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Consumer (Buying) Behavior


Consumer (Buying) Behavior Copywriting for the Electronic Media (Meeske) Consumer Behavior: Elements Personal Characteristics: Cultural Factors (Subcultures & Social ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Consumer (Buying) Behavior

Consumer (Buying) Behavior
  • Copywriting for the Electronic Media
  • (Meeske)

Consumer Behavior Elements
  • Personal Characteristics Cultural Factors
    (Subcultures Social Class)
  • Social Factors Status, Family, Reference Groups
  • Personal Elements Age and Life Cycle,
    Occupation, Lifestyle, VALS

Consumer Research
  • What consumers buy
  • Where consumers buy
  • When consumers buy
  • Why consumers buy

Such data helps advertisers understand HOW
consumers respond to advertising approaches
Information locked in consumers head
Cultural Factors
  • A child learns perceptions, behaviors, basic
    values, and wants from key institutions and from
    the family. These include material comfort,
    freedom, achievement, individualism, fitness etc
  • Eg Americans spend lot of time in their cars and
    desire safety, room, and comfort. SUVs. suit the
    soccer mom who transports her kids to various
    activities, as well as outdoors-oriented
    individuals who need room for camping gear
  • Office cultures have changed too because of the
    Internet, conservative dress style dropped

  • Racial groups
  • Religious groups
  • Age groups
  • Ethnic groups
  • Geographical groups

Social Class
  • Virtually all societies have some system of
    social classes that are uniform and relatively
    permanent partitions within society whose members
    share values, behaviors, interests, and even
    buying behavior. In some societies, members of
    social classes are born into certain positions
    and cannot change them. In the US, people are not
    fixed in rigid social classes. A combination of
    variables (income, education, occupation interact
    to determine social class)

Levels of Class Structure (Upper Americans)
  • Upper-Upper World of inherited wealth and
    aristocratic names (0.3)
  • Lower-Upper New social elite, drawn from
    contemporary professional, corporate leadership
  • Upper-Middle Other college grad professionals
    and managers lifestyle centers on the arts,
    causes, and private clubs (12.5)

Levels of Class Structure (Middle Americans)
  • Middle Class White-and-blue collar workers who
    make average pay, do the proper things, and
    live on the better side of town (32)
  • Working Class Blue-collar workers who make
    average pay and lead working class lifestyles
    regardless of school, job, income, and background

Levels of Class Structure (Lower Americans)
  • Upper-Lower Class Working, not on welfare but
    having a living standard just above poverty.
    Behavior regarded as trashy and crude (9)
  • Lower-Lower Class On welfare, usually out of
    work, visibly poverty-stricken. Considered
    common criminals or bum who have the dirtiest
    jobs (7)

  • We all belong to groups such as clubs,
    organizations, and family. ROLE and STATUS define
    our position in each group. ROLE is defined as
    the activities a person is expected to fulfill
    according to the people around him/ her. Each
    role carries a status that reflects the position
    given to it by society. People often choose
    products that show their status

  • From family, individuals receive an orientation
    toward economics, religion, and politics.
    Marketers need to determine which family member
    usually has the greatest influence on purchase of
    a given product/ service. Children also enter the
    purchasing process.

Reference Groups
  • Influence people by exposing them to new
    behaviors and lifestyles, influencing the
    persons attitudes and self-concept because he or
    she wants to fit in. Creates pressures to
    conform that may influence the persons product
    and brand choices

Age and Life Cycle
  • Preferences for specific items of furniture,
    clothes, food, and recreation often relate to
    age. These preferences dont remain static

  • People working in construction jobs wear boots
    and jeans. Individuals employed in law firms are
    usually expected to wear dark, conservative suits

  • Examines a persons day-to-day living pattern and
    is expressed as an individuals psychographics -
    method of measuring lifestyles and developing
    lifestyle classifications. It measures consumers
    activities (sports, hobbies, work, shopping,
    social events), interests (recreation, food,
    fashion, family), and opinions (about business,
    products, social issues, and themselves)

To measure lifestyle
  1. How people spend their time
  2. Their interests, in other words, what is
    important to them in their immediate environments
  3. Their view of themselves and the world around
  4. Basic demographic data such as income, education,
    and location of residence

How does it help?
  1. It could help an advertiser to know that the
    average member of a target audience for an SUV is
    32.5 years old, is married, has 1-3 children, and
    owns a house. These demographic factors are
    useful, but dont paint a human picture of target
    audience. Lifestyle analysis might show him as
    community-oriented, traditional lifestyle, enjoys
    outdoor sports and family activities. Commercial
    might show a happy family piling into an SUV to
    attend a soccer match. Thus, target audience
    could readily identify with the commercial.

VALS System
  • Categorizes U.S. adults into consumer groups that
    think and act differently based on a combination
    of primary motivation and resources. These
    signify distinct psychological characteristics,
    attitudes, and decision-making styles. The 8
    primary classifications classify consumer
    behavior in terms of 3 primary motivations

VALS System
  • The eight primary classifications classify
    consumer behavior in terms of three primary
  • Ideals Consumers whose decisions are led by
    their beliefs rather than by desires for
  • Achievement Consumers whose buying choices are
    regulated by the approval and opinions of others
  • Self-expression Consumers whose purchases are
    motivated by an inclination for risk taking,
    variety, and physical or social activity

VALS System
  • Actualizers Successful, sophisticated, attracted
    to new products, have high resources (income,
    energy, education)
  • Fulfilleds Little interest in image, Mature,
  • Achievers Family, worship, work, respect
    authority, status quo, conventional, politically
  • Experiencers Enthusiastic, impulsive, seek
    variety, excitement, self-expression, offbeat,
  • Believers Slow to change, modes lifestyle,
    strong attachments, morals, predictable,
    established brands
  • Strivers Image-conscious, stylish, sporty,
    emulate wealth
  • Makers Practical, self-sufficient, traditional
  • Strugglers Poor, ill-educated, despairing,
    passive, aging, cautious, urgent concerns for
    security, safety

(No Transcript)
Points to Remember
  • Consumers wants and behavior are primarily
    determined by culture
  • Advertisers must be aware of cultural shifts that
    might provide new ways to serve consumers
  • Consumers choose brands and products that
    reinforce their reference group roles and status
  • Lifestyle - the system of acting and interacting
    with those around us - significantly influence
    buyers decisions

Points to Remember
  • Factors in buyer behavior cannot be controlled,
    but they can be useful to advertisers in efforts
    to understand consumers they attempt to influence
  • Psychographic methods are used to classify
    consumer behavior by psychological and
    demographic variables. Psychological researchers
    evaluate items such as media usage, leisure-time
    activities, and attitude toward social issues