Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3fa18e-NzBjN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK

Description:

Templates by Operandi Limited ... Dick Shaw & Rob Tanner- CABI Format Brief introduction to CABI and invasives Biocontrol types, history and examples Azolla ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:35
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 116
Provided by: ascotgr
Learn more at: http://invasivespeciesireland.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK


1
Biological control for weeds in Ireland with
reference to JK HB
  • Dick Shaw Rob Tanner- CABI

2
Format
  • Brief introduction to CABI and invasives
  • Biocontrol types, history and examples
  • Azolla weevil
  • Japanese knotweed and the psyllid
  • Himalayan Balsam
  • Floating Pennywort

3
What/who is CABI?
  • Formerly the Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux
    International, Origins back to 1910.
  • UN-Treaty level, not-for profit
    intergovernmental organisation owned by its 45
    member countries
  • CABI includes the former International Institute
    of Biological Control (IIBC) and 3 other
    institutes

4

Our member countries and centres
5
Our mission
  • CABI improves peoples lives worldwide by
    providing information and applying scientific
    expertise to solve problems in agriculture and
    the environment

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
6
CABI Publishing
  • Abstracts environment, agriculture, tourism
  • 7 million abstracts (10,000 free text added/yr)
  • Books - 60 new titles/year
  • Invasive Species Compendium gt1,000 species
    included so far (hopefully open access if final
    funding can be found)
  • 20 million turnover
  • Only 5 of our income is from member
    contributions (core funding)

7
IAS CBD Commitments
  • PREVENT, ERADICATE or

CONTROL
  • What about the really big problems we already
    have?

8
Plants are often the worst invaders
9
What is Biological Control?
10
(No Transcript)
11
Broom in New Zealand
12
3 Categories of Biological Control
Conservation - Protection and maintenance of
existing Natural Enemies (NEs)
Inundative - a.k.a the Mycoherbicide Approach
using native pathogens for repeated application
Classical - Using Co-evolved (highly specific)
NEs from the area of origin of the plant to
provide self-sustaining control after a single
release.
13
Rhododendron ponticum
14
(No Transcript)
15
Buddleia pathogens
16
What is Classsical Biological Control?
17
NOT The Cane Toad
18
(No Transcript)
19
Prickly pear in Australia
50 million hectares of it in New South Wales
20
Before
21
After
22
(No Transcript)
23
Rubber vine weed
24
(No Transcript)
25
Is It Safe?
Over 1,000 releases of biocontrol agents around
the world gt350 agents against 133 target weeds A
century of research Any non-target effects are
predictable by the vigorous safety testing An
International code of conduct 8 examples of
non-target effects (7 of which predicted or
predictable with current approaches)
26
EU Activity
Country Recipient Source
Austria 0 48
Finland 0 5
France 0 111
Germany 0 46
Greece 0 29
Italy 0 71
Portugal 0 18
Spain 0 9
Sweden 0 3
UK 0 41
Total 0 381
27
Stenopelmus rufinasus No stranger to biocontrol
28
Before
29
After
30
Bracken P. aquilinum
C. cinsigna tested against 71 spp.
  • P. angularis tested against 54 spp.

31
(No Transcript)
32
Symptoms of the Fungal Pathogen Phloeospora
heraclei
Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)
Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)
33
(No Transcript)
34
The site is a challenge. We have identified
unexploded wartime bombs and Japanese
knotweed.. the bombs we can deal with Head of
London Development Agency on the subject of the
2012 Olympic site
35
Japanese knotweed(s)
  • Fallopia japonica var. japonica Bailey
  • syn. Reynoutria japonica Houttuyn
  • syn. Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold Zucc.
  • F. sachalinensis (Giant knotweed)
  • F. x bohemica (hybrid)

Courtesy of Japanese kntoweed manual Child Wade
36
Phase 2 sponsors
AAFC BC
37
Very wide range of Japanese knotweeds in
Japan. Often hard to tell apart.
38
(No Transcript)
39
(No Transcript)
40
Many insects feeding on most parts
186 species of phytophagous arthropod recorded
from Japanese knotweed in Japan. Remarkably only
one generalist root feeder of note
41
Photo Prof K. Yano
42
Field observations
43
  • The Japanese team in their temperate glasshouse
    with stock plants

