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Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph.D

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Title: Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph.D


1
Applications of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery
and BioMedical
  • Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph.D
  • Professor of Pharmaceutics
  • Department of Pharmaceutics
  • KLE University College of Pharmacy
  • JN Medical College Campus
  • BELGAUM 590010
  • Cell No 00919742431000
  • E-mail bknanjwade_at_yahoo.co.in

2
Applications of Nanotechnology
3
Introduction (Nanotechnology)
  • The prefix nano comes from the Greek word nanos,
    which means one-billionth part of something.
  • So, nanotechnology can be described as
    engineering and manufacturing at the scale of a
    nanometer or nanoscale (nanometer 10-9 meter).
  • Examples of nano-substance are- Atom diameter
    0.15 nm, diameter of double strand DNA 2 nm, and
    cell 1000 nm.

4
Cell Structure
5
Introduction (Nanotechnology)
  • The aim of nano-scientists is to virtually
    imitate nature.
  • They are trying to construct objects out of
    their most basic components, atom by atom, the
    way that nature does.
  • This offers an unprecedented degree of precision
    and control over the final product.

6
Introduction (Nanotechnology)
  • As a fundamental understanding of how nature
    works at the atomic scale.
  • We can consider nanotechnology as enabling
    technology it will enable us to do radical new
    things in virtually every technological and
    scientific arena.

7
Introduction (Nanotechnology)
  • However, despite great investments and hard
    scientific work, things are actually moving a bit
    slowly.
  • Most scientists believe that nanotechnology will
    start seriously influence our lives around the
    year 2020

8
Targeted Drug Delivery
9
Advantages of Nanotechnology
  • Nanotechnology may help in increasing the
    solubility bioavailability of drugs.
  • New dosage forms and better exploration of
    less-used drug administration routes for
    efficient therapeutic outcomes.
  • Nanoparticles with diameter less than 200nm are
    not screened out of circulation by liver and
    spleen.

10
Advantages of Nanotechnology
  • Nanotechnology is better suited for drug
    targeting of individual tissues.
  • Cells and cellular receptors and hence, more
    suitable for gene and vaccine delivery.
  • It may also be helpful in designing nanoporous
    membranes for controlled-delivery drug devices.

11
Advantages of Nanotechnology
  • Nanoscale powders of antiasthma and analgesic
    drugs are quickly absorbed in the human body in
    comparison to the traditional drug delivery
    systems.
  • Nanotechnology is particularly useful in case of
    drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.

12
Advantages of Nanotechnology
  • It has been shown that self-assemblies ( 15nm)
    of phospholipid molecules known as sterically
    stabilized micelles are helpful in improving
    efficacy and reducing toxicity of such drugs.
  • The side effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide
    delivered by this nanotechnology was completely
    eliminated as it extravasated specifically in
    diseased tissues.

13
Advantages of Nanotechnology
  • Nanotech based drug delivery is less toxic as
    well as inexpensive.
  • Nanotechnology is suited for better drugs
    delivery to small regions within the human body
    as such drugs can easily cross biological
    membranes.
  • Liposomes are effective for drug targeting by
    chemotherapeutic agents .

14
Nanotechnology Applications
15
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • Nanoparticles can be used in targeted drug
    delivery at the site of disease to improve the
    uptake of poorly soluble drugs, the targeting of
    drugs to a specific site, and drug
    bioavailability.
  • A schematic comparison of untargeted and targeted
    drug delivery systems.

16
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
17
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel,
    doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone
    have been successfully formulated using
    nanomaterials.
  • Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and polylactic
    acid (PLA) based nanoparticles have been
    formulated to encapsulate dexamethasone, a
    glucocorticoid with an intracellular site of
    action.

18
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • Dexamethasone is a chemotherapeutic agent that
    has anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory
    effects.
  • The drug binds to the cytoplasmic receptors and
    the subsequent drug-receptor complex is
    transported to the nucleus resulting in the
    expression of certain genes that control cell
    proliferation.

19
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • These drug-loaded nanoparticles formulations that
    release higher doses of drug for prolonged period
    of time completely inhibited proliferation of
    vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • Colloidal drug delivery modalities such as
    liposomes, micelles or nanoparticles have been
    intensively investigated for their use in cancer
    therapy.

20
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • The effectiveness of drug delivery systems can be
    attributed to their small size, reduced drug
    toxicity, controlled time release of the drug and
    modification of drug pharmacokinetics and
    biological distribution.
  • Too often, chemotherapy fails to cure cancer
    because some tumor cells develop resistance to
    multiple anticancer drugs.

21
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • In most cases, resistance develops when cancer
    cells begin expressing a protein, known as
    p-glycoprotein that is capable of pumping
    anticancer drugs out of a cell as quickly as they
    cross through the cell's outer membrane.
  • New research shows that nanoparticles may be able
    to get anticancer drugs into cells without
    triggering the p-glycoprotein pump.

22
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • The researchers studied in vivo efficacy of
    paclitaxel loaded nanoparticles in
    paclitaxel-resistant human colorectal tumors.
  • Paclitaxel entrapped in emulsifying wax
    nanoparticles was shown to overcome drug
    resistance in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell
    line (HCT-15).

