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Chapter 4 Counseling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society

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Chapter 4 Counseling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society * Etic perspective: - universal qualities that exist in counseling are culturally generalizable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4 Counseling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society


1
Chapter 4Counseling in a Multicultural and
Diverse Society
2
Why do we need to learn multicultural counseling?
  • Why do counselors need to know cultures?
  • Do you think cultural issues are sensitive?
  • Does the majority of Americans have the same
    culture? How about other ethnic groups?
  • ? Counselors cannot avoid addressing cultures.

3
Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling
  • Culture
  • ethnographic variables
  • demographic variables
  • status variables

4
Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling
  • Culture
  • any group of people who identify or associate
    with one another for some common purpose, need,
    or similarity of background
  • Multicultural counseling
  • counseling in which the counselor and client
    differ in terms of culture and/or worldview.

5
Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling
  • Two perspectives
  • Etic -------------------- Emic
  • perspective perspective
  • (culturally (culturally
  • generalizable) specific)

6
History of Multicultural Counseling
  • Before 1970, only 8.5 of the most frequently
    cited books were published.
  • Gilbert Wrenn (1962) described the culturally
    encapsulated counselor.

7
History of Multicultural Counseling
  • The Association for Non-white Concerns in
    Personnel and Guidance (ANWC) a division of the
    ACA was founded in 1972.
  • The ANWC was later changed to the Association for
    Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD).
  • The AMCD publishes the Journal of Multicultural
    Counseling and Development.
  • The AMCD sponsors conferences.

8
Difficulties in Multicultural Counseling
  • Overculturalizing
  • Language
  • Nonverbal behaviors
  • Racism
  • Acculturation
  • the process of cultural change as a result of the
    contact between two or more cultures

9
Issues in Multicultural Counseling
  • The dominance of theories based on European/North
    American cultural values
  • the value of individuals
  • action-oriented approach to problem-solving
  • the scientific method
  • an emphasis on rigid time schedules

10
Issues in Multicultural Counseling
  • Cultural sensitivity
  • Guidelines for effective counseling across
    cultures
  • recognize their own values and beliefs
  • aware of the cultural and generic qualities of
    counseling theories
  • sociopolitical environment
  • able to share the worldview of clients
  • able to apply various counseling skills

11
Issues in Multicultural Counseling
  • Development and employment of counseling theories
  • Cultural bias
  • Integrating cultural awareness into training
  • Explanations of existing theories and their
    applicability to certain populations and problems

12
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Between-group differences
  • Within-group differences
  • Uniqueness

13
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Five main cultural groups
  • European Americans (69)
  • African Americans (13)
  • Hispanics/Latinos (13.5)
  • Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (4)
  • Native Americans (1)
  • Source U.S. Census Bureau (2003)

14
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15
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • European Americans
  • Cultural heritages
  • Relatively more homogeneous
  • Worldview
  • values linear, analytical, empirical, task
    solutions
  • individualism, autonomy, independence
  • gt group performance

16
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • African Americans
  • Negative stereotypes
  • Relinquish independence
  • Unequal relationships
  • Collective emphasis

17
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Hispanics/Latinos
  • Heterogeneous people whose ancestors come from
    the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas
  • May be reluctant to use counseling services
  • May perceive psychological problems as physical
    problems
  • May expect counselors to be directive

18
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (Asian
    Americans)
  • Heterogeneous
  • Model minority
  • Religious traditions
  • Psychosomatic symptoms are common
  • May expect counselors to be directive

19
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Native Americans
  • 478 tribes recognized by the U.S. Bureau of
    Indian Affairs plus another 52 tribes without
    official status
  • Very diverse 149 languages
  • Value harmony with nature, cooperation, holism,
    present-concern, reliance on ones extended
    family
  • Historical influence

20
Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural
Groups
  • Native Americans
  • Existential approaches of counseling
  • Acculturation
  • Creative arts
  • Storytelling
  • Meet with tribal leaders and elders
  • Extended family

21
Aged Populations
  • The aged gt 65
  • 13 in 2000, 21 in 2030
  • Receiving less services
  • Common problems
  • - grief, loneliness
  • - empty nest
  • - financial problems

22
Aged Populations
  • Counseling the Aged
  • older people do not receive much attention from
    mental health providers because of
  • a lack of understanding
  • the investment syndrome
  • the irrational fear of aging

23
Aged Populations
  • Approach
  • Treat the aged as adults and with respect.
  • Modify the attitudes of society.

24
Gender-Based Counseling
  • Counseling Women
  • Primary consumers of counseling
  • Major concerns
  • Concerns in counseling women
  • Theories
  • Sexism counterproductive

25
Gender-Based Counseling
  • Issues and theories of counseling women
  • Feminist theory
  • Emphasizes equality in the counseling
    relationship
  • Emphasizes sociopolitical action

26
Gender-Based Counseling
  • Counseling Men
  • Traditional sex roles
  • Internalizing emotions
  • Less help-seeking
  • Issues and theories
  • Exploring feelings
  • Interpersonal learning in groups

27
Counseling and Sexual Orientation
  • Counseling with
  • Gays/Lesbians/Bisexuals/
  • Transgenders (GLBT)
  • Family and peer relations
  • Isolation
  • Coming out
  • AIDS

28
Counseling and Spirituality
  • Spirituality
  • refers to a unique, personally meaningful
    experience of a transcendent dimension that is
    associated with wholeness and wellness.
  • Examples
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