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MDGs and PRS as human development frameworks for the Caribbean


UNDP Barbados and the OECS. Guiding Vision for Poverty and Sustainable Human Development ... Barbados and OECS on the way or have already met some of MDGs IMR, MMR, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MDGs and PRS as human development frameworks for the Caribbean

MDGs and PRS as human development frameworks for
the Caribbean
  • by Leisa Perch
  • Programme Manager, Poverty Reduction
  • UNDP Barbados and the OECS

Guiding Vision for Poverty and Sustainable Human
  • Everybody has the right to a standard of
    living adequate for the health and well-being of
    him/herself and of his/her family, including
    food, clothing, housing and medical care and
    necessary social services and the right to
    security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
    disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of
    livelihood in circumstances beyond his/her
  • (United Nations, Declaration of Human Rights
    Article 25 (1))

Varying Perspectives of Development in Action
Poverty and Human Development in the OECS Some
  • High unemployment
  • Aging population
  • Sustaining livelihoods challenging
  • Indigenous peoples marginalized
  • Limited monitoring or assessment capacity
  • Limited market options
  • Poverty and growth increasingly linked
  • Decline of agriculture
  • Dependence on imports
  • Vulnerable groups who could fall into poverty
  • Education not always translating into livelihood
  • Limited engagement of civil society
  • Above 30 below poverty line in 4 countries
  • High gini-coefficients
  • High incidence of poor female-headed households
  • Frequent natural events and hazards
  • Income loss
  • Decline in Functional literacy
  • Reduced levels of attainment by males
  • Increased incidence of crime
  • Environmental degradation
  • Increasingly marginalized young men
  • High incidence of HIV/AIDS
  • High incidence of NCDs
  • Development setback by disasters

The Millennium Development Goals
  • Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger
  • Achieving universal primary education
  • Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of
  • Reduction of child mortality
  • Improvement of maternal health
  • Combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases
  • Ensuring environmental sustainability
  • Promotion of a global partnership for

MDGs as a Barometer of the status of Human
  • Taking guidance from a UNFPA Framework, MDGs
    should be able to tell us
  • Where is the country in relation to HDI?
  • What progress has been made in past n years
    since 1990 baseline?
  • What are the linkages with other
    national/regional targets?
  • What are the constraints for achieving MDG
  • - community, local, national and international
    governance issues
  • How can constraints be overcome?
  • -frameworks, policies, strategies and resource
  • Are there multi-sectoral plans to meet MDG

Adapted slightly from a proposed framework
developed by the UNFPA for a Cluster Meeting
Shiraz University Iran
MDGs as a Monitoring Framework? (Relevance,
Efficiency, effectiveness, Impact)
  • Simplify SHD and its context (efficient)
  • Relevant to the issues in the region (relevance)
  • Demonstrate Interlinked nature of issues
  • Reflect SD paradigms (effective)
  • Are inherently Flexible (impact)
  • Dont require new indicators/build on previous
    efforts (efficient)
  • Reflect larger development goals (impact)
  • Present an opportunity to get it right (impact)

Simple Vision of SHD
MDGs show Interlinked nature of issues example
of Health/Development
ECONOMIC GROWTH Sectoral production GDP per
Rate of growth
FISCAL OPERATIONS Revenue measures Expenditu
re patterns
Impact of debt
EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS Employed/unemployed groups
Income distribution Purchasing power

INFLATION (PRICES) Prices of all goods/services
inc. health Exchange rate movement Affordab
. Labour force productive years
. Learning/cognitive capacity . Healthy community

Linkages between Health and Development (taken
from CCHD Working Paper 2 - Situational Analysi
s The Economic Environment and Financing of
Health Services in the Caribbean, Lalta et al, 2
004 (a Draft)
The Opportunity of the MDGs Example of HIV-AIDS
  • Impact of HIV/AIDS on progress towards
  • Goal1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • The loss of productive capacity among
    families affected by HIV/AIDS has a major impact
    on economic growth, food production and
    nutritional well-being (in the hardest-hit
    countries, economic growth has fallen by 4 and
    labour productivity has been cut by up to 50).
    In Burkina Faso, the proportion of people living
    in poverty is projected to increase from 45 to
    nearly 60 by 2010 as a result of HIV/AIDS.
    Studies have shown that in Thailand food
    consumption in affected household fell from 15
    to 30.

The Opportunity of the MDGs Example of HIV-AIDS
  • Impact of HIV/AIDS on progress towards
  • Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women

  • Girls are more likely to be kept out of school
    to provide care, or when resources are limited.
    Women take on greater burdens of caring and face
    greater economic insecurity when wage earners
    fall ill. While gender equity (social and
    economic) is a critical factor in reducing risk,
    AIDS exacerbates burdens on women and gender
    inequalities. Goal cannot be met in seriously
    affected countries. In some of the worst affected
    countries nearly 50 of children who lose their
    parents to HIV/AIDS drop out of school, the
    majority of them girls.
  • (Taken from UNDP National HDR HIV/AIDS Practice
    Note, 2003)

Progress so Far Regional MDG Consultation/Assessm
ent (2004)
  • Findings
  • Barbados and OECS on the way or have already met
    some of MDGs IMR, MMR, Universal Primary
  • Need to localize/national MDG targets (US1 rate
    level not really relevant to most Caribbean
  • HIV/AIDs is a significant development threat if
    not tackled immediately and consistently
  • Need to Recognize inter-linkage between issues
    (often not recognized in policy documents)
  • Commitment and consistency needed to meet