23
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • The insolubility problems encountered with
    paclitaxel can be overcome by conjugating this
    drug with albumin.
  • Paclitaxel bound to bio-compatible proteins like
    albumin (Abraxane) is an injectable
    nano-suspension approved for the treatment of
    breast cancer.

24
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • The solvent Cremophor-EL used in previous
    formulations of paclitaxel causes acute
    hypersensitivity reactions.
  • To reduce the risk of allergic reactions when
    receiving paclitaxel, patients must undergo
    pre-medication using steroids and anti-histamines
    and be given the drug using slow infusions
    lasting a few hours.

25
Nanotechnology based drug delivery Systems
  • Binding paclitaxel to albumin resulted in
    delivery of higher dose of drug in short period
    of time.
  • Because it is solvent-free, solvent- related
    toxicities are also eliminated.
  • In Phase III clinical trial, the response rate of
    Abraxane was about twice than that of the
    solvent-containing drug Taxol.

26
Drug Delivery Carriers
27
Recent Developments in NDDS
  • Several terminologies have been used to describe
    nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.
  • In most cases, either polymers or lipids are used
    as carriers for the drug, and the delivery
    systems have particle size distribution from few
    nanometers to few hundred nanometers.

28
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29
Applications of Nanotechnology
30
Applications of Nanotechnology
31
  • Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology

32
Biomedical nanotechnology
  • Three applications of nanotechnology are
    particularly suited to biomedicine diagnostic
    techniques, drugs, and prostheses and implants.
  • Interest is booming in biomedical applications
    for use outside the body, such as diagnostic
    sensors and labon- a-chip techniques, which are
    suitable for analyzing blood and other samples,
    and for inclusion in analytical instruments for
    RD on new drugs.

33
Biomedical nanotechnology
  • For inside the body, many companies are
    developing nanotechnology applications for
    anticancer drugs, implanted insulin pumps, and
    gene therapy.
  • Other researchers are working on prostheses and
    implants that include nanostructured materials.

34
Diagnostics
  • Sensors for medical and environmental monitoring
    and for preparing pure chemicals and
    pharmaceuticals.
  • Light and strong materials for defence,
    aerospace, automotive, and medical applications.
  • Lab-on-a-chip diagnostic techniques.

35
Diagnostics
  • Sunscreens with ultraviolet-light absorbing
    nanoparticles.
  • The following applications are expected in the
    next decade
  • Longer-lasting medical implants.
  • The capability to map an individuals entire
    genetic code almost instantaneously.
  • The ability to extend life by 50 from present
    expectations.

36
Nanodrugs
  • Pharmaceutical companies do not expect
    nanostructured materials to become new drug
    compounds.
  • However, carbon buckyballs and nanotubes might be
    useful as drug delivery vehicles because their
    nanometer size enables them to move easily inside
    the body.

37
Nanodrugs
  • The active compound might be inserted in a
    nanotube or bonded to a particles surface.
  • Other types of nanopowders or biomolecules are
    also useful and are closer to the marketplace.

38
Nanodrugs
  • In April 2002, American Pharmaceutical Partners
    (Los Angeles) presented results from an early
    human trial of ABI-007, a new nanoparticle
    delivery system for an established anticancer
    drug.
  • ABI- 007 is 130 nm long and consists of an
    engineered protein-stabilized nanoparticle that
    contains paclitaxel, which is used to treat
    breast, bladder, and more than a dozen other
    cancers.

39
Nanodrugs
  • Such new delivery systems combine a drug with an
    artificial vector that can enter the body and
    move in it like a virus.
  • If more advanced clinical tests are successful,
    ABI-007 is likely to enter the market in a few
    years.

40
Nanodrugs
  • Cosmetics based on quantum dots are already sold
    in large quantities.
  • Nanophase Technologies Corp. (Romeoville, IL)
    produces nanocrystalline materials such as zinc
    oxide for use in sunscreens and other products.
  • The particles are protective and cause minimal
    damage to DNA in sunlight.

41
Nanodrugs
  • Quantum dots are manufactured between 3 and 5 nm,
    suitable for binding specific biomolecules.
  • The quantum dots are luminescent particles, more
    stable than the organic dies used today.
  • They are nontoxic.

42
Prostheses and implants
  • Nanotechnology also has applications in tissue
    engineering.
  • New biomedical materials for bones, teeth, or
    other tissues implant are developed using
    tailor-made materials.
  • Biomimetic nanostructures start with a predefined
    nanochemical or physical structure.

43
Prostheses and implants
  • A nanochemical structure may be an array of large
    reactive molecules attached to a surface, while a
    nanophysical structure may be a small crystal.
  • Researchers hope that by using these
    nanostructures as seed molecules or crystals, a
    material will keep growing by itself.

44
Prostheses and implants
  • Other groups want to apply nanostructured
    materials in artificial sensory organs such as an
    electronic eye, ear, or nerve.
  • Both feats are far off.

45
Equipments for Nanoparticles
  • Homogenizer
  • Ultra Sonicator
  • Mills
  • Spray Milling
  • Supercritical Fluid Technology
  • Electrospray
  • Ultracentrifugation
  • Nanofiltration

46
Homogenizer Ultra Sonicator
47
ANY QUERIES?
48
Cell No 00919742431000 E-mail
bknanjwade_at_yahoo.co.in
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