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Indoor Air Quality MOHD TALIB LATIF School of Environmental and natural Resource Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology University Kebangsaan Malaysia

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Title: Indoor Air Quality MOHD TALIB LATIF School of Environmental and natural Resource Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology University Kebangsaan Malaysia


1
Indoor Air QualityMOHD TALIB LATIFSchool of
Environmental and natural Resource
SciencesFaculty of Science and
TechnologyUniversity Kebangsaan Malaysia
2
Indoor Air Quality
  • Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term referring to
    the air quality within and around buildings and
    structures, especially as it relates to the
    health and comfort of building occupants

3
Indoor Air Pollution
  • The National Health and Medical Research Council
    (NHMRC- Australia) defines indoor air as air
    within a building occupied for at least one hour
    by people of varying states of health. This can
    include the office, classroom, transport
    facility, shopping centre, hospital and home.
  • Indoor air quality can be defined as the totality
    of attributes of indoor air that affect a
    person's health and well being.

4
Sick building syndrome
  • Condition associated with complaints of
    discomfort including headache nausea dizziness
    dermatitis eye, nose, throat, and respiratory
    irritation coughing difficulty concentrating
    sensitivity to odors muscle pain and fatigue.

5
Sick building syndrome
  • The specific causes of the symptoms are often not
    known but sometimes are attributed to the effects
    of a combination of substances or individual
    susceptibility to low concentrations of
    contaminants.
  • The symptoms are associated with periods of
    occupancy and often disappear after the worker
    leaves the worksite.

6
Cause of SBS
  • Inadequate ventilation 52
  • Contamination from inside building 16  
  • Contamination from outside building 10
  •  Microbial contamination  5
  •  Contamination from building fabric  4
  • Unknown sources 131

7
Thermal Comfort
  • Personal factors (health, psychology, sociology
    situational factors)
  • Air temperature
  • Mean radiant temperature
  • Air movement / velocity (see wind chill factor)
  • Relative humidity (see also perspiration)
  • Insulative clothing
  • Activity levels.

8
THE IMPORTANT OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY
9
Indoor Air Quality Council-USA
  • The IAQ Council offers certifications in five
    disciplines related to indoor air quality
  • Indoor Environmental Consulting and Investigation
  • Council-certified Indoor Environmental Consultant
    (CIEC)
  • Council-certified Indoor Environmentalist (CIE)
  • Microbial Consulting and Investigation
  • Council-certified Microbial Consultant (CMC)
  • Council-certified Microbial Investigator (CMI)

10
  • Microbial Remediation
  • Council-certified Microbial Remediation
    Supervisor (CMRS)
  • Council-certified Microbial Remediator (CMR)
  • Indoor Air Quality Administration
  • Council-certified Indoor Air Quality Manager
    (CIAQM)
  • Council-certified Microbial Claims Adjuster
    (CMCA)
  • Residential Mold Inspection
  • Council-certified Residential Mold Inspector
    (CRMI)

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13
Sources of Indoor Pollutants
  • Base on Specific Building
  • Combustion activity
  • Furniture
  • Chemical
  • Building materials
  • Food
  • Water
  • Smoking activity
  • Outdoor air pollution

14
Walkaround Inspection
  • Potential Problem Areas
  • Sample Collection

15
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16
Contaminant Range Screening Method Validation Method
Bioaerosols 0-1,000 cfu/m3 Viable biological sampler
Carbon dioxide 0-2,000 ppm DT, IR Sampling bag, GC/TCD OSHA ID172
Carbon monoxide 2-50 ppm DT, meter Sampling bag, meter
Formaldehyde 0.04-1 ppm DT Coated XAD-2, GC/NPD OSHA-52
Nitric oxide 0-25 ppm DT TEA tube with oxidizer, DPP OSHA ID190
Nitrogen dioxide 0-5 ppm DT TEA-Molecular Sieve Tube, IC OSHA ID 182
Particulates 0-40,000 particles/cc Light scattering meter  
Pesticides (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual)
Ozone 0-0.1 ppm DT, Chemiluminescent meter  
Radon 4-200 pCi/L Radon Cartridge, Electrect  
VOC's (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual) (See OSHA Chemical Information Manual)

