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Conducting Indoor Air Quality Studies

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Conducting Indoor Air Quality Studies Mark Travers, M.S. Roswell Park Cancer Institute Decrease indoor air pollution Adult Per Capita Cigarette Consumption and Major ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conducting Indoor Air Quality Studies


1
Conducting Indoor Air Quality Studies
  • Mark Travers, M.S.
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute

2
Evaluation of Clean Indoor Air Law
Implementation
Public Health Impact
Adverse Side Effects
Support or Opposition
Direct Effects
Economic Impact
Indirect Effects
Compliance
Exceptions to Law (Waivers)
3
Evaluation of Clean Indoor Air Law
Public Health Impact
Direct Effects
  • Improve health and reduce incidence of tobacco
    smoke related diseases
  • Reduce exposure to carcinogens and toxins
  • Decrease indoor air pollution

4
Tobacco Control Model of Nicotine
Addiction
Tobacco Products
Agent
Environment
Familial, Social, Cultural, Political, Economic,
Historical, Media
Host
Vector
Smoker/Chewer
Tobacco Product Manufacturers Other Users
Incidental Host
Involuntary Smoker
Source Orleans Slade, 1993
5
Paradigm for Tobacco Control
  • Price/economic
  • Smoke-free air
  • Media
  • Cessation activities
  • Prevention activities
  • Regulation/Liability
  • Access
  • Marketing

Individual
6
Adult Per Capita Cigarette Consumption and Major
Smoking and Health Events United States,
1900-2003
1st World Conference on Smoking and Health
Broadcast Ad Ban
1st Surgeon Generals Report
1st Great American Smoke-out
End of WW II
OTC Nicotine Medications
Master Settlement Agreement
Fairness Doctrine Messages on TV and Radio
1st Smoking-Cancer Concern
Non-Smokers Rights Movement Begins
Surgeon Generals Report on ETS
Federal Cigarette Tax Doubles
Great Depression
Source United States Department of Agriculture
2002 and 2003 estimates are preliminary
7
Components of Smoking Vaccine
Smoke-free Air
Counter Marketing
Price
Treatment
8
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9
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10
Measuring Air Quality
  • Cigarettes, cigars and pipes are major emitters
    of respirable suspended particles less than 2.5
    microns (PM2.5) in diameter that are easily
    inhaled deep into the lungs
  • TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor
    (weight 1 lb)
  • This device is a real-time laser photometer with
    a built-in sampling pump that measures airborne
    particle mass-concentration

11
Why PM2.5?
  • Very sensitive marker of ETS
  • Can monitor and record data in real time
  • Relatively inexpensive equipment
  • Marker of the more than 4,000 chemical in ETS
  • E.g. 2,0001, PM2.5PAH
  • Meaningful measure there are PM2.5 standards in
    place to protect public health
  • The EPA has set standards of 15 µg/m3 as the
    average annual level of PM2.5 exposure and 65
    µg/m3 24-hour exposure in order to protect the
    public health

12
US EPA Air Quality Index
Air Quality Air Quality Index PM2.5 (?g/m3) Health Advisory
Good 0-50 15 None.
Moderate 51-100 16-40 Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101-150 41-65 People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion.
Unhealthy 151-200 66-150 People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion. Everyone else should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion.
Very Unhealthy 201-300 151-250 People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should avoid all physical activity outdoors. Everyone else should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion.
Hazardous 301 251 People with heart or lung disease, older adults, and children should remain indoors and keep activity levels low. Everyone else should avoid all physical activity outdoors.
13
Why use the TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor?
  • All the reason on the previous slide and,
  • Convenient small size
  • Can easily be placed discretely in a small bag

14
This picture shows an example of the bag used to
carry the SidePak and QTrak instruments during
air monitoring
15
Limitation of PM2.5 as a Marker of ETS
  • Not specific to tobacco smoke other sources
    include cooking, vehicles, ambient/background
    levels
  • Can minimize this weakness with a pre-post study
    design

16
Calibration
  • The TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor uses a
    built-in pump to bring air past a laser.
  • The particles in the air scatter the light from
    the laser and the device determines the mass
    concentration of particles based on the amount of
    scattering.
  • These types of devices must be calibrated with
    the specific type of aerosol (tobacco smoke) that
    you are measuring.

