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Selection of Horses

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Animal Science 1 Unit 31 Running Walk Slow Diagonal 4 beat Each foot leaves and strikes the ground just ahead of the diagonal hind foot Natural gait for the Tennessee ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Selection of Horses


1
Selection of Horses
  • Animal Science 1
  • Unit 31

2
Terms
  • Foal a young horse of either sex up to one year
    of age
  • Filly a female less than 3 years of age
  • Thoroughbreds, fillies include 4 year olds
  • Colt a male less than 3 years of age
  • Thoroughbreds, colts include 4 year olds
  • Mare A mature female four years of age or older
  • Stud or Stallion mature male four years of age
    or older
  • Gelding A male that has been castrated.
  • Grade an unregistered horse.
  • Hand measurement used for horses, equal to 4
    inches

3
Use of the Horse
  • 5 general
  • Pleasure
  • Breeding
  • Working stock
  • Show
  • Sport
  • Generally one horse can not be used in all 5 ways
  • Horses should be selected based on their major
    intended use.

4
Uses of Horses
5
Uses of Horse
6
Sources of Horses
  • Purchase from
  • Breedersbest source
  • Private owners
  • Auctions
  • Dealers

7
Age of Horse to Buy
  • 5-12 years is the prime of life
  • Horse in this age range are best for young or
    inexperienced riders
  • Young horses require more training and may not be
    safe for young or inexperienced riders.
  • Age can be determined by looking at the front
    teeth
  • See fig. 31-34

8
Sex of Horse to Buy
  • Studs
  • Hard to manage and control
  • For pleasure riding geldings and mares are the
    best choice.

9
Breed Selection
  • Intended use
  • Some breeds are better adapted to certain uses.
  • Personal preference
  • People not interested in breeding or showing may
    choose a good grade horse.
  • They make excellent mounts for trail and pleasure
    riding and even ranch work.

10
Conformation
11
Conformation
12
Feet and Legs
  • Two of the most important parts
  • Leg conformation influences how the horse moves

Correct Position
13
Feet and Legs
  • See fig 31-26, 27, 28, 29, 30 for the correct and
    incorrect positions of the front and rear legs.

14
Feet
  • The horse carries its weight on the wall, bars,
    and frog.
  • The sole normally does not touch the ground
  • The hoof should be kept properly trimmed to keep
    the horse standing squarely and moving straight
  • The hoof grows at a rate 3/8 to 1/2 per month
  • Feet should be trimmed every month to 6 weeks

15
Feet
  • Should be kept moist to prevent cracking
  • To keep feet from drying out use a hoof dressing
    or allow the horse to stand in a moist area
  • The pastern and hoof should form a 45 deg. angle
    with the ground
  • See fig. 31-31

16
The Hoof
  1. Heel perioplium
  2. Bulb
  3. Frog
  4. Central groove
  5. Collateral groove
  6. Heel
  7. Bar
  8. Seat of corn
  9. Pigmented layer-external layer
  10. Water line- internal line
  11. White line
  12. Apex of frog
  13. Sole
  14. Toe
  15. How to measure width
  16. Quarter
  17. How to measure length

17
Body Color (start)
  • 5 basic colors
  • Bay, black, brown, chestnut, white
  • 5 major variations
  • Dun, gray, palomino, pinto, roan
  • Piebald- white and black color combination
  • Skewbald- white and any other color
  • Roans
  • Blue roan- mixture of black and white hairs
  • Red roan- mixture of bay with white hair
  • Strawberry roan- mixture of chestnut with white
    hair

18
Body Color- Basics
Bay
Chestnut (Sorrel)
Black
White
19
Color Variations
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equine_coat_color

20
Face and Leg Markings
  • Use to identify the horse

21
Face Markings
(L-R) Blaze, stripe, stripe snip, irregular
blaze, interrupted stripe, bald (L-R)Faint
star, Star, Star strip, irregular star, snip,
lip marking
22
Leg Markings
Socks Stocking, sock (boot), sock (fetlock)
L-R Pastern, Coronet, Partial Pastern
23
Unsoundness's Blemishes
  • Unsoundness- a defect that affects the usefulness
    of the horse
  • Blemish- an imperfection that does not affect the
    usefulness.
  • Most serious unsoundness's affect the feet and
    legs
  • See p. 583-585

24
Vices
  • Develop due to idleness or poor handling

25
Cribbing
  • Horse bites down on some part of the feed manger
    or stall
  • Wind sucking occurs when the horse presses the
    upper front teeth on some object and pulls back,
    at the same time sucking air into the stomach.
  • The two often occur together
  • Looked down upon by buyers.

