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The Lethal Gift of Livestock

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... Chinese. Syllabary. One symbol stands for a syllable. Alphabet. One symbol stands for a basic sound. Chinese ... Three steps in Alphabet development: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Lethal Gift of Livestock


1
Chapter 11
  • The Lethal Gift of Livestock

2
Farmer Power
  • Farmers have greater numbers than hunter/
    gatherers
  • 10 or 100 to 1
  • Own better weapons and armor
  • Have more powerful technology
  • Have centralized governments with literate elites
  • better able to wage wars of conquest
  • Breathe out nastier germs.

3
Major Killers
  • Major killers of humanity throughout recent
    history are all infectious diseases that evolved
    from diseases of animals
  • Smallpox
  • Flu
  • Tuberculosis
  • Malaria
  • Plague (pictured)
  • Measles
  • cholera.

4
Disease victims in war
  • Until WWII, more victims of war died of disease
    than battle wounds.
  • 95 of Native Americans died from diseases
    brought by Europeans.
  • Why not the other way around?
  • Europeans had the animals and the large
    populations that produced the diseases.

5
How Diseases Spread
  • Passively
  • Salmonella
  • insect vector
  • Malaria
  • Plague
  • Typhus
  • Sleeping sickness
  • Lesions
  • Syphilis
  • Smallpox

6
How Diseases Spread
  • Coughing
  • Flu
  • Cold
  • Whooping cough
  • Diarrhea
  • Cholera

7
How Diseases Spread
  • Killing humans is an unintended byproduct of
    disease growth and spread

8
How We Respond to Diseases
  • Fever (bake out microbe)
  • Immune response.
  • This may give us lifelong immunity (measles,
    mumps, rubella, pertussis, smallpox)
  • or not, if microbe evolves quickly (flu, malaria,
    sleeping sickness, AIDS)
  • Natural selection.
  • Not everybody dies, resistant genes selected for
    in population.

Children with AIDS
9
Epidemic Diseases
  • Epidemic diseases spread quickly to an entire
    population
  • Run their course quickly
  • Result in either death or resistance.
  • Tend to be restricted to humans.
  • ex measles, rubella, mumps,
    pertussis, smallpox

Smallpox
10
Epidemic Diseases
  • Flu killed 21 million people at end of WWI.
  • Black Death killed 1/4 of Europe's population
    between 1346 and 1352.
  • Disease dies out if population is under a half
    million because everybody has been exposed and is
    either dead or resistant.

Plague, 14th Century Europe
11
Epidemic Diseases
  • Disease only survives with travel between
    populations or between uninfected pockets within
    a population.
  • These diseases cannot sustain themselves in small
    populations of hunters/gatherers

12
Diseases in Small Populations
  • Dysentery from a sailor on a whaling ship killed
    51 of 56 Sadlermiut Eskimos in 1902.
  • Then disease died out.

13
Diseases in Small Populations
  • Diseases in small populations restricted to
  • ones that can live in animals
  • yellow fever
  • ones that take a long time to kill
  • leprosy
  • ones that humans don't develop immunity to.
  • worms and parasites

Leprosy
14
Agriculture and Disease
  • Why did agriculture launch the major infectious
    diseases?
  • high human populations
  • Sedentary life among sewage
  • Close proximity to herd animals

15
Disease Transfer from Animals
  • Four stages of animal to human disease transfer
  • 1) diseases directly from animals.
  • Don't get transmitted human to human
  • ex brucellosis from cattle, leptospirosis from
    dogs
  • 2) Does transfer human to human, but dies out
  • ex Fort Bragg fever in 1942
  • 3) Transfers human to human but not yet
    long-established
  • ex Lyme disease, AIDS
  • 4) long established epidemic diseases.
  • Diseases evolve to effectively work in new host
  • ex syphilis

16
Role of Disease in Conquest
  • Diseases played huge part in conquest of New
    World.
  • Hispaniola had 8 million inhabitants in 1492,
    zero by 1535.
  • There were estimated 20 million Indians in USA
    before European diseases. 19 million died

17
Role of Disease in Conquest
  • Were 20 million in Mexico, reduced by disease to
    1.6 million.
  • With 20 million, why not more infectious
    diseases?
  • Answer No large domestic animals.

18
Chapter 12
  • Blueprints and Borrowed Letters

19
Writing
  • Writing marched together with weapons, microbes
    and centralized political organization as a
    modern agent of conquest.
  • Why did only some peoples and not others develop
    writing, given its overwhelming value?