17
SidePak Factory Calibration Certificate
18
Calibration Unadjusted Data
Repace, J., Respirable particles and carcinogens
in the air of Delaware hospitality venues before
and after a smoking ban. Journal of Occupational
and Environmental Medicine, 469, 887-905.
Oct. 10th 2003 Bowie, MD
19
Calibration Adjusted Data
Oct. 10th 2003 Bowie, MD
20
Piezobalances and SidePak (Factory-Calibrated)
Elapsed Minutes
21
Piezobalance and SidePak (Custom-Calibrated)
22
Measuring Air Quality
  • TSI Q-Trak Plus Indoor Air Quality Monitor
  • Measures 4 indoor air quality parameters
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Not essential to do these studies but does
    provide many advantages

23
Study Design
  • Longitudinal or Pre-Post
  • Compare the same venues before and after they go
    smoke-free
  • Cross-sectional
  • Compare smoke-free cities with cities that allow
    smoking
  • Compare smoke-free venues to smoking venues in
    the same city

24
Venue Selection
  • Depends on your study goals
  • Random Sample
  • Difficult logistically
  • With small sample size results might not be
    generalizable
  • Convenience Sample
  • More feasible
  • Can target types of venues that would be affected
    by a new policy

25
Measurements and Observations
  • PM2.5 from SidePak
  • Average number of people
  • Average number of burning cigarettes
  • Volume of room using sonic measure
  • Temp, humidity, CO, CO2 from Q-Trak

26
Time Activity Pattern
27
Can calculate
  • Average smoker density
  • Average number of burning cigarettes per 100m3

28
With a QTrak You Can Calculate
  • Ventilation estimate
  • From CO2, average number of people, room volume

29
Results
  • Cross sectional study design
  • Multi-City Air Monitoring Study

30
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31
Multi-City Air Monitoring Study New York City,
NY April 17th, 2004
All venues are smoke-free by law and no smoking
was observed in an venue
VENUE 58
VENUE 59
VENUE 60
VENUE 56
VENUE 57
VENUE 61
VENUE 62
4/18 238am
4/17 643pm
32
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33
Average Level of PM2.5 by City
34
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35
Results
  • Pre-post study design
  • Indiana Air Monitoring Study
  • Western New York Air Monitoring Study

Travers, M.J., et al., Indoor Air Quality in
Hospitality Venues Before and After the
Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air Law-Western
New York, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report (MMWR), 2004.
36
Indiana Air Monitoring Study December 2004 to
January 2005
  • Indiana Tobacco Prevention and Cessation
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute

37
Indiana Air Monitoring Study Bloomington, IN,
December 10th, 2004
VENUE 4a
VENUE 7a
VENUE 2a
VENUE 8a
VENUE 6a
VENUE 5a
VENUE 3a
VENUE 1a
12/11/04 120am
12/10/04 600pm
38
Indiana Air Monitoring Study Bloomington, IN,
January 21st, 2005
VENUE 2b
VENUE 5b
VENUE 6b
VENUE 1b
VENUE 4b
VENUE 7b
VENUE 8b
VENUE 3b
1/22/05 134am
1/21/05 614pm
39
Bloomington, IN Before and After Clean Indoor Air
Law
40
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41
Indoor Air Quality Before and After the New York
State Clean Indoor Air Law in Western New York
Hospitality Venues, July to September 2003
  • Mark Travers,1 Michael Cummings,1 James Repace,2
    Andrew Hyland1

1Division of Cancer Prevention and Population
Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute Buffalo,
New York 2Repace Associates, Inc. Bowie,
Maryland
42
Change in Air Quality in Western New York Bars
and Restaurants After Implementation of the New
York State Clean Indoor Air Law
Before Law Average 412 µg/m3 After Law
Average 27 µg/m3
Only venue with active smoking during post-law
sampling
Mean size of venue 365m3 Mean pre-law active
smoker density 1.38 cigs/100m3
43
Change in Air Quality in Western New York Large
Recreation Venues After Implementation of the New
York State Clean Indoor Air Law
Before Law Average 101 µg/m3 After Law
Average 18 µg/m3
Mean size of venue 3,530m3 Mean pre-law active
smoker density 0.22 cigs/100m3
44
Average Particle Concentration versus Average
Smoking Density
r0.421
45
Average Particle Concentration versus Average
Smoking Density by Ventilation
ACH ? 1.0
r0.908
1.0ltACHlt2.1
r0.834
r0.832
ACH ? 2.1
46
Results
  • Case studies
  • One bar/restaurant after smoking ban goes into
    effect
  • One bar with a designated smoking room

