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THE 13 COLONIES

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THE 13 COLONIES Middle Colonies . The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Due to the regions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE 13 COLONIES


1
THE 13 COLONIES
2
REVIEW
  • Before we get to the 13 colonies, lets review
    what has happened to lead up to the establishment
    of the 13 colonies

3
Review
  • So far, we have learned that many European
    nations began to send explorers around the world
    hoping to claim land, find riches, and spread
    their religion. Many nations were looking for
    the Northwest Passage which was a shortcut
    through North America to reach Asia for trade.
  • Once the American continents
  • were discovered nations competed
  • with each other to claim the most land.

4
CONQUISTADORS ( SPANISH EXPLORERS
5
Review
  • In order to compete with Spain and France,
    England sent many people to the east coast of
    America to establish colonies. England was happy
    to support the growth of colonies (towns) in
    America because it helped England claim land in
    the New World.

6
The First Colony
  • After several early attempts, English
    colonization became a success in 1607 when the
    Virginia Company of England sent a group of men
    to Jamestown, Virginia to build a colony.
  • Jamestown would become the first permanent and
    successful English colony in America.

7
REVIEW
  • Twenty years after the start of Jamestown,
    another group of people called the Pilgrims
    headed to America from England.
  • Unlike the Jamestown colonists who wanted land
    and a chance to make money, these Pilgrims were
    looking for religious freedom. The Pilgrims
    landed just north of Virginia, in Plymouth
    Massachusetts, and began the Plymouth colony.

8
PURITANS AND PILGRIMS
9
Government in the Colonies
  • All of the colonies were settled with
  • The permission of the king of England.
  • The King of England issued
  • charters (formal documents) that
  • outlined the colonys boundaries and
  • how it would be governed.
  • However, since the colonies were so far away from
    England they still needed to be able to make
    their own laws to keep peace and order.

10
Im the king of England! I control of the 13
colonies!!
11
Early Government
  • Since the colonies were so far from England, most
    of the colonies were allowed to have self-rule
    where they developed laws for themselves
  • The first form of self-rule in the colonies
    began with the Pilgrims as they signed the
    Mayflower Compact on their way to Massachusetts.

12
House of Burgesses and Representative Government
  • Many of the colonies decided to create
    assemblies where members of the community could
    get together and discuss concerns in the
    colonies. Often people would elect
    representatives to speak on behave of the colony
    as a whole.
  • The House of Burgesses became the first form of a
    representative government in America.

13
THE HOUSE OF BURGESSES ( Representative
Government- where you elect representatives)
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15
England claims land along the Atlantic Coastline
  • Over time, more and more people headed from
    Europe to America. England claimed most of the
    land along the east coast of America so many
    people who landed in what would become the 13
    colonies were from the European nation of
    England.

16
The 13 Colonies
  • By 1770 the America had grown into 13 English
    colonies. These colonies developed distinctive
  • (unique) ways of life that would affect the
    development of America for years to come.

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18
People in the Colonies
  • Most of the colonists felt they were citizens of
    England even though they were in the American
    colonies.
  • Many colonists came to America for the chance to
    own land and start a new life in America. Others
    came to find religious freedom. There were some
    who did not have a choice.

19
People in the Colonies
  • A number of convicts (people in jail) were forced
    to go to America to work off their debts(money
    you owe) as indentured servants. And millions of
    people were kidnapped from Africa and taken to
    the colonies to work as slaves.

20
What is an Indentured Servant?
  • An indentured servant is a person who
  • signed an indenture( agreement) to work
  • for a master for a period of years in
  • exchange for something. For example,
  • land or a ride to America
  • were both common things these
  • poor servants wanted to work for.
  • Indentured servants were not free until they
    completed
  • their term of service. Most indentured servants
    were
  • released from their master after they completed
    around
  • 7 years of work.

