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Monday, may 20, 2013

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WHILE THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WAS GOING ON AT HOME, WHAT WAS GOING ON ABROAD? MONDAY, MAY 20, 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-p5X1FjyD_g 40,000/month Officers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Monday, may 20, 2013


1
While the civil rights movement was going on at
home, what was going on abroad?
  • Monday, may 20, 2013

2
background
  • French control of Indo-China from 1887
  • Ho Chi Minh 1930 forms ICP
  • Japanese seize parts in 41
  • Ho Chi Minh forms Viet- minh
  • a communist-dominated independence movement - rid
    of foreign powers
  • Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2,
    1945
  • French refused to give up South Vietnam
  • War with French starting in 46
  • Minh asked US for support
  • WHY?
  • Instead US supported French
  • WHY?

3
Dwight D. Eisenhower 53-61
  • Domino Theory
  • Monolithic Communism
  • All controlled by Moscow
  • 1950 - Support French financially - ALOT
  • French losing 1,000 men/month
  • 1954 Dien Bien Phu French leave
  • Geneva Accords
  • 17th Parallel splits country
  • Elections in 56 to unite
  • US did not support the Geneva Accords
  • WHY? 56 Diem cancels US supports
  • US had own elections Ngo Dinh Diem wins
  • RICH, French-educated, Roman Catholic, US
    connection
  • Foresee a problem???
  • Army of Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN)

THE COLD WAR
4
  • Ho Chi Minh in the North Ngo Dinh Diem in the
    South
  • Ike sent financial and military aid to Diems
    regime - 675 U.S. Army advisors to train the ARVN
    (army of South Vietnam)

5
John F. Kennedy61-63
  • Vietcong forms in South Vietnam to support
    Vietminh in North (National Liberation Front)
  • Increase defense spending
  • Green berets
  • Special forces unconventional warfare
  • Start training how to fight guerilla warfare (not
    good ourselves)
  • 18,000 advisors
  • By 62 double the aid fro 61
  • Lots of half measures

6
Why would monks do this?
7
  • The Making of a Quagmire "Flames were coming
    form a human being his body was slowly withering
    and shriveling up, his head blackening and
    charring. In the air was the smell of burning
    flesh. ... Behind me I could hear the sobbing of
    the Vietnamese who were now gathering. I was too
    shocked to cry, too confused to take notes or ask
    questions, too bewildered to even think." David
    Halberstam

8
John F. Kennedy61-63
  • 63 Monks -Self-Immolation in reaction to Diem in
    the South.
  • Diem so bad and out of touch
  • Diems family holds all power Wealth is hoarded
    by the elite
  • Relocate peasants
  • Buddhist majority persecuted
  • Torture, lack of political freedom prevail
  • Increases support for Vietcong
  • JFK supports coup to overthrow Diem
  • Diem and brother killed Nov 2, 1963
  • Nguyen Ngo Thieu new leader

9
  • At this point, if JFK had lived do you think he
    would have stopped us from getting more involved?

10
SIDES
  • North Vietnam/Pro Ho Chi Ming/Pro Communist
  • Vietminh (In North Vietnam)
  • Vietcong (stationed in South)
  • South Vietnam/Pro Thieu
  • America
  • Army of Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN)

11
Lyndon B. Johnson 63-69
  • 64, we are not sending our American boys 9 or
    10,000 miles to do what Asian boys ought to be
    doing Im not going to be the president who
    saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.
  • Great Society.
  • Increases military aid covert pt missions
    coastal attacks against North Vietnam
  • 08/2/64 8/4/64- Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  • American destroyer, Maddox, on coast N-Vietnam
  • Fired upon by North Vietnamese
  • Returns and possibly fired upon again?
  • 8/10/64 - Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • authority to escalate
  • blank check
  • President could "take all necessary measures to
    repel armed attack against the forces of the
    United States and to prevent further aggression."
  • drafted before incident.

12
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
13
Lyndon B. Johnson 63-69
  • Secret bombing of Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • March, 65 Operation Rolling Thunder
  • Sustained bombing campaign on N Vietnam
  • N Vietnamese accept S Vietnamese Gov.
  • Stop aid to Vietcong
  • Boost morale of South Vietnamese ARNV
  • 8 week campaign lasts until 68
  • Can you foresee problems from these campaigns?
  • Help from China and Soviet Union
  • Radar shoot down planes
  • Build tunnels and other protections
  • Anti-American sentiment VERY high!

