  • Predefined data collector sets can be run as they
    are or used as templates to create user-defined
    data collector sets

26
Reports
  • Reports folder contains reports generated from
    data collector sets
  • User Defined subfolder contains reports generated
    by user-defined data collector sets
  • System subfolder contains folders for each system
    data collector set
  • After a data collector set runs, a report is
    generated automatically and placed in a folder
    with the name of the data collector set

27
Reports (cont.)
28
Reliability Monitor
  • Tracks system changes and logs a variety of
    hardware and software failures
  • Changes are indicated on a timeline graph
  • Can track how stable / reliable your system has
    been over a period of time
  • Icons that indicate failure, information, or
    warning are the same as those in Event Viewer
  • Reliability monitor tracks five event types
  • Software (Un)Install
  • Application failures
  • Hardware failures
  • Windows failures
  • Miscellaneous failures

29
Reliability Monitor (cont.)
30
Windows System Resource Manager
  • Helps you manage processor and memory resource on
    heavily used systems
  • Can fine tune resource use so that each process
    has an equal share of resources
  • WSRM includes the following features
  • Preconfigured and custom policies
  • Policies based on calendar rules
  • Automatic policy application
  • Resource monitoring data

31
Windows System Resource Manager (cont.)
32
WSRM Management Policies
  • WSRM is designed to be used on multipurpose
    servers with high CPU utilization
  • WSRM doesnt apply CPU use policies until total
    utilization reaches 70
  • Preconfigured WSRM policies
  • Equal_Per_Process
  • Equal_Per_User
  • Equal_Per_IISAppPool
  • Equal_Per_Session
  • Can use custom policies as well

33
Analyzing Active Directory Performance
  • To ensure AD performance, monitor performance
    indicators such as
  • AD DS
  • DNS
  • Replication
  • Active Directory Storage

34
Monitoring Active Directory Replication
  • Replication of Active Directory is critical to
    the operation of a Windows Server 2008 domain
  • Three tools can be used to monitor aspects of
    Active Directory replication
  • Repadmin
  • Replmon
  • Dcdiag
  • Replication and AD health should be verified
    proactively

35
Managing Server Core
  • Administration of a Server Core installation is
    done primarily from the command line
  • Server Core is ideal for virtualized installs
  • Some aspects of Server Core can be managed
    remotely (usually MMC)

36
Common Server Core Configuration Tasks
  • Tasks that might need to be performed
  • Activating Windows Server 2008
  • Slmgr.vbs ato
  • Changing the administrator password
  • net user administrator
  • List installed features and roles
  • Oclist
  • Install new server roles and features
  • Ocsetup
  • Join a domain
  • Netdom join computername /domaindomainname
  • Installation of AD DS requires dcpromo to be run
    in unattended mode

37
Common Server Core Configuration Tasks (cont.)
  • Dcpromo switches
  • /replicaOrNewDomain
  • /replicaDomainDNSName
  • /ConfirmGC
  • /InstallDNS
  • /UserName
  • /Password
  • /RebootOnSuccess
  • /SafeModeAdminPassword

38
Managing Server Core Remotely
  • Some snap-ins require no additional configuration
  • Other snap-ins require reconfiguration of various
    firewall settings before you can connect
  • To allow remote management of Server Core from
    any MMC, type the following
  • Netsh advfirewall firewall set rule groupRemote
    Administration new enableyes
  • Snap-ins that may require additional
    configuration
  • Disk management
  • Device manager
  • IPSec Management
  • Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

39
Additional Server and Active Directory Tools
  • Additional tools for managing a Windows Server
    2008 environment
  • Bcdedit
  • Dsacls
  • Dsdbutil
  • Dsmgmt
  • Dfsutil
  • Dnscmd
  • Icacls
  • Servermanagercmd
  • Winrs
  • Many more additional commands exist, for a more
    complete reference, visit the Microsoft Download
    Web site (www.microsoft.com/downloads) and search
    on Windows Command Reference

40
Chapter Summary
  • Active Directory maintenance involves backup and
    restore of the server and the Active Directory
    database as well as offline maintenance tasks
  • Windows Server Backup enables you to back up
    entire servers, volumes, and the system state
  • The Active Directory database becomes fragmented
    over time. To ensure performance, use online
    defragmentation and offline defragmentation
  • Four tools are commonly used to monitor and
    fine-tune the performance and reliability of
    Active Directory and the server Event Viewer,
    Task Manager, Reliability and Performance
    Monitor, and Windows Server Resource Manager

41
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Task Manager and Resource Monitor provide a
    real-time look at key performance indicators,
    such as CPU, disk, network, and memory
    utilization
  • Reliability Monitor tracks several different
    system failures and includes a numeric indicator
    of your servers reliability
  • Server Core has a minimal user interface and is
    ideal for branch office servers and for
    virtualizing servers performing particular roles
  • Hundreds of command-line tools are available to
    manage all aspects of a Windows Server 2008
    environment
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