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HEALTH EDUCATION

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AIMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION To inform the general public of the principles of physical and mental hygiene and methods of preventing avoidable diseases. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HEALTH EDUCATION


1
dr shabeel pn
HEALTH EDUCATION
2
INTRODUCTION
  • The practice of instructing people
    and communities in the principles of hygiene
    and in ways of avoiding disease is a very
    ancient one.
  • An elementary study of the history of
    medicine reveals that since time immemorial it
    has been considered a necessity to instruct
    communities in health matters for their
    protection and survival.

3
DEFINITIONS
  • The National Conference on Preventive Medicine
    USA
  • Health education is a process which informs,
    motivate and helps people to adopt and maintain
    healthy practices and life styles advocates
    environmental changes as needed to facilitate
    this goal and conducts professional training and
    research to the same end.

4
  • WHO Definition
  • Health education, like general education, is
    concerned with changes in knowledge, feelings and
    behaviour of people.In its most usual forms, it
    concentrates on devoloping such health practices
    as are believed to bring about the best possible
    state of well being.

5
AIMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION
  • To inform the general public of the principles of
    physical and mental hygiene and methods of
    preventing avoidable diseases.
  • To create an informed body of opinion and
    knowledge. (social workers, teachers)
  • To give the public accurate information of
    medical discoveries.
  • To facilitate the acceptance and proper usage of
    medical measures.

6
METHODS OF APPROACHES IN HEALTH EDUCATION
  1. Legal or Regulatory Approach
  2. Administrative or Service Approach
  3. Educational Approach

7
Legal or Regulatory Approach
  • Makes use of the law to protect the health of the
    public.
  • Eg Epidemic Diseases Act , Pollution Act
  • Limitations
  • 1. applicable only at certain times or
    limited situations.
  • 2. they may not alter the behaviour of the
    individual.

8
Administrative or Service Approach
  • Intends to provide all the health facilities
    needed by the people
  • felt needs of people

9
Educatinal Approach
  • most effective
  • Components
  • 1. motivation
  • 2. communication
  • 3. decision making
  • results slow , but permanent and enduring.
  • Suffient time for an individual to bring about
    changes
  • learning new facts as well as unlearning wrong
    information as well.

10
CONTENTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION
  1. Human Biology
  2. Nutrition
  3. Hygiene
  4. Family Health Care
  5. Control of Communicable and Non- Communicable
    Diseases
  6. Mental health
  7. Prevention of Accidents
  8. Use of Health Services

11
Human Biology

12
Nutrition
  • for prevention of malnutrition
  • Taught nutrient value of food stufs
  • Method of preparation , storage
  • Help people to choose balanced diet

13
Hygiene
Environmental
Personal
14
Family Health Care
  • Strengthen and improve the health of the family
    as a unit rather than as an individual.
  • Maternal and child health care, family planning,
    immunization, nutrition, etc.

15
Control of Communicable and Non-Communicable
diseases
  • Provide elementary knowledge about the nature of
    the diseases and methods of preventing them.

16
Mental Health
  • Depression, neurosis, mental anxiety and
    emotional disturbances
  • Basic knowledge of common psychological ailments,
    its detectio, methods of prevention and treatment.

17
Prevention of Accidents
  • People taught about basic safety rules and
    prevent common accidents.

18
Use of Health services
  • People should be informed about various health
    services and preventive programmes available to
    them.

19
STAGES IN ADOPTION OF NEW IDEAS AND PRACTICES
STAGE OF UNAWARENESS Not aware of new idea or
practice
STAGE OF AWARENESS Gets some information but
not know much
STAGE OF EVALUATION Find out advantages
disadvantages
STAGE OF INTEREST Shows interest to know
more Listen, read
STAGE OF TRIAL Puts it into practice
STAGE OF ADOPTION Accepts new idea as
beneficial to him adopts it
20
PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
  • INTEREST
  • PARTICIPATION
  • COMPREHENSION
  • MOTIVATION
  • REINFORCEMENT
  • KNOWN TO UNKNOWN
  • LEARNING BY DOING
  • SOIL, SEED SOWER
  • COMMUNITY LEADERS
  • GOOD HEALTH RELATIONS

21
Interest
  • Topic of interest
  • Identify the felt needs of the people
  • Then prepare a programme

22
Participation
  • Educator should encourage people to participate
    in health education programmes
  • Group discussions, panel discussions, etc provide
    oppurtunities for peoples participation
  • Leads to acceptance

23
Known to Unknown
  • Start with what the people already know and then
    give the new knowledge
  • Existing knowledge as people as the basic step

24
Comprehension
  • Determine the level of literacy and understanding
    of audience.
  • Language of communication, understandable to
    audience
  • Usage of technical or medical terms should be
    avoided.

