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REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S

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REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S Which reforms of the era had the most lasting effect on the civil rights and liberties of Americans? * ABOLITION OF SLAVERY In addition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S


1
REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S
  • Which reforms of the era had the most lasting
    effect on the civil rights and liberties of
    Americans?

2
  • The first half of the nineteenth century was a
    time of movers and shakers, people who saw
    injustices in American society and worked to
    abolish those injustices.
  • These reforms would change the lives of many
    individuals.

3
What were the major reform movements of the 1800s?
  • Treatment of the mentally ill
  • Temperance movement
  • Abolition of slavery
  • Womens rights
  • Education

4
Vocabulary to Know
  • NINETEENTH CENTURY
  • 1800s
  • ABOLISH
  • eliminate get rid of
  • INJUSTICE
  • unfairness inequality
  • REFORMER
  • someone who changes something by correcting
    faults and removing abuses

5
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • Leader Dorothea Dix

GOAL better treatment of persons with mental
illnesses
REASON the mentally ill were badly treated
6
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • In the early 1800s, Americans viewed the United
    States as a land of unlimited opportunity. Many
    believed that those who failed did so because
    they had bad characters.
  • As a result, debtors, children who were
    offenders, and the mentally ill were often locked
    up in jails with murderers and thieves.
  • Dorothea Dix and other reformers worked to change
    Americans ways of thinking about these
    institutions and their inmates.

7
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • Dorothea Dix first observed prison conditions
    while teaching Sunday school at a Boston prison
    for women in 1841.
  • She wanted to find out if all the prisons in the
    state were as appalling.
  • Over a two-year period, Dix investigated more
    than 800 prisons, jails, and poorhouses.

8
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • She found the prisoners were often living in
    inhumane conditions.

9
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • Prisoners were often chained to the walls with
    little or no clothing, often in unheated cells.

10
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • To Dorothea Dixs horror, she learned that some
    of the inmates were guilty of no crimethey were
    mentally ill persons.
  • Dix made it her lifes work to educate the public
    as to the poor conditions for both the mentally
    ill and prisoners.

Dorothea Dix Hospital, Raleigh, NC
11
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • Dix decided to appeal to the Massachusetts
    government for help.
  • In 1843 she addressed the following report to the
    state legislature
  • I proceed, gentlemen, to call your attention to
    the present state of Insane Persons confined, in
    cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained,
    naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into
    obedience

12
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
  • As a result of Dixs report, Massachusetts passed
    a law to build mental hospitals where mental
    illness could be treated as a disease rather than
    a crime.
  • By 1852, she had persuaded 11 states to open
    hospitals for persons with mental illness.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Vocabulary to Know
  • MENTALLY ILL
  • psychologically ill
  • CRIMINAL
  • lawbreaker offender delinquent

15
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Leader American Temperance Union and religious
    leaders

GOAL to eliminate alcohol abuse
REASON alcohol led to crime, poverty, abuse of
family
16
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Religious leaders stood at the forefront of the
    war against alcohol.
  • Public drunkenness was common in the early 1800s.
  • Alcohol abuse was widespread, especially in the
    West and among urban workers.

17
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Reformers blamed alcohol for
  • poverty
  • breakup of families
  • crime
  • insanity

18
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Another effect of the easy-to-get alcohol was the
    abuse of wives and children.

19
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Alcohol abuse was widespread during this time.
  • Employers often paid part of workers wages in
    rum or whiskey.
  • Workers took rum breaks similar to todays coffee
    breaks!!

20
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • The reformers began a campaign against drinking.
  • The campaign was
  • known as the
  • temperance movement.

21
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • The American Temperance Society was formed in
    1826.
  • Within a few years, about 1000 local
    organizations sprang up across the nation.
  • Some groups took a moderate approach and asked
    people to drink less alcohol.
  • Other groups insisted that the sale of alcohol be
    banned altogether!

22
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
23
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • Northern and Southern temperance societies used
    propaganda to win support for their cause.
  • They held meetings, gave speeches, and
    distributed pamphlets.
  • They even sang songs such as Drink Nothing,
    Boys, but Water, and Father, Bring Home Your
    Money Tonight.

24
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • State legislators took the reformers message to
    heart. By 1857 several states had passed
    prohibition laws. Many Americans protested the
    laws, and most of the laws were later repealed.
  • The temperance movement stayed alive, though, and
    found renewed support later in the century.

25
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
  • with individuals like Carrie Nation.

