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Radiation Safety Training Awareness Washington State University Radiation Safety Office


* * * * * Radiation: energy moving in the form of particles or waves Radioactive Material: material that contains atoms that are radioactive For example: A cobalt-60 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Radiation Safety Training Awareness Washington State University Radiation Safety Office

Radiation Safety Training AwarenessWashi
ngton State UniversityRadiation Safety Office
WSU Radiation Safety Program
  • The WSU Radioactive Materials License is
  • - Issued by the Washington State Department of
  • Health, DOH (Our Regulatory
  • - DOH issues Radiation Control Regulations
  • and Provides Radiation Machine

WSU Radiation Safety Program
  • The WSU Radiation Safety Committee, (RSC)
    establishes Radiation Safety Policies at WSU.
  • The RSC is a presidential committee

  • Authorized Users and Radiation Workers
  • -Are Responsible for A Safe and Compliant
    Research Program
  • Non-radiation Workers
  • - Aware of hazards and hazardous situations.
  • - Aware of who to contact if there are questions
    or concerns.

WSU Radiation Safety Program
  • The Radiation Safety Office (RSO)
  • Implements Policies, Manages Services,
  • and Ensures Compliance
  • Our Regulatory Philosophy is ALARA

The Radiation Safety Office (RSO)
  • Ensures compliance with State regulations (WAC
  • Implements the Policies of the Radiation Safety
    Committee, RSC.
  • Manages all aspects of the Radiation Control

The Radiation Safety Office
  • Provides Periodic Inspections of Radiation
  • (x-ray) Machines.
  • Routinely inspects, surveys and posts
    laboratories that use radioactive materials.

Many of your radiation safety questions, can be
answered at our web site.
Radiation vs. Radioactive Material
  • Radiation energy transported in the form of
    particles or waves (alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons)
  • Radioactive Material material that contains
    atoms that emit radiation spontaneously

What is Radioactivity ?
  • If there are too many or too few neutrons for a
    given number of protons, the nucleus will not be
  • The unstable atom will try to become stable by
    giving off excess energy. This energy is in the
    form of particles or rays (radiation). These
    unstable atoms are known as radioactive atoms, or
    radioactive materials.

Non-ionizing vs. Ionizing radiation
  • Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of
    electromagnetic radiation that does not carry
    enough energy per quantum to ionize atoms or
    molecules that is, to completely remove an
    electron from an atom or molecule.
  • Examples of non-ionizing radiation microwaves,
    ultraviolet light, lasers, radio waves, infrared
    light, and radar.

  • Ionizing radiation consists of subatomic
    particles or electromagnetic waves that are
    energetic enough to detach electrons from atoms
    or molecules, ionizing them.
  • Examples of ionizing radiation alpha particles,
    beta particles, neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays.

(No Transcript)
Campfire Analogy
Where Are Sources of Ionizing RadiationUsed at
  • Research Laboratories
  • Research Reactor
  • Clinical Uses for Animals
  • at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital
  • Natural Background Radiation

What Are the Sources of Ionizing Radiation Used
at WSU?
  • Radioactive Materials
  • These sources are always on.
  • They decay away with time.
  • Rooms are posted with Caution Radioactive
    Materials sticker.
  • Sealed sources Radiation field but no
  • Unsealed sources Both a radiation field and a
    contamination hazard.
  • Radiation Machines
  • These sources are only on when they are powered
  • Rooms posted with a Caution Radiation Machines

What is being Emitted from the Sources of
Ionizing Radiation?
  • There are 4 distinct types of radiation.
  • Alpha particles are helium nuclei (2 protons, 2
  • Beta particles are high-speed electrons or
  • Gamma and X-ray radiation is a high-energy
  • Neutron radiation is free neutrons

Alpha Particles
  • Physical Characteristics Large mass, highly
    charged, helium nuclei (2 protons, 2 neutrons)
  • Range 1-2 inches in air
  • Shielding Dead layer of skin, paper.
  • Biological Hazards Internal, it can deposit
    large amounts of energy in a small amount of body

Beta Particles
  • Physical Characteristics Small mass, electron
  • Range Short distance (one inch to 20 feet).
  • Shielding Plastic
  • Biological Hazard Internal hazard. Externally,
    may be hazardous to skin and eyes.