44
(No Transcript)
45
Pathogens
46
Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati
Leafspot fungus- so common that it is included in
the Flora of Japan
47
Life cycle
  • Microcyclic or reduced life cycle - only
    functional spores are spermatia and ascospores
  • Primary source of infection is ascospores, no
    anamorph or macroconidial stage found
  • No ascomata produced in vivo or in vitro despite
    varied humidity regimesagar media trials
  • Mycelial infection found to be comparable in lab


48
Macro/microscopic analysis
F. Conollyana
P. maritimum
F.japonica
  • 60 plant spp tested (mainly mycelium)
  • no symptoms on F. sachalinensis F. compacta
  • 21 N. American species tested to some degree
    still promising

F x bohemica
49
Insects
50
DISMISSED
Endoclyta excrescens
51
Allantus luctifer
DISMISSED
52
Machiatella itadori
DISMISSED
53
Lixus impressiventris
54
(No Transcript)
55
(No Transcript)
56
DISMISSED
Ex F. japonica host
Can rear through on P. hydropiper but produced
very small offspring too few to establish a
culture. Only ever seen on Japanese knotweed in
Japan even when populations were very high indeed
Ex P. hydropiper host
57
Aphalara itadori
58
(No Transcript)
59
(No Transcript)
60
(No Transcript)
61
(No Transcript)
62
(No Transcript)
63
  • Detailed life cycle studies complete

Egg 1st instar 2nd instar 3rd instar 4th instar 5th instar Complete life cycle
Mean ? 1SE 9.2 ? 0.1 4.8 ? 0.2 3.3 ? 0.2 3.9 ? 0.3 4.5 ? 0.1 7.1 ? 0.3 32.9 ? 0.8
Range 9 - 10 4 - 6 2 - 5 3 - 8 4 - 6 5 - 11 28 - 42
64
Aphalara information
  • Each female produces a mean of 637 eggs 121.96
    (1SE, n 11).
  • The mean period of production is 37.5 days 5.85
    days (1SE, n 11).
  • Adults live up to 67 days

65
Centrifugal phylogenetic method More closely
related species more likely to be attacked than
more distantly related ones
Family
Tribe
Subtribe
Genus
Species
66
Test Plant List
  • 90 species and varieties
  • representatives from 19 families.
  • All naïve Polygonaceae
  • 37 plants natives
  • 23 species introduced to the UK,
  • 3 species native to Europe,
  • 13 ornamental
  • 10 economically important UK species

67
The 78 spp. that did not receive eggs are excluded
Bar chart showing mean egg count on those plants
that did receive eggs in multiple choice
oviposition tests. (/- 1SE). Development only
successful to the left of red line
68
Aphalara adult survival
69
Extent of nymph development on NT hosts which
have received eggs
  • Request for more information from CSL as part of
    review of PRA
  • Hand transferred nymphs
  • Higher humidity than before
  • 6 reps x 10 N1 nymphs 60 individuals
  • Increased survival on knotweed
  • Risk of artificially increased survival on NTs

70
Nymph survival over time
71
Muehlenbeckia complexawire plant
  • Garden thug (Clement Forster, 1994)
  • Weed in Australia
  • US team have found same result for northern Ai
    strain with another congeneric

72
Aphalara summary
  • Still happy in culture in the UK
  • 87 species / varieties used so far, 3 rare spp.
    to go
  • 145,172 eggs followed, 928 (0.64) laid on
    non-targets but no development
  • Nymph transfer development studies and
    target-absent oviposition studies largely support
    findings
  • Adult no-choice starvation studies show very
    restricted range