26
Vocabulary Terms to Know
  • TEMPERANCE
  • restraint when using alcohol abstinence from
    alcohol
  • POVERTY
  • state or condition of being poor

27
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • Leaders Quakers, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner
    Truth, William Lloyd Garrison, anti-slavery
    groups

GOAL end slavery
REASON it is immoral for one person to own
another
28
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • By 1840, nearly 2.5 million enslaved people lived
    in the South.
  • At one time, the North also had slavery. By 1804
    every Northern state legislature had passed laws
    to eliminate it.
  • The Southern economy, though, depended on slave
    labor.

29
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • An organized antislavery movement did not begin
    until after the Revolutionary War.
  • A religious group, the Quakers, started the
    abolition movement. Quakers had opposed slavery
    since colonial times. In 1775 the Quakers
    organized the first antislavery society.

ABOLISH SLAVERY!
30
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • The American Colonization Society, founded in
    1817, wanted to help free African Americans.
  • The society set up a colony for free African
    Americans in Liberia, in western Africa.
  • It was not successful because many African
    Americans wished to remain in the United States,
    their home.

31
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • In 1831 white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison
    founded The Liberator, a Boston anti-slavery
    newspaper.
  • In the first issue, Garrison demanded the
    immediate emancipation, or freeing, of all
    enslaved persons.
  • He urged abolitionists to take action without
    delay.

32
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • The North had many prominent African American
    abolitionists.
  • Isabella Baumfree, although born into slavery in
    New York, gained her freedom when New York
    abolished slavery. She changed her name to
    Sojourner Truth and vowed to tell the world about
    the cruelty of slavery. She began a tireless
    crusade against injustice.

33
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • The most important spokesperson for the cause was
    Frederick Douglass.
  • Born into slavery, Douglass secretly taught
    himself to read, although Southern laws
    prohibited it.
  • He escaped from slavery in 1838 and settled in
    Massachusetts.
  • He captivated audiences by talking about his life
    in bondage.
  • He spoke out against the injustices faced by free
    African Americans.

34
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • In addition to his public speaking, Douglass
    edited a widely read abolitionist journal called
    the North Star.
  • Douglasss speaking and writing abilities so
    impressed audiences that opponents refused to
    believe he had been a slave!
  • In response, he wrote three very moving
    autobiographies.

35
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • Many abolitionists, like Douglass, did more than
    lecture and write. They became conductors on
    the Underground Railroad.
  • The Underground Railroad began around 1817. It
    was not an actual railroad but a series of houses
    where conductors hid runaway enslaved persons and
    helped them reach the next station.
  • Enslaved African Americans made their way to the
    North or Canada on the railroad.

36
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
37
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • Harriet Tubman became the most famous African
    American conductor on the Underground Railroad.
  • Tubman fled from slavery in 1849. Later she
    explained why she risked her life to escape

There was one of two things I had a right to,
liberty or death if I could not have the one, I
would have the other.
38
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • Tubman helped others escape. She returned to the
    South 19 times and led more than 300 enslaved
    peopleincluding her own parentsto freedom.
  • Slaveholders offered a reward of 40,000 for her,
    dead or alive.
  • But she managed to avoid discovery time after
    time.

39
Vocabulary to Know
  • ABOLITIONIST
  • a person who works to abolish, or get rid of,
    slavery
  • ENSLAVED PERSON
  • someone who is kept in bondage a person with no
    freedom
  • EMANCIPATION
  • liberation a setting free

40
Womens Rights
  • Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott,
    Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth

GOAL obtain equal rights for women, including
suffrage, right to own property, and
education REASON women did not have the same
rights as men
41
Womens Rights
  • Their involvement in the antislavery movement and
    other reform movements gave women roles outside
    their homes and families.
  • They learned valuable skills, such as organizing,
    working together, and speaking public. (Note it
    was considered unfeminine to speak in public!)

42
Womens Rights
  • After attending the World Anti-Slavery Convention
    in London in 1840 and not being allowed to
    participate in the discussions, Lucretia Coffin
    Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton spent hours
    talking about womens position in society.
  • They realized that they could not bring about
    social change if they themselves lacked social
    and political rights.

43
Womens Rights
  • On July 19, 1848, the first womens rights
    convention opened in Seneca Falls, New York.
  • Both male and female delegates attended the
    convention.

44
Womens Rights
  • The delegates issued the Seneca Falls Declaration
    that all men and women are created equal.
  • Then the declaration listed several resolutions.
    One of them demanded suffrage, or the right to
    vote, for women. After much heated debate, it
    passed by a narrow margin.

