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The Industrial Revolution

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Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
  • An Overview
  • 1700 - 1900

CSCOPE World History
2
Production Before The Industrial Revolution Food
  • All goods were made by hand or grown on the farm.
  • Farmers grew just enough food to survive.
  • Surpluses might be exchanged for goods made in
    towns on Market Days.

3
Agricultural RevolutionEngland
  • Increased use of agricultural machinery and
    techniques enables the farmer to increase
    productivity.
  • Mechanization requires less people to work the
    farms.
  • The more land, the more products to sell. The
    Enclosure Act removes the poor people from the
    land.

4
Agricultural Revolution
  • Advances
  • Automated reaper iron plow (later tractors)
  • Breeding techniques
  • Effects
  • Surplus in food leads to an increase in
    population
  • Mechanization lead to less need for farm workers

5
Production Before Essential Goods
  • Most necessities, such as clothing, furniture,
    and tools, were made on the farm or in small
    shops in the towns and villages.
  • Materials came from the farm or surrounding areas.

6
Production Before Essential Goods
  • Manufacturing in towns
  • Some items were made in towns by craftsmen
  • Craftsmen used simple tools to make cloth,
    hardware, leather goods, etc.
  • Cottage Industry Items were, essentially, hand-
    made by women working out of their homes.

7
Cause of Industrial RevolutionThe Scientific
Revolution
  • The discoveries and the spirit of discovery from
    the scientific revolution turned to more
    practical innovations.
  • The math, physics and mechanics were the
    foundation of the inventions that drove the
    Industrial Revolution.

8
Cottage Industry
  • The Good
  • Pro-family (keeps worker near/in home)
  • Worker meets quota and works at own pace
  • The Bad
  • Owner of raw material could not track its use
    (inefficient control of production)
  • No on-site management of production
  • Could not mass produce

9
Population Before Industrial Revolution
  • Less than 10 live in cities
  • Most lived in small towns or villages in the
    countryside.
  • The majority were farmers leasing small plots of
    land from landowners (subsistence farming
    meaning all crops and livestock raised are used
    to support farmers family).
  • Life and community revolved around the
    agricultural seasons.

10
Family Life Before Industrialization
  • The extended family
  • Large families were needed to work the farms.
  • Families often consisted of
  • Grandparents
  • Parents
  • Many children (4-8 would be the average)
  • Uncles and aunts
  • Cousins
  • Sons followed the fathers trade.
  • Girls did the work of their mother, which was a
    housewife.
  • Little change from generation to generation

11
Family Life Before Industrialization
  • Living conditions were hard for most people
  • Life revolved around the success of the crops.
  • Most people were malnourished and susceptible to
    diseases.
  • Frequent diseases and epidemics kept the
    population relatively stable.
  • Life expectancy was about 30-35 years.
  • Marriage and child bearing occurred during the
    teenage period.

12
Working Before
  • Boys worked in the fields and helped make tools
    and other necessary implements.
  • Girls worked at home doing necessary chores, such
    as making clothes, baskets, cooking, cleaning,
    etc.
  • There was little or no pay other than a place to
    live and food to eat.
  • Everyone helped out at an early age.
  • No coinage or currency for the public for the
    easy exchange of goods and services.

13
Government Before
  • Monarchs, great landowners, rich merchants, and
    clergy had most of the power in government.
  • Even in elected governments, like Britains
    Parliament, the representatives were males who
    paid large amount of taxes.
  • People that did not own land and pay taxes had no
    voice in government.
  • Common people, especially women, had no input.

14
Overview of Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution creates great wealth
    but also great social and economic inequality,
    prompting a backlash of political, social, and
    economic reforms.

15
Industrial Revolution
  • Definition
  • the shift from making goods by hand to making
    them by machine

16
In what country did the Industrial Revolution
begin?
  • England in the
  • 1780s

17
Why did the Revolution begin in England?
  • Because England had the 4 factors for production
    necessary for industrialization

18
What are the four factors of production?
  • Land (raw material, natural resources)
  • Labor (skilled and unskilled labor force,
    management)
  • Capital (money for investments)
  • Entrepreneurs (People with an vision and the
    ability to make it happen)

19
Land
  • Natural resources such as
  • water power and then coal to fuel new machines
  • iron ore to construct machines, tools, and
    buildings
  • raw materials such as cotton, hemp, wood, etc.
  • rivers for inland transportation
  • harbors from which merchant ships set sail

20
Labor
  • An increase in population created a surplus of
    workers
  • Enclosed farms pushed farmers off the land and
    into the cities
  • Unskilled laborers were needed to run the
    machines
  • Middle management positions (factory managers,
    accountants, equipment managers)

21
Capital
  • A strong economic and political stability in
    England encouraged private investment
  • Banks gave loans to invest in new machinery and
    to expand operations
  • Business people invested in the manufacturing of
    new inventions

22
Entrepreneurs
  • People with a vision who sees a need the public
    will respond to
  • People with skills and knowledge to gather the
    needed raw material, recruit and organize
    workers, and arrange for capital and investments

23
What was the first industry to be transformed by
the revolution?
  • Textile industry
  • Britains textile industry clothed the world in
    wool, linen, and cotton.

24
Major inventions in the textile industry
  • Inventions which transformed the manufacture of
    cloth
  • spinning jenny
  • water powered spinning wheels

25
Willowing Machine
  • Willowing was the breaking up of raw cotton and
    removing impurities.
  • Willowing machines first began to be used at the
    end of the 18th century.
  • The machine contained a large drum filled with
    iron spikes, which loosened and separated the
    fibers, and a powerful fan which blew away the
    dust and other impurities through a large pipe.

