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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development


PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 20 Middle Adulthood: Biosocial Development Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood Graying and thinning of the hair Drying and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development

PSYC 2314Lifespan Development
  • Chapter 20
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Biosocial Development

Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood
  • Graying and thinning of the hair
  • Drying and wrinkling of the skin
  • Change in body shape
  • Loss in height

Sense Organs
  • Hearing
  • Environmentally caused
  • Men are more likely to developed hearing loss
  • Genetic
  • Age

Sense Organs
  • Vision
  • Farsightedness and astigmatism
  • Depth perception, eye-muscle resilience, color
    sensitivity and adaptation to darkness
  • Glaucoma

Vital Body Systems
  • Immune system is actually stronger. However,
    recovery takes longer.
  • Autoimmune diseasewhen the immune system
    mistakes the persons own body cells for foreign
    invaders and attacks them (rheumatoid arthritis
    or lupus).

Health Habits
  • Smoking
  • A risk factor for many diseases.
  • Nonsmokers have a 30 higher risk of lung cancer
    if they are married to smokers than if they are
    married to nonsmokers.
  • All smoking diseases are dose- and

Health Habits
  • Alcohol
  • Moderate use may lower the risk of heart disease
  • Heavy use is the main cause of cirrhosis of the
  • Puts stress on the heart and stomach
  • Destroys brain cell
  • Hastens calcium loss associated with osteoporosis
  • A risk factor in many forms of cancer

Health Habits
  • Nutrition
  • Strongly related to the onset and progress of
    heart disease and cancer.
  • A high-fat, low-fiber diet promotes the
    development of heart disease and several types of

Health Habits
  • Weight
  • Overweight is present in 2 out of every 3
    middle-aged residents of the US.
  • Obesity is a risk factor for heart disease,
    diabetes, and stroke. It is also a contributing
    factor for arthritis.

Health Habits
  • Vigorous exercise for at least 30 minutes daily
  • Increases heart and lung capacity and metabolism
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Reduces the ratio of body fat to body weight
  • Enhances cognitive functioning through improved
    blood circulation
  • Improves self-image and general sense of

Variations in Health
  • Four distinct measures of health
  • Mortality
  • Morbidity
  • Disability
  • Vitality
  • Quality-adjusted life years (QUALYs) calculates
    how many years of full vitality are lost as a
    result of a particular disease or disability.

Ethnicity and Health
  • Mortality
  • African Americans die at twice the rate of
    European Americans, who themselves die at twice
    the rate of Asian Americans.
  • Native Americans have about 20 higher death rate
    and Hispanic Americans a 20 lower rate than the
    overall average
  • Morbidity and disability follow the same ethnic

Beyond Black and White
  • Group differences in health are often
    misattributed to genes and ancestry
  • Current education
  • SES
  • Pressures and opportunities provided by the
    larger society

Gender Differences
  • Mortality
  • Middle-aged men are twice as likely to die of any
    cause and three times as likely to die of heart
  • Men are more likely to smoke, drink, be
    overweight, repress emotions, and ignore their
    medical symptoms.
  • Morbidity and disability
  • Women have higher rates than men.

Sexual Reproductive System
  • Sexual responses gradually become slower and less
  • Reproduction less likely
  • Attitudes are more important than biology in
    assessing the impact of these changes.

The Climacteric
  • Climacteric various biological and
    psychological changes that accompany menopause
  • Variations in the timing of a womans menstrual
  • Hot flashes and cold sweats
  • Drier skin
  • Loss of breast tissue, bone calcium

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Reduce the risk of coronary heart disease,
    Alzheimers disease, tooth loss, and hip
  • Long-term consequences are not yet known,
    however, may increase the risk of some forms of
    cancer, particularly breast cancer.

Psychological Impact of Menopause
  • Historical changes have meant that the end of
    childbearing is now determined less by age than
    by personal factors, such as the number of
    children a couple already has or the couples
    financial status. The end of childbearing thus
    represents a conscious decision and makes
    menopausethe time when sexual activity is no
    longer accompanied by fear of pregnancya
    liberating and welcomed event.

Sexual Expression
  • Sexual activities usually declines in terms of
    frequency of intercourse and orgasm.
  • Sexual stimulation, esp. in men, takes longer and
    needs to be more direct
  • A reduction in the intensity of orgasmic
    reactions and less vigorous contractions and