45
Womens Rights
  • The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning
    of an organized womens rights movement.
  • Following the convention, women did not achieve
    all of their demands. They did, however overcome
    some obstacles.
  • Many states passed laws permitting women to own
    their own property and keep their own earnings.
  • Many men and women, though, continued to oppose
    the movement. Most politicians ignored or acted
    hostile to the issue of womens rights.

46
Womens Rights
  • We have good cause to be grateful to the slave.
    In striving to strike his irons off, we
    foundthat we were manacled ourselves.
  • Abby Kelley, womens activist

47
Womens Rights
  • Susan B. Anthony, a powerful organizer, joined
    the womens rights movement. Her father
    encouraged her to get an education and so she
    became a teacher.
  • A dedicated reformer, Anthony joined the
    temperance movement and worked for the American
    Anti-Slavery Society.
  • She became one of the first to urge full
    participation of African Americans in the womens
    suffrage movement.
  • Through her efforts, the state of New York agreed
    to grant married women the guardianship of their
    children and control of their own wages.
  • Today Anthony is one of the early movements
    best-remembered leaders.

48
Vocabulary to Know
  • SUFFRAGE
  • right to vote franchise

49
Education Reform
  • Leaders Horace Mann

REASON more Americans were qualified to vote
and needed to be able to make wise decisions
about their government
GOALS to educate all Americans
Education does better than to disarm the poor of
their hostility toward the rich it prevents them
from being poor.
50
Education Reform
  • American schools varied from section to section
    across the country.
  • As early as 1647, Massachusetts passed a law
    requiring towns to provide schools for their
    children. The rest of New England adopted
    similar laws. The towns, not the states, paid
    for the schools.

51
Education Reform
  • The Middle Atlantic states also took
    responsibility for education. Private societies
    in New York and Pennsylvania raised money to fund
    schools.
  • The federal government required education for
    people in the Northwest Territory. In the
    Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Congress set aside a
    section of land in each township for the support
    of schools.
  • Public schools in the North and West
  • seldom had enough money to furnish
  • good educations, though.

52
Education Reform
  • Southern schools had even less support. In the
    South, families had to work so hard to make a
    living that little time or money was left for
    schooling.
  • Well-to-do people in all sections of the country
    managed to give their children good educations.
    Many paid for privately operated schools.

53
Education Reform
  • During the 1830s more Americans qualified to vote
    than ever before. Educational reformers argued
    that voters needed good educations to make sound
    decisions about their government.
  • The reformers proposed raising the standards of
    schools across the nation and supporting them
    with taxes.
  • To accomplish these goals, they started the
    common school movement.

54
Education Reform
  • Not everyone favored common schools, also
    referred to as free, or tax-supported, public
    schools.
  • In the 1830s few people paid state or federal
    taxes. As a result, many strongly objected to
    paying taxes for public schools.

55
Education Reform
  • Horace Mann spearheaded the campaign for common
    schools.
  • Mann was especially concerned about poor
    children. Their families could not afford to
    send them to private schools or to contribute to
    the support of schools in their district.
  • Mann won over taxpayers to his way of thinking by
    pointing out the benefits to society.

56
Education Reform
  • During the 1840s and 1850s, the flood of
    immigrants into the United States helped free
    public schools gain general acceptance. Many
    Americans realized that schools were the ideal
    agents to teach American values to the new
    arrivals.

57
Education Reform
  • Even with reforms, for many Americans getting
    into any kind of school remained a struggle.
  • Most areas of the country neglected the education
    of women, African Americans, and the physically
    challenged. Bold and far-sighted reformers,
    however, took up their cause.

58
Education Reform
  • Girls generally received only a basic education.
    Even private schools taught girls morals and
    manners rather than science and mathematics.
    Eventually, womens colleges were foundedsuch as
    Troy Female Seminary in NY, Mount Holyoke in MA,
    and Oberlin College in OH.
  • Few places offered any kind of education to
    African Americans in the early 1800s. Almost all
    colleges barred African Americans from attending.
    Two exceptions were Amherst College and Bowdoin
    College in the northeast. Little progress was
    made in higher education for African Americans
    until years after the Civil War.

59
Vocabulary to Know
  • COMMON SCHOOLS
  • free, tax-supported, public schools

60
What were the major reform movements of the 1800s?
  • Treatment of the mentally ill
  • Temperance movement
  • Abolition of slavery
  • Womens rights
  • Education

61
REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800s
  • Which reforms of the era had the most lasting
    effect on the civil rights and liberties of
    Americans?
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