26
Spinning Jenny
  • The Spinning Jenny was an 18th century cotton
    spinning machine designed by James Hargreaves in
    1764.
  • By turning a single wheel, the operator could
    now spin eight threads at once.


27
Power Loom
  • This invention made it possible for weaving to
    become a large-scale factory based industry.
  • Before the invention of the power loom it was
    handloom weavers who made cloth. These were men
    who worked in the basements of their homes using
    wooden hand-powered looms to weave cloth.

28
Flyer Spinning Frame
  • Introduced by Richard Arkwright in 1769, the
    flyer spinning frame is powered by the drive
    wheel at the bottom, drawing out the fiber into
    thread, then twisting it as it is wound onto the
    bobbins.

29
Water Powered Mill
  • Water turned the paddles of a wheel, which in
    turn moved many other mechanical devices.

30
Developments in England had an impact on the rest
of the world
  • Example
  • Englands cotton came from plantations in the
    American South, where cotton production
    skyrocketed in response to demand from the
    textile mills in England.
  • To meet the demand Southern cotton producers
    sought to expand into the new territory of the
    USA, taking slavery with them.
  • The expansion of slavery was one event that led
    to the American Civil War in 1861-1865.

31
How might America respond to meet this demand for
cotton?
  • Bring in more slaves to work the crops
  • Inventions to help in the cotton industry
  • Eli Whitneys cotton gin, for example

32
American Cotton Production
  • Thanks to Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton
    gin, cotton production in the U.S. skyrocketed
    from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million
    pounds in 1810.

33
Age of Steam
  • 1760s James Watt made significant improvement to
    create an effective and efficient steam engine.
  • Now instead of being near a river, steam power
    changed the location of factories to where the
    resources or workers were changing the landscape
    of England.

34
Transportation expands
  • Invention of the steam engine, which connected
    consumers, producers, and suppliers
  • Construction of canals
  • Railroads, which promoted the iron and steel
    industries, where the Bessemer Process was
    introduced
  • Construction of better roads

35
More aboutroads
  • Did you know
  • In the 1700s, British roads were so bad that rain
    and mud often made roads impassable. Men were
    known to drown in potholes. In one region, an
    inland lighthouse was built to guide travelers
    over treacherous roads.

36
Andmore about.
  • Did you know
  • Early trains had no brakes, so passengers had to
    get out and pull the train to a stop

37
Industrialization changes ways of life
  • Leads to urbanization (living in cities) and
    urban ills
  • Industrialization generates wealth for some but
    hardship for others
  • As divisions between rich and poor grow, class
    tensions escalate

38
Effects of Industrialization
  • Size of Cities
  • Tremendous growth in population
  • Some cities specialize in certain industries
  • Factories develop near sources of energy
  • Growth of factories bring job seekers to cities

39
Living Conditions
  • No sanitary codes or building controls
  • Lack of adequate housing, education and police
    protection
  • Lack of running water and indoor plumbing
  • Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, whole
    families crowding into one bedroom
  • Unpaved streets had no drains and collected heaps
    of garbage.
  • Epidemics or diseases caused by poor water and
    sanitary conditions regularly swept through slums

40
More about
  • Polluted water was a major problem in British
    cities in the 1800s. In London, most drinking
    water came straight from the Thames River, which
    was filthy with sewage and industrial waste. In
    1849, a cholera epidemic killed 400 Londoners a
    day

41
Working conditions
  • Dirty and unsanitary factories
  • Workers running dangerous machines for long hours
    in unsafe conditions
  • Harsh and severe factory discipline
  • Average worker, including children, spent 14
    hours a day at the job, 6 days a week
  • No voice for the workers in the government or
    organization to help them

42
Child Labor
  • Because they could be paid less, children (and
    women) were often hired instead of men.
  • Children worked 6 a.m. to 7 or 8 p.m.
  • To keep them awake, mill supervisors beat them.
  • Tiny hands around machinery often made this very
    dangerous for the children.

43
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Created jobs for workers
  • Fostered technological progress and inventions in
    transportation, agriculture, and communication
  • Greatly increased the production of goods
    worldwide

44
Effects of Industrialization
  • Emerging social classes
  • Upper class landowners, aristocrats
  • Upper middle class factory owners, merchants,
    government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers
  • lower middle class factory overseers, skilled
    workers
  • working class workers in factories and mines

45
Immediate Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • During the 1800s, Britain, the United States, and
    some European countries undergo great changes as
    a result of the Industrial Revolution.
  • The widening gap between rich and poor prompts a
    series of social and political reforms.

46
The Industrial Revolution led to economic,
social, and political reforms
  • Economic Reforms
  • unions, collective bargaining, strikes
  • Social Reforms
  • eventual end of child labor
  • new wage earning classes from the factory
    workers
  • Political Reforms
  • laws were passed to protect the workers

47
How is life different today because of the
Industrial Revolution?
  • Many people suffer hunger in part because food
    production geared for mass markets may ignore
    local needs
  • pollution, overcrowded
  • Unskilled (factory assembly line) jobs for many

48
How life is different continued
  • The world has become more interconnected through
    transportation and systems of communications
  • mass-produced goods -computers, clothes, movies,
    medicines, and cars make for a higher standard of
    living
  • More leisure time for participation in
    recreational sports, to attend movies, and keep
    hobbies.

49
Scientific Advances Due To The Industrial
Revolution and Mass Production
  • Marie Curie- pioneer in field of radiology
  • Thomas Edison- phonograph, and light bulb
  • Albert Einstein- theory of relativity, Emc2
  • Robert Fulton- credited with 1st steam powered
    steam engine
  • Louis Pasteur- pasteurization
  • James Watt more efficient steam engine, unit of
    measurement of electrical and mechanical power
    the watt is named in his honor
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