47
Air Quality Over Time in a Western New York Bar
Normal smoking night of July 18th
Limited smoking night of July 23rd
Midnight July 24th, smoking stops, new law in
effect
48
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49
Influencing Policy Decisions
  • Media
  • Politicians
  • The Public

50
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51
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52
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53
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54
Summary
  • The TSI SidePak is a is scientifically valid and
    effective tool for real-time PM2.5 monitoring in
    SHS studies
  • Can show immediate, direct causal link between
    smoking and fine particle air pollution
  • With some expert training and guidance lay
    persons can collect data in their own communities
  • Simple environmental monitoring studies can be
    powerful in policy debates

55
Equipment Availability
  • Rent
  • Ashtead Technologies
  • http//www.ashtead-technology.com/
  • Buy
  • TSI Inc.
  • http//www.tsi.com
  • Borrow
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute

56
Contact
  • Mark Travers
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
  • Mark.travers_at_roswellpark.org
  • (716) 845-5881 work
  • (716) 868-4784 cel
  • (716) 845-8487 fax

57
Summary- What you have to do
  • Prepare SidePak (3 steps)
  • Charge battery
  • Clean and grease the impactor
  • Zero calibrate
  • Start logging data (record the time!)
  • Lock the SidePak keypad
  • Visit venues and record observations
  • Times of entry, counts and exit
  • Count people every 15 minutes
  • Count burning cigarettes every 15 minutes
  • Take notes on who, what, where, and when
  • Measure room volumes (use sonic measure)
  • A few descriptive sentences on each place
  • Buy something in each place you visit (be a
    patron)
  • Try and spend at least 5 minutes outside between
    venues

58
Summary- What you have to do
  • When youre done monitoring, unlock the SidePak
    keypad
  • Stop logging (record the time!)
  • Turn off the device, dont forget to recharge it
    for next time
  • Connect SidePak to PC and download the data from
    the device
  • Enter your notes/observations into an Excel
    spreadsheet

59
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60
Chicago Air Monitoring Study
  • 2005 National Conference on Tobacco of Health

61
METHODS
  • Conducting Indoor Air Quality Studies - Training
  • Over 50 registrants
  • 30 Volunteer researchers
  • Groups of 2-5 volunteers
  • What did we ask of participants?
  • Visit Chicago bars and restaurants for at least
    30 minutes
  • Place a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol
    Monitor to measure air quality in a bag with a
    small tube protruding to sample the air
  • Record additional observations

62
METHODS
  • Outcome Measures
  • Respirable Suspended Particles (RSPs) less than
    2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5)
  • Observations every 15 minutes in each
    establishment
  • Number of people present
  • Number of burning cigarettes
  • Volume (Zircon DM S50 Sonic Measure)
  • Data Collection
  • Convenience sample of 37 bars and restaurants
  • Wednesday and Thursday night (6pm to 12 midnight)
  • Average duration of 44 minutes

63
Average Levels of Indoor Air Pollution
64
NCTH Air Monitoring Investigators
65
Global Assessment of Secondhand Smoke Air
Pollution
  • Provide collaborators in 20 countries with
    equipment, training and expert support
  • Develop global scorecard
  • Present results at 2006 WCTH in Washington, DC

66
Prospective Countries
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Venezuela
  • Brazil
  • Uruguay
  • United Kingdom
  • Ireland
  • Scotland
  • France
  • Spain
  • Germany
  • Switzerland
  • Italy
  • India
  • Malaysia
  • Thailand
  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • South Korea
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Japan
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Poland
  • Hungary
  • Russia
  • Greece
  • Turkey
  • Syria
  • Saudia Arabia
  • Egypt
  • Tunisia
  • Côte dIvoire
  • Nigeria
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