Gamma Rays/X-Rays
  • Physical Characteristics No mass. No
    charge. Electromagnetic wave or photon.
  • Range Very far. It will easily go several
    hundred feet. Very high penetrating power.
  • Shielding Concrete. Water. Lead.
  • Biological Hazard Whole body exposure. The
    hazard may be external and/or internal. This
    depends on whether the source is inside or
    outside the body.

  • Physical Characteristics Fairly large. No
    charge. Has mass.
  • Range Range in air is very far. Easily can go
    several hundred feet. High penetrating power due
    to lack of charge (difficult to stop).
  • Shielding Water. Concrete. Plastic (high
    hydrogen content).
  • Biological Hazard External whole body exposure.

Natural radiation
Natural radiation has always been an integral
part of our environment. It has been with us
since the earth was formed. It is as much a part
of our every day environment as the light and
heat of the sun's rays.
Environmental Radiation Sources
Exposure to radiation from natural sources is an
inescapable feature of everyday life in both
working and public environments. The radiation we
are exposed to comes from such natural sources as
sunlight, soil, and certain types of rocks.
Cosmic rays filtering down through the
atmosphere, and radon gas filtering up through
the soil, are sources of natural radiation. This
radiation is called background radiation. It is
present everywhere, all the time and varies
greatly depending on our geographical location.
Situations Where the RSO and Facilities
Operations Can Coordinate
  • Jobs involving areas or items where radiation
    hazards may exist.
  • 1. Servicing Refrigerators
  • 2. Servicing Ventilation Systems
  • 3. Servicing Plumbing
  • 4. General Housekeeping

Situations Where the RSO and Facilities
Operations Can Coordinate (Continued)
  • General Approach to Items Needing to be Serviced
  • 1. RSO is contacted regarding the need to
    service an item or an area.
  • 2. If the room is a radioactive materials
    location then the authorized user is responsible
    to survey and clean the item.
  • 3. The RSO performs a survey to confirm that
    there is no residual radioactive contamination.
    At out Branch Campus and Research Stations the
    RSO relies upon the authorized user. (The RSO
    will review the survey reports to confirm

4. The RSO posts a sign, survey report or a
notice indicating that the item or area is clean.
Situations Where the RSO and Facilities
Operations Can Coordinate(Continued)
  • Situations that are not routine
  • 1. Radiation Stickers in the non-radioactive
    waste container.
  • 2. Water is discovered on the floor of a
    radioactive laboratory.

Release of Equipment For Repair or Surplus.
  • Authorized users must decontaminate and survey
    each item of University equipment which has
    contained or may have been contaminated with
    radioactive materials prior to disposition.
  • The Radiation Safety Office (RSO) performs a
    property release survey prior to the transfer of
    such equipment to Surplus Stores or other release
    for unrestricted use.
  • After completing satisfactory radiation
    surveys, Radiation Safety Office personnel will
    remove all radioactive
  • materials labels or stickers.
  • (Non-RSO personnel shall not remove radioactive
  • materials labels.)

Some Housekeeping ConcernsWaste Containers.
  • The Radiation Safety Office supplies all
    radioactive materials waste containers to users
    on campus, free of charge. For liquid waste there
    are one gallon jugs and five gallon jugs. Please
    do not use glass bottles for liquid waste. For
    solid waste there are one cubic foot boxes and
    two cubic foot boxes.

Some Housekeeping Concerns (boxes)
  • Outer shipping containers (boxes) may be
    discarded as NORMAL trash only after they have
    been surveyed and found free of contamination and
    had any and all radioactive labels defaced.

Some Housekeeping Concerns (pigs)
  • Inner shipping containers (pigs) may also be
    discarded as NORMAL trash only after they have
    been surveyed and found free of contamination and
    had any and all radioactive labels defaced.
  • Except for ones that contain lead (Pb). Lead is a
    hazardous waste and can not be discarded in
    normal trash. These lead pigs will be picked up
    by the Radiation Safety Office (RSO) and

If you, as a Non-Radiation Worker, have any
safety concerns or questions regarding radiation
safety initially contact your supervisor.
Contact the RSO for Assistance at
anytime. 335-8916 Radsafe_at_ad.wsu.edu http//www.rs
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