Pizarros conquest of Atahuallpa
20
Strategies for Writing
  • Three strategies for writing
  • 1) logogram
  • One symbol stands for a word
  • Ex Chinese
  • Syllabary
  • One symbol stands for a syllable
  • Alphabet
  • One symbol stands for a basic sound

Chinese
21
Invention of Writing
  • Writing invented independently just four times
  • Mesopotamia (3,000 BC)
  • Egypt (3,000 BC)
  • China (1300 BC)
  • Mexico (600 BC)
  • All others borrowed, adapted or inspired by these
    systems.

Egyptian hieroglyphics
22
Invention of the Alphabet
  • Alphabet invented just once by Semites starting
    1700 BC
  • Three steps in Alphabet development
  • Started with 24 Egyptian consonants, discarded
    all logograms
  • Ordered the consonants in fixed sequence
  • Greek Alpha, Beta, etc. gave Alphabet its name
  • Invented vowel symbols

23
Blueprint Copying
  • Blueprint copying of Semitic alphabet (with
    modifications) led to these alphabets
  • Aramaic, Southeast Asian
  • Persian, Phoenician
  • Arabic, Greek
  • Hebrew, Roman
  • Indian, Cyrillic

24
Idea Diffusion
  • Writing systems have also spread by idea
    diffusion
  • Ex Cherokee Indian named Sequoyah, 1820s
  • Illiterate
  • Devised a writing system for Cherokee language
  • Was a syllabary of 85 symbols
  • Based only on knowledge that English could be
    written

Sequoyah
25
Idea Diffusion
  • Other writing systems originated by idea
    diffusion
  • Korean
  • Celtic Ogham
  • Polynesian

Korean alphabet 24 letters
26
Early Writing
  • Early writing was like shorthand
  • For record keeping
  • Required Scribes to write
  • Arose in stratified societies that could support
    bureaucrats
  • Hunter/Gatherers
  • No use for scribes
  • No extra food to feed scribes
  • Since most societies acquired writing from
    others, isolated complex societies less likely to
    have it
  • Incas
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Native Americans in Mississippi valley

Egyptian scribe
27
Chapter 13
  • Necessitys Mother

28
Technology
  • Why did technology evolve at different rates on
    different continents?
  • Many inventions are the mother of necessity
  • Without a clear need
  • In search of practical application
  • Or their application evolves
  • Automobiles were not needed at first toys of
    rich
  • Phonograph was not for music Edison objected!

29
Tinkering
  • Inventors have to tinker for a long time for
    inventions to be accepted
  • TV
  • Cameras
  • Typewriters

30
Inventions
  • Inventions rest on a long history of previous
    inventions
  • James Watts steam engine (1769)
  • Was based on Newcombs (1712)
  • Which was based on Saverys (1698), etc.
  • Therefore, if not Watt, would be someone else

31
Acceptance by Society
  • Inventions depend on society being ready to
    accept or exploit the invention
  • Four Factors influence acceptance
  • 1) economic advantage
  • 2) social value and prestige
  • 3) vested interests
  • QWERTY typewriters designed to slow down typing
    for 1870 typewriter
  • Once widely accepted, cant change although very
    inefficient
  • 4) ease of observing advantages
  • English immediately saw advantage of cannons

QWERTY keys once an advantage
32
Resistance to Technology
  • For any given society, most inventions come from
    elsewhere
  • either accepted or not
  • Many reasons societies resistant to technology
    adoption
  • Each continent has more and less resistant
    cultures
  • Reception to technology varies over time in the
    same culture
  • Japan adopted firearm technology in 1540s
  • improved them and became best in the world
  • then banned them by 1600s.

33
Acceptance of Technology
  • Societies accept technologies because
  • They see an advantage
  • Conquered by others with technology
  • Invention spreads by Idea Diffusion
  • Porcelain china manufacture in England

British Porcelain China
34
Autocatalysis
  • Technology begets more technology Autocatalysis
  • Current rate very fast
  • Reasons
  • Advances depend on previous mastery of simpler
    problems
  • Ex Metallurgy from copper to iron
  • Combinations of technologies make new
    technologies possible
  • Ex Printing Press

35
Technology Development
  • Three Factors in Technology Development
  • 1) Time of onset of food production
  • 2) Lack of barriers to diffusion (isolation)
  • 3) Human population size
  • Huge advantage of Eurasia in all three areas!
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