17
GREEN BUILDING INDEX
http//www.greenbuildingindex.org/
18
Green Building Index (GBI)
  • The Green Building Index (GBI) is Malaysias
    industry recognised green rating tool for
    buildings to promote sustainability in the built
    environment and raise awareness among Developers,
    Architects, Engineers, Planners, Designers,
    Contractors and the Public about environmental
    issues and our responsibility to the future
    generations

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21
What is Dust
  • Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by
    air currents. These articles are formed by a
    disintegration or fracture process, such as
    grinding, crushing, or impact.
  • The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
    defines dust as finely divided solids that may
    become airborne from the original state without
    any chemical or physical change other than
    fracture.

22
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
23
Occupational health point of view
  • Total Dust
  • Inhalable Dust
  • Respirable Dust

24
Total Dust
  • Total dust includes all airborne particles,
    regardless of their size or composition.

25
Inhalable Dust
  • The EPA describes inhalable dust as that size
    fraction of dust which enters the body, but is
    trapped in the nose, throat, and upper
    respiratory tract. The median aerodynamic
    diameter of this dust is about 10 µm.

26
Respirable Dust
  • Respirable dust refers to those dust particles
    that are small enough to penetrate the nose and
    upper respiratory system and deep into the lungs.
  • Particles that penetrate deep into the
    respiratory system are generally beyond the
    body's natural clearance mechanisms of cilia and
    mucous and are more likely to be retained.

27
OSHA Definition
28
General Understanding
Fine mode
29
Aerosols
30
Other OSHA Definition
  • Inhalable Particulate Mass
  • Dust particles having a 50 cut-point of 100 µm.
    These dust particles are hazardous when deposited
    anywhere in the respiratory tract.
  • Thoracic Particulate Mass
  • Dust particles having a 50 cut-point of 10 µm.
    These dust particles are hazardous when deposited
    anywhere in the lung airways and gas-exchange
    regions.
  • Respirable Particulate Mass
  • Dust particles having a 50 cut-point of 4 µm.
    These dust particles are hazardous when deposited
    anywhere in the gas-exchange regions.

31
MSHA Definition
Aerodynamic diameter Percent
µm passing
(unit density spheres) selector

2.0 90
2.5 75
3.5 50
5.0 25
10.0 0
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration
32
Inhalable Dust (Malaysian DOSH)
33
Respirable Dust (Malaysian DOSH)
34
INDOOR AIR SAMPLING(DOSH METHOD)
35
Respirable and Total Dust

                                                                
Respirable Dust Sampling Head Total Dust Sampling Head
Total Dust
Respirable Dust
36
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45
Gas Analysis
46
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48
Lead in Indoor Air
49
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50
Asbestos
51
Guideline
  • Base on Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality
    (DOSH 2005)

Indoor Air Contaminant Eight-hour time weighted average airborne concentration Eight-hour time weighted average airborne concentration
Unit ppm mg/m3
Carbon dioxide 1000
Carbon monoxide 10
Formaldehyde 0.1
Respirable particulate 0.15
Total Volatile organic compounds 3
52
OSHA (USA) Limit for Air Contaminants
  • http//www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_docum
    ent?p_tableSTANDARDSp_id9992
  • Total dust........... ........ 15 mg/m3
  • Respirable Fraction.. ........ 5 mg/m3