The Facts Progress with Poverty MDG what does
it tell us?
Source Thomas Wint (2002 p.5.) CPAs
conducted by CDB Gaps World Bank, Dominica
Social Protection Review
(July 11, 2003) p.3
Other Poverty Stats
  • Grenada
  • 21 of all female heads below the poverty line
    are unemployed
  • 24 of all female heads below the poverty line
    are outside of the labour force
  • 20 of persons living below the poverty line are
  • Over 64 of the poor have no educational
  • SVG
  • 37.5 percent population poor
  • 30.6 percent Households lived in poverty
  • High level of unemployment estimated 30 percent
    among young male population
  • High level of income inequality

What Needs to be done Statistically to make the
MDGS operational ?
  • Identify ways and means of measuring factors as
    well as progress in areas
  • Identify the most appropriate measurement tools
    that can assist in responsive decision-making
  • Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation of
  • Modelling of interlinked nature of issues e.g.
    (poverty and health), (poverty, health and
    development), and (poverty, environment and
    health i.e. incidence of dengue)
  • Measure epidemiological factors and impacts on
  • Assist in the identification of proxies if a
    specific survey is too costly
  • Define ways of identifying groups at risk
  • Identify communities and individuals at risks
  • Collaborate with specialized national and
    regional institutions to define appropriate tools

MDGs a Conceptual Framework for Development
  • The MDGs help us by
  • Setting the context for SHD
  • Pointing us the direction (Establishing deadlines
    and proposing targets)
  • Enabling institutional cooperation (e.g. cannot
    be one Ministry alone)
  • Promoting the use of indicators and statistics
    take data to the centre-stage
  • Making partnerships key
  • Reinforce the need for evidence-based

Poverty Reduction Strategies Enabling the
achievement of the MDGs
UNDP Strategic Approach to MDG Fulfillment and
  • Facilitate development of sub-regional/national
    MDG targets and meeting them (OECS sub-regional
  • Strengthen Data collection and ME capacity at
    national and regional level
  • Advocate for cross-sectoral and integrated
    approaches for sustained success (policy)
  • Encourage integration of targets and approaches
    in national planning (policy)
  • Advocate for pro-poor, pro-health, pro-education
    budgeting and allocation of resources (policy)
  • Analytical work on linkages between issues
  • Support to national HDR/MDGR Reporting
  • Donor coordination/collaboration (All goals)

UNDP Poverty Interventions To-date (broadly)
  • National Activities
  • Community empowerment and development
  • Social Policy Formulation
  • Formulation of IPRSPs
  • Capacity-building
  • Strengthening of statistical capacity for data
  • Regional Activities
  • CoRICS Project
  • Establishment of Social Indicators and MDGs
  • Micro-enterprise development
  • Poverty Measurement, Strengthen of PRS process)

Iterative Process for Sustainable Human
Development Policy (Where we should be)
How can Policy assist in achieving the MDGs (How
do we get there)?
  • By
  • Setting the framework
  • Identifying the issues
  • Identifying who is vulnerable and disadvantaged
  • Setting goals and targets
  • Identifying who does what and why?
  • Clarifying responsibilities
  • Bringing everyone together to serve one main

Current Social Policy Environment (Where are we
  • Disjointed and disconnected
  • Sometimes singular
  • Not always or very participatory
  • Not evidence-based
  • Sectoral and segmented
  • Competitive
  • Unstructured
  • Does not address vulnerability/susceptibility
    very well
  • Gender often not well mainstreamed
  • Not well linked to economic planning or

Opportunities presented by the PRSP Framework
  • In one document
  • Strategic
  • Link economic and social development
  • Efficiency of government services
  • Empowerment of communities and civil society
  • Create enabling opportunities for investment
  • Specific
  • Facilitate the development of Micro-enterprise
    through support for micro-credit/finance
  • Increase effectiveness and efficiency in social
    service delivery
  • Special attention to HIV/AIDS
  • Greater and better Investment in Human Capital
  • Engendering policy
  • Linking SIF, BNTF, PRF,MED and other mechanisms
    for the first time in one operational framework

Current Gaps in Caribbean PRSPs
  • Link to economic development and planning still
  • Have been limited in the main to PR
  • Not many specific targets set (SVG has a few)
  • Participation of civil society still needs to be
  • Implications of and link to DR not always clear
  • Not much mention of potential benefits from
    expertise in the region
  • Concept of vulnerability not well integrated
  • Implementation Frameworks weak
  • Limited contingency planning

Operationalizing the MDGs/PRS for the Caribbean
A Partnership between countries and donors
  • Development visioning and planning
  • Localization/Regionalization of Indicators and
  • Improving assessment of quality of impact
  • Improved PRS with ME linked MDGs
  • Avoiding complacency
  • Poverty Reduction Strategies which speak to
    Sustainable Human Development
  • An operational development framework with
    short, medium and long-term objectives

The Way Forward
  • Sustaining Commitment to the achievement of the
  • National policy incorporating MDG Framework
  • Strengthening of data collection and analysis
  • Commitment to Regional Integration and CSME
  • Strengthening global partnership for development

For More Information
  • Contact
  • Leisa Perch, Programme Mgr, Poverty Reduction
  • UN House, Marine Gardens
  • Hastings, Ch. Ch
  • Barbados, West Indies
  • Tel 246 467-6005
  • Fax 246 429-2448
  • Email
  • Website