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INSTALLING MICROSOFT EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 CLUSTERS AND FRONT-END AND BACK-END SERVERS

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Title: INSTALLING MICROSOFT EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 CLUSTERS AND FRONT-END AND BACK-END SERVERS


1
INSTALLING MICROSOFT EXCHANGE SERVER 2003
CLUSTERS AND FRONT-END AND BACK-END SERVERS
  • Chapter 4

2
OVERVIEW
  • Clustering Exchange Server 2003 servers
  • Installing Exchange Server 2003 on a Microsoft
    Windows Server 2003 cluster
  • Managing an Exchange Server 2003 cluster
  • Configuring Exchange Server 2003 in a front-end
    and back-end configuration

3
CLUSTERING EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 SERVERS
  • Supported clustering types
  • Network load balancing
  • Microsoft Cluster service
  • Cluster service configurations
  • Failover configurations
  • Active/active and active/passive
  • Clustering components

4
SUPPORTED CLUSTERING TYPES
  • Network load balancing
  • Microsoft Cluster service

5
NETWORK LOAD BALANCING
  • Configured through the Network Load Balancing
    Manager
  • Runs as a driver in Microsoft Windows
  • Distributes incoming requests across each node in
    the cluster
  • Can contain as few as 2 nodes and as many as 32
    nodes

6
NETWORK LOAD BALANCING (CONT.)
  • Distributes TCP/IP traffic between the cluster
    nodes
  • Only works with TCP/IP
  • No special hardware is required
  • Servers are not required to be members of a domain

7
THE LOAD BALANCED CLUSTER
  • Seen as a single resource
  • Operates by default in Unicast mode
  • Addressed by a single IP address
  • Each node also retains its own unique IP address
  • Applications are installed individually on each
    node

8
NETWORK LOAD BALANCING ON MULTIHOMED SERVERS
  • Advantages to using two network cards
  • Increases the fault tolerance of the individual
    server
  • Enables communication between cluster nodes

9
HEARTBEATS
  • Network packets emitted every second by each node
    in a cluster
  • When a node goes offline, its heartbeats stop
  • After five seconds the remaining nodes in the
    cluster begin to remove the unresponsive server
  • This process is called convergence
  • Convergence also redirects incoming client
    requests to other nodes for handling

10
MICROSOFT CLUSTER SERVICE
  • A cluster appears as a single network resource to
    client computers
  • Application and service aware
  • Full failover protection for both servers and
    applications
  • Does not load balance
  • Requires a cluster storage device

11
MICROSOFT CLUSTER SERVICE FEATURES
  • Requires Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
    or Datacenter Edition
  • Up to eight-node clusters supported
  • Each cluster node must be running the same
    operating system version
  • Restrictions relaxed for a two-node cluster
  • Servers must all be members of the same domain

12
CLUSTER SERVICE CONFIGURATIONS
  • Single node server clusters
  • Single quorum device server clusters
  • Majority node set server clusters

13
CLUSTER STORAGE DEVICE REQUIREMENTS
  • The cluster storage device cannot use
  • Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) disks
  • Software RAID
  • Dynamic volumes
  • Mount points or mounted volumes
  • Encrypting File System
  • Remote storage

14
Cluster Hardware Configuration
  • Shared Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) bus
  • Fast, reliable network card to the local area
    network (LAN)
  • Network card to the private area network

15
ACTIVE/ACTIVE AND ACTIVE/PASSIVE CLUSTERS
  • Active/active clusters limited to two nodes
  • Active/active clusters support up to 1900
    concurrent client connections
  • Active/passive clusters can consist of up to
    eight nodes
  • Active/passive clusters scale to significantly
    higher numbers
  • Active/passive clusters generally more reliable
  • Message transfer agent (MTA) always active/passive

16
Two-Node Hardware Configuration
17
The Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
Reserve Command
18
Active/Active Clustering
19
Failover and Failback Procedures
20
Clustering Support in Exchange 2003 Server
  • Server installation
  • Resource groups
  • Virtual servers