14
Carpet Bombing napalm
15
Lyndon B. Johnson 63-69
  • March 65 FIRST GROUND TROOPS
  • 3,500 Marines need protect advisors
  • Realize ARVNs not capable
  • Westmoreland keeps wanting more! 75,000-125,000
  • End 65 185,000 troops, by 67 500,000
  • Search and destroy missions Guerilla cells
  • Continued escalation of US involvement

Genl Westmoreland Commander US troops
McGeorge Bundy Assistant to President
Dean Rusk Secretary of State
Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense
16
U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam
17
By 65 this is definitely our war, so How do we
win it?
18
Fighting a Limited War
  • Strategy
  • South search destroy
  • North bomb
  • NO PLAN TO WIN JUST SUPPORT THE SOUTH
    (ATTRITION Body Count)
  • killed over two times as many soldiers as they
    lost

19
  • What are some problems you can foresee with our
    approach to winning?

20
American problems
  • Fighting in the jungle a jungle you do not know
  • Most fighting in the South searching out
    Vietcong who were they?
  • Vietcong much better equip Ho Chi Ming Trail
  • How do you make them like you, join your side
    when you are bombing them?

21
Vietcong tactics
  • setting booby traps
  • landmines
  • Snipers
  • ambushing US patrols, hit/run had the power!

22
Tunnels to protect from our attacks
23
Who Is the Enemy?
Farmers by day, guerillas at night After
hit/run blend into villages Willing to accept
causalities The guerilla wins if he does not
lose, the conventional army loses if it does not
win. -- Mao Zedong
24
Account OF vietnAM
  • he thought to himself, you know, 'My God, what's
    going on here?' And over the ensuing months, he
    watched a litany of atrocities take place a
    young boy executed for no reason an old man who
    was used for target practice a prisoner thrown
    off a cliff a man who was held down to be run
    over by an armored personnel carrier. ... And
    when he first spoke up about brutality, his life
    was threatened and even his friends came up to
    him afterwards and said, 'Listen, you better keep
    your mouth shut or you're going to get a bullet
    in the back during a firefight.'

25
Ho Chi Minh Trail
26
The body count
  • hearts and minds not considered
  • The body count.
  • Lots of collateral damage
  • Drop more bombs than all WWII 8 MILLION TONS
    BETWEEEN 65-73
  • AGENT ORANGE
  • AGENT BLUE
  • http//www.dailymotion.com/video/x405ys_vietnam-wa
    r-operation-rolling-thund_news
  • Disconnect between how fight and win

27
To make matters worse
  • Body counts on TV every night (first living
    room war)
  • No longer romanticize war

28
yet, this is what we are told sound accurate?
  • April 28, 1967, Westmoreland addressed a joint
    session of Congress. "In evaluating the enemy
    strategy," he said, "It is evident to me that he
    believes our Achilles heel is our resolve ...
    Your continued strong support is vital to the
    success of our mission ... Backed at home by
    resolve, confidence, patience, determination and
    continued support, we will prevail in Vietnam
    over the Communist aggressor!
  • United States forces "won every battle."

29
The Anti-War movement at home
By November 1967, American troop strength in
Vietnam was approaching 500,000 U.S. casualties
had reached 15,058 killed and 109,527 wounded.
The Vietnam War was costing the U.S. some 25
billion per year
30
Hostility towards the war
  • Cost of the war no more Great Society
  • A civil conflict none of our business
  • Terrible atrocities committed
  • The draft
  • Deferments for college
  • Medical deferments
  • National guard
  • Poor mans war
  • 80 from lower classes
  • Draft lottery 69 less deferments
  • Any of these reasons valid????
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vBVi4JjIlEhw

Doves
31
Fighting the war
  • teach-ins in college campuses
  • Rallies where burned draft cards
  • 1964 begins
  • Fled to Canada draft dodgers
  • conscientious objectors
  • Anti-War Demonstrations
  • -Washington, D.C.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgV--rAMQoQk

32
The new left
  • 60s and 70s young peoples movement
  • Democracy, civil rights, anti-Vietnam
  • Students for a Democratic Society, or SDS
  • Participated in rallies
  • Helped organize events on college campuses
  • Biggest qualm the draft!

We are people of this generation, bred in at
least modest comfort, housed now in universities,
looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit.
First meeting SDS
33
Not everyone was a dove
  • The hawks believed that the aggression of North
    Vietnamese forced us into the war.
  • United States should do what ever is necessary to
    win escalate!

34
Wednesday, may 29, 2013
35
the Tet Offensive
  • Jan 31, 1968 Lunar New Year
  • 70,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces
    launched Tet Offensive
  • more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam
  • bases
  • Saigon, U.S. Embassy broadcast
  • Victory in traditional sense
  • Vietcong destroyed
  • Losing psychological war!
  • http//www.history.com/shows/vietnam-in-hd/videos/
    tet-offensive

36
Impacts of tet February 68
  • Respected TV journalist Walter Cronkite, who had
    been a moderate and balanced observer of the
    war's progress, announced that it seemed "more
    certain than ever that the bloody experience of
    Vietnam is to end in a stalemate.
  • war no longer winnable
  • LBJ was shaken, if I lose Walter it is over
    lost average Joe
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vNn4w-ud-TyE

37
Impacts of tet offensive
  • Government had been optimistic
  • Now a credibility gap existed
  • Westmoreland requested 200,000 more troops
  • INSTEAD - Limited bombing talks to end war

38
Johnsons popularity dropped in 1968 from 48 to
36.
  • Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill
    today?

