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What does it mean to be a Curriculum Leader? Curriculum Leadership Leadership that is directly related to the processes of instruction where teachers, learners, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Curriculum

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  • ADSU 6132
  • Dr. Bettye Grigsby

Share Time
  • Describe your philosophical views on Curriculum
    and Instruction as it relates to the role of an

What is Curriculum?
  • Any document or plan that exists in a school or
    school system that defines the work of teachers,
    at least to the extent of identifying the content
    to be taught children and the methods to be used
    in the process (English, 2000).

What is Curriculum?
  • The educative experiences learners have in an
    educational program. The purpose of which is to
    achieve broad goals and related specific
    objectives that have been developed within a
    framework of theory and research, past and
    present professional practice, and the changing
    needs of society (Parkay, 2006).

What is Curriculum?
  • The work plan or plans developed by or for
    teachers to use in classrooms by which the
    content, scope, and sequence of that content, and
    to some extent the methodology of their teaching,
    is defined and configured (English, 2000).

Curriculum Goals
  • Provide general guidelines for determining the
    learning experiences to be included in the
  • -citizenship
  • -equal educational opportunity
  • -vocation
  • -self-realization
  • -critical thinking

Seven Common Concepts of Curriculum
  • Scope and Sequence
  • Syllabus
  • Content Outline
  • Standards
  • Textbooks
  • Course of Study
  • Planned Experiences
  • Posner, 2004

National Standards
  • Pros
  • Shared knowledge and values
  • Greater efficiency for all 50 states
  • State and local boards raise standards
  • Improve quality of schooling
  • Ensure a large measure of educational equity
  • Cons
  • Minimum standards that lower entire system
  • Take resources from local and state efforts
  • Inhibit local creativity
  • Standards alone will have no effect on student

Components of Curriculum
  • Curriculum Design
  • -Creating the curriculum in schools
  • Curriculum Delivery
  • -Implementation, supervising, monitoring or
    using feedback to improve the curriculum
  • Curriculum Coordination
  • -Lateral focus and connectivity
  • Curriculum Articulation
  • -Vertical focus and connectivity

Types of Curriculum
  • Formal
  • Informal
  • Values
  • Personality of teacher
  • Assessment
  • Hidden
  • Written
  • Taught
  • Tested

Quality Curriculum
  • Articulation multi-level sequence study
  • Emphasize academic and practical
  • Effective integrated curricula
  • Mastery of a limited number of objectives
  • Greater depth and less superficial coverage
  • Focus on Problem solving
  • Facilitates the mastery of essential skill and
  • Coordinated

Four Philosophical Positionsinfluencing
Curriculum Planning
  • Perennialism external truths, thinking
    critically about significant ideas, and
    cultivation of intellect
  • Essentialism Essential knowledge and skills
    that productive citizens should possess.
  • Progressivism based on students interests
    (actual living), planned by teachers and
    students, address student concerns
  • Reconstructionism planning and directing social

Articles in Chapter 1 - Parkay
  • Provide the group with an overview of the
  • Choose 1 question at the end of the article to
    reflect upon.

What is Instruction?
Why Differentiate Instruction?
  • Standards-based classrooms
  • High expectations for all students
  • Multicultural diversity
  • Student Diversity
  • New cognitive research on human learning
  • Rapid societal and technological change

9 Classroom Research Based Instructional
Strategies that Work
  • Identifying Similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and Note taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypothesis
  • Cues, questions, and advance organizers
  • Marzano, 2001

Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Present students with explicit guidance in
    identifying similarities and differences
  • Independently identify similarities and
  • Represent similarities and differences in graphic
    or symbolic form
  • Identification of similarities and differences
    can be accomplished by
  • Comparing
  • Classifying
  • Creating metaphors
  • Creating analogies

Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Delete some information, substitute some
    information, and keep some information
  • Verbatim note taking is least effective
  • Notes are a work in progress
  • Notes should be used as study guides for tests
  • The more notes taken, the better

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Providing Recognition
  • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect
    on intrinsic motivation
  • Most effective when it is contingent on the
    attainment of some standard of performance
  • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective
    than tangible rewards
  • Reinforcing Effort
  • Not all students realize the importance of
    believing in effort
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an
    emphasis on effort
  • Teach and exemplify the connection between effort
    and achievement
  • Keep track of effort and achievement

Homework and Practice
  • The amount of homework assigned should be
    different at each level
  • Parent involvement should be kept to a minimum
  • Purpose of homework should be identified and
  • Homework assigned should be commented on
  • Focus practice on specific elements of a complex
    skill or process
  • Plan time to increase students conceptual
    understanding of skills or processes

Nonlinguistic Representation
  • Activities produce nonlinguistic representations
  • Create graphic organizers
  • Make physical models
  • Generate mental models
  • Draw pictures and pictographs
  • Engage in kinesthetic activity
  • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on

Cooperative Learning
  • Sparingly organize groups based on ability levels
  • Cooperative groups should be kept small in size
  • Cooperative learning should be applied
    consistently and systematically, but not overused.

