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World War One A New Style of War

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World War One A New Style of War An ... British Empire 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 35.8 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 39.1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War One A New Style of War


1
World War OneA New Style of War
  • An Introduction for
  • Johnny Got His Gun

2
Schlieffen Plan
  • Germany wanted to sweep down through Belgium and
    take France quickly
  • Massed forces on western front for quick victory,
    then shift focus to the east
  • Germans were stopped and stalemate ensued

3
Stalemate on the Western Front
  • Unable to break through the French lines, the
    Germans dig trenches to hold their position
  • Allies dig trenches as well
  • Stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland and
    did not move much

4
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5
Trench Warfare
  • There were several lines of trenches
  • Fire trenches
  • Support trenches
  • Reserve trenches
  • Communication trenches
  • Trenches were approximately 7 ft deep and 6 ft
    wide

6
No Mans Land
  • Between enemy trenches was called no mans
    land, a waste land of barbed wire and land
    mines.
  • As small as 7 yards, as large as over 500,
    usually around 250.
  • Attacking across No Mans Land was extremely
    difficult due to barbed wire and shell craters

7
Life in the trenches was hell on earth. Lice,
rats, trench foot, trench mouth, where the gums
rot and you lose your teeth. And of course dead
bodies everywhere.
8
Life in the Trenches
  • Trenches were often waterlogged and full of
    disease
  • The trenches were wet and cold and at this
    time some of them did not have duckboards or
    dug-outs. The battalion lived in mud and water.

9
Trench Foot
  • Infection of the foot caused by cold, wet, and
    unsanitary conditions
  • During the winter of 1914-15 over 20,000 men in
    the British army were treated for trench foot.
  • Soldiers were required to change socks multiple
    times a day as well as grease their feet with
    whale oil

10
Trench Foot Amputees
  • Your feet swell to two or three times their
    normal size and go completely dead. You could
    stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing.
    If you are fortunate enough not to lose your feet
    and the swelling begins to go down. It is then
    that the intolerable, indescribable agony begins.
    I have heard men cry and even scream with the
    pain and many had to have their feet and legs
    amputated.

11
Trench Rats
  • The outstanding feature of the trenches was the
    extraordinary number of rats. The area was
    infested with them. It was impossible to keep
    them out of the dugouts. They grew fat on the
    food that they pilfered from us, and anything
    they could pick up in or around the trenches
    they were bloated and loathsome to look at. Some
    were nearly as big as cats.

12
Trench Rats
  • Rats came up from the canal, fed on the plentiful
    corpses, and multiplied exceedingly. While I
    stayed here with the Welch. a new officer joined
    the company and, in token of welcome, was given a
    dug-out containing a spring-bed. When he turned
    in that night he heard a scuffling, shone his
    torch on the bed, and found two rats on his
    blanket tussling for the possession of a severed
    hand.

13
Trench Rats
  • a pair of rats were capable of producing some 800
    offspring within a single year.
  • Soldiers would often hunt rats to pass the time
    by attracting them with food and then attacking
    them with bayonets or rifles

14
Trench Rats
15
Lice in the Trenches
16
Over the Top
  • An offensive consisted of days of shelling the
    enemys defenses followed by an order to go Over
    the Top and into No Mans Land
  • Offensives were very ineffective and resulted in
    huge losses of life
  • About 800,000 at Verdun alone

17
Mechanization and New Weapons
  • WWI was an industrialized war that mass produced
    new weapons.
  • These new weapons were more efficient and more
    deadly
  • Military tactics and strategies had not developed
    with the new weapons ? lead to a tremendous
    amount of deaths

18
Machine Gun
  • Hiram Maxim invented worlds first automatic
    portable machine gun
  • fifty Rhodesian police fought off 5,000 Matabele
    warriors with just four Maxim guns
  • Rapid fire mowed down waves of soldiers as they
    raced across no mans land

19
Chlorine Gas
  • The effects are these - a splitting headache and
    terrific thirst (to drink water is instant
    death), a knife edge of pain in the lungs and the
    coughing up of a greenish froth off the stomach
    and the lungs, ending finally in insensibility
    and death. The colour of the skin from white
    turns a greenish black and yellow, the colour
    protrudes and the eyes assume a glassy stare. It
    is a fiendish death to die.

20
Mustard Gas
  • "Great mustard-coloured blisters, blind eyes, all
    sticky and stuck together, always fighting for
    breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that
    their throats are closing and they know they will
    choke."

21
Tanks
  • Tanks were first used during WWI
  • They were able to cross the trenches, across
    broken ground and barbed wire while facing heavy
    machine gun fire

22
Artillery
  • Used to weaken enemy fortifications before
    offensives

Big Bertha
23
Aircraft
  • Planes were first used for reconnaisance missions
  • Pilots then engaged in small battles in the air
    where they would shoot at each other with pistols
  • Later in the war, planes began to drop bombs and
    engage in dogfights with mounted machine guns.

24
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25
Zeppelins
  • Blimps that Germans used to drop bombs
  • Use for only 2 yrs as they were easily shot down
    by enemy soldiers and planes

26
THE HUMAN COST
27
The Aftermath of an Artillery Raid
28
A Man With a Broken Face
29
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30
39 million Casualties
31
Countries Total Mobilized Killed Died Wounded Prisoners Missing Total Casualties Casualties of Mobilized
Allied Powers            
Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 76.3
France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800 76.3
British Empire 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 35.8
Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 39.1
United States 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500 364,800 8.2
Japan 800,000 300 907 3 1,210 0.2
Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706 71.4
Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958 331,106 46.8
Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061 34.9
Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000 17,000 11.7
Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318 33,291 33.3
Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 40.0
Total 42,188,810 5,152,115 12,831,004 4,121,090 22,104,209 52.3
Central Powers            
Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 64.9
Austria-Hungary 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 90.0
Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 975,000 34.2
Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029 266,919 22.2
Total 22,850,000 3,386,200 8,388,448 3,629,829 15,404,477 67.4
Grand Total 65,038,810 8,538,315 21,219,452 7,750,919 37,508,686 57.6
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