21
INSTALLING EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 ON A WINDOWS
SERVER 2003 CLUSTER
  • Similar to a normal installation
  • First prepare the Windows Server 2003 cluster
    servers
  • Cluster service automatically installed on
    Windows Server 2003
  • Need to configure the Cluster service using
    Cluster Administrator

22
NEW SERVER CLUSTER WIZARD
23
THE NEW CLUSTER
24
INSTALLING EXCHANGE 2003
  • Install Microsoft Distributed Transaction
    Coordinator (MSDTC)
  • Run ForestPrep
  • Run DomainPrep
  • Install Exchange Server 2003 on each node of the
    cluster
  • Use the Cluster Administrator console to
    configure the Exchange Server 2003 virtual
    servers
  • Assign the Cluster service account the Exchange
    Full Administrator role

25
MANAGING AN EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 CLUSTER
  • Creating an Exchange Server 2003 virtual server
  • Managing Exchange Server 2003 Clustered services

26
CREATING AN EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 VIRTUAL SERVER
  • Two-node active/passive Exchange Server 2003
    cluster
  • One Exchange Server 2003 virtual server
  • Two-node active/active Exchange Server 2003
    cluster
  • Two Exchange Server 2003 virtual servers

27
EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 VIRTUAL SERVER RESOURCE
REQUIREMENTS
  • Static IP address
  • Unique network name
  • Shared physical disk
  • Exchange System Attendant resource

28
RESOURCES CREATED BY EXCHANGE SYSTEM ATTENDANT
29
MANAGING EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 CLUSTERED SERVICES
  • Managed in Cluster Administrator
  • Most default settings are adequate
  • Might want to reconfigure failover and failback

30
CONFIGURING INDIVIDUAL RESOURCE PROPERTIES
31
TESTING POLICIES
  • Test the restart, failover, and failback policies
  • Right-click a resource and select Initiate
    Failure
  • Manually stop the Cluster service on a server
    node
  • Start the service again and test the failback
    policy

32
CONFIGURING EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 IN A FRONT-END
AND BACK-END CONFIGURATION
  • Configuring Exchange Server 2003 as a front-end
    server
  • Front-end and back-end servers and clustering

33
CONFIGURING EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 AS A FRONT-END
SERVER
  • Front-end servers relay Internet traffic to
    back-end servers on the internal network
  • Cannot host a Recipient Update Service
  • Cannot host offline address lists
  • Mailbox Management service must be removed
  • Free and busy service must be removed

34
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • If the front-end server accepts Simple Mail
    Transfer Protocol (SMTP) mail from Internet-based
    clients
  • Start the Microsoft Exchange Information Store
    service
  • Mount at least one mailbox store
  • Ensure that user mailboxes are not stored in the
    mailbox store
  • Do not delete the First Storage Group object
  • One front-end server for every four back-end
    servers recommended

35
FRONT-END SERVERS AND CLUSTERING
  • Do not host user data
  • Well suited for using network load balancing
  • Up to 32 nodes in a cluster
  • Cluster service Internet-based clients connect
    through
  • Outlook Web Access (OWA)
  • Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3)
  • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4)

36
FRONT-END SERVERS AND CLUSTERING (CONT.)
  • Cluster functions as a single entity to client
    requests
  • Cluster relays traffic between the client
    computer and the back-end server

37
BACK-END SERVERS AND CLUSTERING
  • Host user mailboxes and public folders
  • Well suited for the Microsoft Cluster service
  • Complete failover protection is typically
    required
  • Map each front-end server to all back-end server
    nodes
  • Communication between front-end and back-end
    servers goes through TCP port 80

38
SUMMARY
  • Microsoft Cluster service and network load
    balancing
  • Installing Exchange Server 2003 on cluster nodes
  • Managing clusters
  • Front-end and back-end servers
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