26
Other Vices
  • Halter Pulling
  • Horse pulls back against the halter while tied
  • Kicking

27
Gait
  • The movement of the horses feet and legs when
    the horse is in motion
  • 3 natural gaits
  • Walk, trot, gallop
  • Other gaits
  • Canter, stepping pace, running walk, fox trot,
    amble, rack, pace

28
Gaits
29
Walk
  • Slow
  • 4 beat
  • Each foot leaves and strikes the ground
    separately from the other feet.

30
Trot
  • Fast
  • Two beat diagonal
  • Opposite front and hind feet leave and strike the
    ground at the same time.

31
Gallop
  • Fast
  • Four beat
  • Feet strike the ground separately in this order
  • (1) one hind foot
  • (2) the other hind foot
  • (3) the diagonal front foot
  • (4) the other front foot
  • For a brief moment all 4 feet are off the ground.
  • The extended gallop is the run.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_gaitsWalk

32
Canter
  • Slow
  • 3 beat
  • Feet strike the ground
  • (1) one hind foot
  • (2) the other hind foot and diagonal front foot
  • (3) the other front foot
  • Western adaption is a very slow canter called the
    lope

33
Stepping Pace
  • Slow
  • Lateral
  • Four beat
  • Four feet strike the ground separately
  • (1) right hind foot
  • (2) right front foot
  • (3) left hind foot
  • (4) left front foot

34
Running Walk
  • Slow
  • Diagonal
  • 4 beat
  • Each foot leaves and strikes the ground just
    ahead of the diagonal hind foot
  • Natural gait for the Tennessee Walking Horse

35
Fox Trot
  • Slow
  • Short
  • Broken
  • The hind foot strikes the ground just ahead of
    the diagonal front foot

36
Rack
  • Fast
  • Even
  • 4 beat
  • The time between each foot striking the ground in
    the same
  • The order of the feet striking the ground is the
    same as the stepping pace.

37
Pace
  • Fast
  • 2 beat
  • Front and hind feet on the same side leave and
    strike the ground at the same time.
  • There is a brief moment when all four feet are
    off the ground at the same time

38
Amble
  • Lateral movement
  • Also called the traverse, side step, or side pass
  • Not a show gait
  • The horse moves to one side with out going
    forwards or backwards

39
Pedigree
  • Of great importance when selecting show and race
    horses
  • Ancestors back of the grandparents contribute
    little to the genetic inheritance
  • See Example Pedigrees

40
Price
  • Will vary
  • Grade horses are typically lower priced than
    registered horses
  • Registered horses with the potential for showing
    are higher priced
  • Currently the price of horses is very soft due to
    the closing of all the kill plants in the United
    States

41
Summary
  • 75 of horses are used for personal pleasure
    riding
  • Other uses include racing, ranching, breeding,
    commercial ridding
  • More than 5 million horses in the United States
  • More than 16 billion dollars spent in the horse
    industry annually

42
Summary
  • Many breeds of light horses
  • Horses should be selected on the basis of
    conformation, use, age, sex and soundness. Breed
    selection is a matter of personal preference
  • Breeders are the best source of horses, other
    sources include private horse owners
  • The five basic colors-bay, black, brown,
    chestnut, white
  • Variations- dun, gray, palomino, pinto, roan
  • Variety of unsoundness's and blemishes
  • Unsoundness is more serious and the most serious
    affect the feet and legs
  • Gait of the horse is the way it moves

43
Assignment
  • Read p. 570-578
  • Complete
  • Discussion Questions 1,4,6,8,15,16,20,28
  • Review Questions 1-11
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