25
Reinforcement
  • Also called as booster dose
  • Refers to repetition needed
  • When not possible for people to learn new things
    in short time

26
Motivation
  • Defined as the fundamental desire for learning
    in an individual
  • 2 types
  • primary motive ? inborn desires
  • food, clothing,
    housing
  • secondary motive ? outside forces
  • gifts, a
    word of praise,
  • love, rewards

27
Learning by Doing
  • Learning process accompanied by doing the new
    things.
  • Based on famous Chinese proverb if I hear, I
    forget if I see, I remember if I do, I know.

28
Soil, Seed Sower
  • Soil ? people to whom education is given
  • Seeds ? Health facts to be given
  • Sower ?media to transmit the facts
  • All components are interdependent and result in
    dynamic interaction.

29
Good Human Relations
  • health educator should have good personal
    qualities
  • Should be able to maintain friendly relations
    with people
  • Should have a kind nad sympathetic attitude

30
Community leaders
  • Leaders can be used to reach people of the
    community and to convince them about the need for
    health education.

31
HINDRANCES OR BARRIERS IN PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
  • Psychological barriers
  • ? emotional disturbances
  • ? depression
  • ? neurosis
  • Physiological barriers
  • ? difficulties in self-expression
  • ? difficulties in hearing or seeing
  • ? difficulties in understanding

32
HINDRANCES
  • Environmental barriers
  • ? excessive noise
  • ? difficulties in vision
  • ? congested areas
  • Cultural barriers
  • ? persistent patterns of behaviour, habits,
    beliefs, customs, attitudes, religion, etc

33
EDUCATIONAL AIDS USED IN HEALTH EDUCATION
  • 1. Audio aids
  • 2. Visual aids
  • 3. Combination of Audio-Visual aids

34
Audio Aids
  • Based on principles of sound, electricity and
    magnetism
  • ? megaphones
  • ? public addressing systems or
  • microphones
  • ? Gramophone records
  • ? Tape recorders
  • ? Radios
  • ? Sound amplifiers

35
Visual Aids
  • Based on principles of projection
  • Projected aids needs projection from a
  • source on to a
    screen
  • ? films or cinemas
  • ? film strips
  • ? slides
  • ? overhead
    projectors
  • ? epidiascopes
  • ? transparencies
  • ? bioscopes
  • ? video cassettes
  • ? silent films

36
  • Non-projected Aids do not require
  • projection
  • ? blackboard
  • ? pictures
  • ? cartoons
  • ? photographs
  • ? posters
  • ? flashcards
  • ? charts
  • ? brochures
  • ? models
  • Other aids traditional media which makes use of
    light and sound stimuli
  • ? Folk dances
    and Folk songs
  • ? Puppet
    shows
  • ? Dramas

37
Combination of Audio-Visual Aids
  • Modern media available
  • Sound sight combined together to create a
    better presentation
  • ? televisions
  • ? tape and slide combinations
  • ? Video Cassette Players and Recorders
  • ? Motivation pictures or Cinemas
  • ? Multimedia Computers

38
HEALTH EDUCATION FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC
  • Mass communication literally means communication
    that is given to a community where the people
    gathered together does not belong to one
    particular group.
  • Advantages
  • ? large no. of people can be reached
  • ? people of all socio-economic status
  • irrespective of their caste, creed and
    religion
  • Medias
  • televisions, radios, posters, news papers, etc

39
ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH EDUCATON TO THE PUBLIC
  1. Accuracy and Truth
  2. Presentation must be simple
  3. Health education should be factual
  4. Principles of health should be taught

40
CONCLUSION
  • In a field such as health, it is natural
    that helping people to help themselves should
    be as important as direct service.
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