39
The democratic primaries
Johnson announces (March, 1968)
  • I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the
    nomination of my party for another term as your
    President.
  • Democratic Primaries.
  • Close call with Eugene McCarthy in NH Bobby
    too!
  • Democratic Party split

40
More troubles in 68
  • MLK assassinated April 1968
  • Bobbys assassination June 5, 1968
  • August - Democratic Convention Aug 68
  • Eugene McCarthy anti-war candidate clean for
    Gene
  • 10,000 Anti-war protestors
  • 23,000 police and natl guardsmen
  • Riots break out
  • the whole world is watching
  • Hubert Humphrey (VP) chosen

41
Hell no, we wont go!
42
(No Transcript)
43
  • How will the election of 68 be impacted by the
    war?

44
Is this surprising? 1968 election
45
The election of 68
  • Hubert Humphrey (D)
  • Supported Johnson on Vietnam ceasefire
  • Solid liberal record
  • Richard Nixon
  • "new leadership will end the war
  • Law and order
  • Southern strategy
  • George Wallace (I)

46
Richard Nixon 1969-1974
  • Vietnamization
  • Silent Majority
  • Peace with honor
  • 69-540,000 to 72 30,000
  • Mad Man Diplomacy
  • Expansion of the conflict ? The Secret War
  • Cambodia
  • Laos

47
Adding more fuel to the flame
Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry
  • Mylai Massacre, March, 1968
  • 200-500 unarmed villagers
  • Blamed draft inept leader
  • Story breaks 69
  • Lt. William Calley, Platoon Leader

48
Anti-War Demonstrations
  • May 1 - May 4, 1970
  • 4 students shot dead. - 11 students wounded
  • 67 rounds in 13 seconds
  • Jackson State University
  • May 10, 1970
  • 2 dead 12 wounded

Kent State University
49
Pentagon Papers, 1971
  • Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked
    govt. docs. regarding war efforts during
    Johnsons administration to the New York Times.
  • Docs.? Govt. misled Congress Amer. People
    regarding its intentions in Vietnam during
    mid-1960s.
  • Primary reason for fighting not to eliminate
    communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat.
  • New York Times v. United States (1971)

50
Ho Chi Minh
  • If we have to
    fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our
    men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end
    it will be you who tires of it.

51
The Ceasefire, 1973
  • Peace is at hand ? Kissinger, 1972
  • North Vietnam attacks South
  • Most Massive U.S. bombing commences
  • Christmas Day - 1972
  • 1973 Ceasefire signed between
  • U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam
  • Peace with honor (President Nixon)

Dr. Henry Kissinger Le Duc Tho
52
The Ceasefire, 1973
  • Conditions
  • U.S. to remove all troops
  • North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V.
  • North Vietnam would resume war
  • No provision for POWs or MIAs
  • Last American troops left South Vietnam on March
    29, 1973
  • 1975 North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
  • Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City

53
The Fall of Saigon
South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country
54
The Fall of Saigon
April 30, 1975
America Abandons Its Embassy
55
The Fall of Saigon
North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace
56
A United Vietnam
Formerly Saigon
57
The Costs
  • 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed
  • 58,000 Americans killed 300,000 wounded
  • Under-funding of Great Society programs
  • 150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending
  • U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of
    government, decimated

58
The Impact
  • 26th Amendment 18-year-olds vote
  • Nixon abolished the draft? all-volunteer army
  • War Powers Act, 1973 ?
  • President must notify Congress within 48 hours of
    deploying military force
  • President must withdraw forces unless he gains
    Congressional approval within 90 days
  • Disregard for Veterans ? seen as baby killers
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?viSIHEO6V6vg
  • My Lai

59
Some American POWs Returned from the Hanoi
Hilton
Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
60
2,583 American POWs / MIAs still unaccounted
for today.
61
Hanoi Jane
Still divided?
62
A different kind of war
  • Tim Page
  • http//www.vietnampix.com/mach.htm

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vO6USpep92Ew http//
www.youtube.com/watch?v40m5gBgwjQE
63
(No Transcript)
64
Conditions of Fighting
65
Napalm
66
Bombing Campaigns
67
Atrocities of War
68
Napalm bombings
69
(No Transcript)
70
Kent State, 1970
71
(No Transcript)
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