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Objectives
  • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on
  • Instructional goals should not be too specific
  • Students should be encouraged to personalize the
    teachers goals.
  • Feedback
  • Corrective in nature
  • Should be timely
  • Specific to a criterion
  • Students can effectively provide some of their
    own feedback

Generating and Testing Hypothesis
  • Can be approached in an inductive of deductive
  • Deductive Process of using a general rule to
    make a prediction about a future action or event
  • Inductive Drawing new conclusions based on
    information we know or are presented

Generating and Testing Hypothesis
  • Systems Analysis
  • Problem Solving
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention
  • Experimental Inquiry
  • Decision Making

Generating and Testing Hypothesis
  • Students should clearly explain their hypothesis
    and conclusions
  • Provide students with templates
  • Provide sentence stems
  • Ask students to turn in audiotapes on which they
    explain their hypothesis and conclusion
  • Provide or develop rubrics with students

Cues, questions, and advance organizers
  • Should focus on what is important as opposed to
    what is unusual
  • Higher level questions and organizers produce
    deeper learning than lower level questions
  • Wait briefly before accepting responses from
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when
    asked before a learning experience
  • Are most useful with information that is not well
  • Different types of advanced organizers produce
    different results.
  • Expository
  • Narrative
  • Skimming
  • Illustrated

Using the Nine Categories in Instructional
  • Setting Learning Goals
  • At the beginning of a Unit
  • Identify clear learning goals
  • Allow students to identify and their own learning

Monitoring Learning Goals
  • During A Unit
  • Provide students feedback and help them
    self-assess their progress toward achieving their
  • Ask students to keep track of their achievement
    and effort
  • Periodically celebrate legitimate progress toward
    leaning goals

Introducing New Knowledge
  • Guide students in identifying and articulating
    what they already know about the topic
  • Provide students with ways of thinking about the
    topic in advance
  • Ask students to compare the new knowledge with
    what is known
  • Have students keep notes
  • Help students represent knowledge in
    nonlinguistic ways
  • Have students individually and in cooperative

Practice, Reviewing, and Applying Knowledge
  • Assign homework that requires students to
    practice, review and apply what they know learned
  • Give students explicit feedback on the accuracy
    of the homework
  • Engage students in long-term projects that
    involve generating and testing hypotheses
  • Ask students to revise the linguistic and
    nonlinguistic representations of knowledge in
    their notebooks as they refine their
    understanding of the knowledge.

Helping Students determine how well they achieved
their goals
  • Provide students with clear assessments of their
    progress on each learning goal
  • Have students assess themselves on each learning
    goal and compare these assessments with those of
    the teacher
  • Ask students to articulate what they have learned
    about the content and about themselves as learners

What does it mean to be a Curriculum Leader?
Curriculum Leadership
  • Leadership that is directly related to the
    processes of instruction where teachers,
    learners, and the curriculum interact.
  • -Has a passion for great teaching and a vision
    for what schools should be doing for all
  • -Should be able to answer the following
  • How do children learn?
  • How should we teach children?
  • How should we treat subject matter?

  • Schools operated by principals who were
    perceived by their teachers to be strong
    instructional leaders exhibited significantly
    greater gain scores in achievement in reading and
    mathematics than did school operated by average
    and weak instructional leaders (Andrews Sober,

Effective Leadership
  • Have vision
  • Have the knowledge base
  • Willing to take risks
  • Willing to put in long hours
  • Willing to accept constructive feedback
  • Willing to change and grow constantly
  • Thrive on change and ambiguity
  • Can empower others

Steps to Effective Instructional Leadership
  • Establish, implement, and achieve academic
  • Establish meaningful academic standards
  • Ensure a consistent and coherent program
  • Ensure a schoolwide focus on achievement and
    continuous improvement
  • Be an instructional resource for your staff
  • Work with teachers
  • Share research and best practices
  • Keep your finger on the instructional pulse
  • Be knowledgeable of what is going on in the

Steps to Effective Instructional Leadership
  • Create a school culture and climate conducive to
  • Establish high expectations for students.
  • Make sure time is being used effectively
  • Communicate the vision and mission of your school
  • Communicate the vision to teachers
  • Communicate the meaning and value of learning to
  • Get parents on board
  • Set high expectations for your staff and yourself
  • Assist teachers in setting goals
  • Find the time
  • Use observation and feedback
  • Focus every conference on the improvement of

Steps to Effective Instructional Leadership
  • Develop teacher leaders
  • Train and provide staff development of other
  • Coach and mentor other teachers
  • Develop and write curriculum
  • Be a part of decision making teams
  • Teachers as researchers
  • Develop and maintain positive relationships with
    students, staff, and parents
  • Serve as an advocate for students
  • Develop morale
  • Acknowledge the achievements of others

  • Read assigned chapters
  • Facilitations May 15, May 29, June 2
  • Group 1 -Group 4
  • Chapter 2 (Parkay) Chapter 13
  • - Group 2 -Group 5
  • Chapter 3 (Parkay) Chapter 14
  • Group 3 -Group 6
  • Chapter 12 (Glatthorn) Chapter 7 (Parkay)
  • - Group 7
  • Chapter 8 (Parkay)

Reflection 1Due May 15, 2008
  • Based on the knowledge gained from the assigned
    articles, chapters 1 (Glatthorn and Parkay) and
    classroom discussions, what does it mean to be a
    curriculum leader and how would you begin
    designing a curriculum plan for your campus?
    Support your views by citing the chapters,
    classroom discussions and articles referred to in
    your reflection.

Reflective thinking
  • Determine concepts and provide in-depth
    reflecting on a personal level taking into
    account your learning from the readings and
    personal experiences in the educational setting.
  • Support your thoughts by citing the readings.

Before You Go Home
  • You should be gathering resources, finding
    journals, contacting professionals, and
    researching your area of interest
  • Read chapters 2-3 in Parkay
  • Groups 12 finalize the chapter for Facilitation