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23
Grouping the 13 Colonies
  • By 1733, there were 13 British/English colonies
    along the Atlantic coastline. They can be grouped
    into three distinct regions The New England,
    Middle, and Southern Colonies. These regions had
    different climates and resources that encouraged
    settlers to develop different ways of life.

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25
Map of the 13 colonies
NEW ENGLAND
MIDDLE
SOUTHERN
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THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
28
New England Colonies ( The New England region
included the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire.)
  • In New England, farming was difficult because of
    the long, cold winters, rocky soil and hilly
    wilderness. However, the sea and forests produced
    useful resources and ways to make a living.

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NEW ENGLAND
  • In the New England Colonies, religion and
    geography were two of the greatest influences of
    life in New England.
  • The Puritans and Pilgrims of this region hoped to
    build model communities based on their religious
    faith. New Englands forests and coastline made
    lumbering, shipbuilding and trade very important
    to the regions economy.

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Middle Colonies
  • pictures

33
Middle Colonies (New York, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, and Delaware. )
  • The landscape of this region ranged from rich
    soil to the wooded mountains. Farmers in the
    Middle Colonies raised a wide variety of crops
    and livestock. Lumbering, shipbuilding and other
    occupations added to the variety of opportunities
    in these colonies.
  • The middle colonies became a center for trade
    between the 3 colonial regions.

34
Middle Colonies
  • . The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the
    area to become a major exporter of wheat and
    other grains. Due to the regions production of
    wheat and grain, the Middle Colonies have also
    become known as the Bread Basket Colonies.
  • The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed
    success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania
    saw moderate success in the textile and iron
    industry.

35
IRON INDUSTRY
36
The Quakers
  • The Middle Colonies were the most
  • ethnically diverse British colonies in
  • North America, with settlers coming from
  • all parts of Europe. There were many
  • religious and ethnic groups in the
  • middle colonies.
  • One of the these religious groups in the Middle
    Colonies were the
  • Quakers as known as the Society of Friends. They
    were led by
  • William Penn and believed in a simple lifestyle
    and treating people
  • equally. They believed in treating Native
    Americans fairly and
  • paying them for their land. They also refused to
    fight in wars or
  • pay dues to the Church of England. Eventually,
    the Quakers
  • would become a dominant group in the fight to end
    the slave
  • trade.

37
William Penn and the Quakers
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39
The Southern Colonies
  • pictures

40
Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, and Georgia. )
  • This region featured large rivers and vast
    wetlands that merged into the sea. Here the soil
    was fertile and the hot wet climate made it an
    ideal region to grow tobacco, rice and other cash
    crops
  • (cash crops crops that are grown only to make
    money/cash and not to just be eaten, like tobacco)

41
Plantations in the South
  • In the Southern Colonies, the climate and
    geography of the region made it a perfect place
    to grow cash crops like tobacco, cotton and rice.
  • As more and more people began to grow cash crops,
    giant farms called plantations began to appear in
    the South. At first European indentured servants
    worked on this large farms however, as time went
    on, slaves from Africa became the main source of
    labor in the Southern Colonies.

42
SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH
  • Although slavery could be found in all
  • of the 13 colonies the majority of the
  • slaves were found in the South working
  • on the large plantations. For example
  • in the Maryland Colony, African slaves
  • made up more than 50 to 60 percent of
  • the overall population
  • Life for slaves working on the Southern
    plantations was
  • very difficult. They were treated as though they
    were
  • animals and had no rights. The slaves were often
    ripped
  • apart from their families and forced to work long
    hard days in the
  • fields. If they tried to fight back they were
    often brutally punished.

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49
The Backcountry
  • pictures

50
The Backcountry
  • The Backcountry was distant from the dense
    coastal cities of the 13 colonies. This was the
    area away from the coast and closer to the dense
    woods and meadows of the Appalachian Mountains,
    far away from the big cities. The people of the
    Backcountry faced more threats such as attacks
    from Native Americans and isolation. Their life
    was very rural and rugged.

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