Further explanation by Young, J. M. (2008).
Journal of Air Quality Atmosphere and Health.
53
Other Guideline
Agency
ASHARE American Society of Heating, Air conditioning Refrigeration Engineers, US
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, US
SIAQG Singapore Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
WHO World Health Organization
54
Air Quality in Public Building
55
Parameter Air Quality Standard Organization
Carbon Monoxide 35 ppm / 40,000 µgm-3/ as 1 hour average EPA NPAAQS
Carbon Monoxide 9 ppm / 10,000 µgm-3/ as 8 hour average SIAQG
Carbon Dioxide Ventilation rate/air exchange rate to achieve carbon dioxide level below 1,000 ppm / 1800mg m-3/ ASHRAE SIAQG
Total Volatile Organic Compounds 4 ppm / 5mgm-3/ for total VOCs AIHA
Total Volatile Organic Compounds 3 ppm SIAQG
Ozone 0.12 ppm / 5µgm-3/ as 1 hour average EPA NPAAQS
Ozone 0.05 ppm / 100 µgm-3/ as 8 hour average WHO ASHRAE SIAQG
Respirable Suspended Particulates 150 µgm-3 as 24 hour average50 µgm-3 as annual mean EPA NPAAQS
Respirable Suspended Particulates 0.15 mgm-3 as 24 hour average SIAQG
56
Parameter Air Quality Standard Organization
Formaldehyde 1 ppm OSHA
Formaldehyde 0.4 ppm for indoor exposure ASHRAE
Formaldehyde 0.1 ppm / 120µgm-3 SIAQG
Temperature 22C - 24C ASHRAE
Temperature 22.5C - 25.5C SIAQG
Relative Humidity 40 - 60 ASHRAE
Relative Humidity 70 SIAQG
Bacteria 500 CFU/ as a maximum value WHO AIHASIAQG
Air Movement 0.25m/s WHO SIAQG
57
Singapore
http//app2.nea.gov.sg/data/cmsresource/2009061838
5702933220.pdf
58
Hong Kong
Lee, S. C., 2002
59
Table 1 IAQ Objectives for Office Buildings and
Public Places
Parameter Unit 8-hour average a 8-hour average a
Parameter Unit Excellent Class Good Class
Room Temperature C 20 to lt 25.5 b lt 25.5 b
Relative Humidity 40 to lt 70 c lt 70
Air movement m/s lt 0.2 lt 0.3
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) ppmv lt 800 d lt 1,000 e
Carbon Monoxide (CO) µg/m3 lt 2,000 f lt 10,000 g
Carbon Monoxide (CO) ppmv lt 1.7 lt 8.7
Respirable Suspended Particulates (PM10) µg/m3 lt 20 f lt 180 h
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) µg/m3 lt 40 g lt 150 h
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) ppbv lt 21 lt 80
Ozone (O3) µg/m3 lt 50 f lt 120 g
Ozone (O3) ppbv lt 25 lt 61
Formaldehyde (HCHO) µg/m3 lt 30 f lt 100 f, g
Formaldehyde (HCHO) ppbv lt 24 lt 81
Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) µg/m3 lt 200 f lt 600 f
Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) ppbv lt 87 lt 261
Radon (Rn) Bq/m3 lt 150 i lt 200 f
Airborne Bacteria cfu/m3 lt 500 j, k lt 1,000 j, k
8 hrs!
http//www.iaq.gov.hk/tables.html
http//www.iaq.gov.hk
60
EEFECT OF INDOOOR AIR QUALITY
61
Effect of Indoor Air Pollution
  • Silicosis - Silicosis is a form of pneumoconiosis
    caused by the dust of quartz and other silicates.
    The condition of the lungs is marked by nodular
    fibrosis (scarring of the lung tissue), resulting
    in shortness of breath. Silicosis is an
    irreversible disease advanced stages are
    progressive even if the individual is removed
    from the exposure.

62
  • Black Lung - Black lung is a form of
    pneumoconiosis in which respirable coal dust
    particles accumulate in the lungs and darken the
    tissue. This disease is progressive. Although
    this disease is commonly known as black lung, its
    official name is coal worker's pneumoconiosis
    (CWP).

63
  • Asbestosis - Asbestosis is a form of
    pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos fibers. This
    disease is also irreversible.
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