73
Impact studies
Leaf count
Increase in height
74
(No Transcript)
75
(No Transcript)
76
(No Transcript)
77
(No Transcript)
78
(No Transcript)
79
(No Transcript)
80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
(No Transcript)
83
(No Transcript)
84
Interaction with herbicide Significant
increase in leaf loss
  • Change in leaf number two weeks after spraying
    with sub-lethal dose of systemic herbicide
    following exposure to four levels of psyllid
    feeding

85
Interaction with herbicideReduction in leaf area
86
Japan 2007
  • Primarily Giant knotweed in Hokkaido and N.
    Honshu
  • Collections of northern species for NA screening

87
(No Transcript)
88
(No Transcript)
89
R2 0.9328 Dev Rate per day 0.019210.002162
Temp
DD 462.5 from egg to adult
90
(No Transcript)
91
Overwintering studies on Aphalara
  • Lab showed survival on Bark, at 5 degrees after 8
    weeks
  • So can survive with no food at all.
  • Field work needle in a haystack

92
(No Transcript)
93
What next?
  • Wildlife Countryside application complete for
    England (Devolved Authorities version in prep.)
  • Pest Risk Analysis complete
  • Contingency and monitoring plan proposed
  • External peer reviewers begun
  • Public consultation Web (3 months)
  • Stakeholder awareness raising (during above)
  • Ministerial decision (last quarter 09?)
  • Release if authorised (April 2010)

94
Impatiens spp.
95
(No Transcript)
96
2007
97
(No Transcript)
98
(No Transcript)
99
(No Transcript)
100
(No Transcript)
101
(No Transcript)
102
Floating pennywortHydrocotyle ranunculoides
103
Background
  • Hydrocotyle ranunculoides is a serious invader of
    water bodies in the UK
  • It is banned in Holland and a recent addition to
    the EPPO alert list
  • 50km stretch was identified in Leicestershire
    canal
  • Control is extremely difficult and the plant is
    still spreading

104
(No Transcript)
105
(No Transcript)
106
(No Transcript)
107
(No Transcript)
108
Listronotus elongatus
109
(No Transcript)
110
(No Transcript)
111
Multi choice 50 adults Heavy damage and egg
laying on target, only trace feeding on native
112
EU opportunitiesSheppard, Shaw Sforza - Weed
Research 2006
Species Form Origin EU distribution Genus native? Conflict BC history
Buddleja davidii Ph China Temperate Nob O Yes
Fallopia japonica Ge Japan Temperate Yes No Yes
Acacia dealbata Ph Australia Mediterranean Nob O Yesd
Azolla filiculoides Hy N America Temp/Med Nob No Yesd
Ailanthus altissima Ph China Temp/Med Nob No Yes
Impatiens glandulifera He India Temperate Yes O No
Rhododendron ponticum Ph S Europe Temp/Med Yes O Yes
Robinia pseudoacacia Ph N America Temperate No F No
Senecio inaequidens He S Africa Temp/Med Yes No Yes
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Th C America Temp/Med Yes No Yesd
Carpobrotus edulis Ch S Africa Temp/Med Nob No No
Heracleum mantegazzianum He W Asia Temperate Yes No Yes
Solanum elaeagnifolium He S America Tem/Med Yes No Yesd
Baccharis halimifolia Ph N America Mediterranean No No Yesd
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Hy N America Temp/Med Yes No Yes
Ludwigia peploides He S America Temp/Med Yes No Yes
Crassula helmsii Hy Australasia Temperate Yes No No
Elodea canadensis Hy N America Temperate No No No
Myriophyllum aquaticum Hy S America Temp/Med Yes No Yes
Solidago canadensis Ge N America Temperate Yes No No
113
Thank you
Shaw, R.H., Bryner, S. Tanner, R. (2009). The
life history and host range of the Japanese
knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji
potentially the first classical biological weed
control agent for Europe. Biological Control
49 105-113Kurose, D., Evans, H.C., Djeddour,
D.H., Canon, P.F., Furuya, N. Tsuchiya, K.
(2009) Mycosphaerella species as potential
biological control agents of the invasive weed
Fallopia japonica. Mycoscience (in
press)Sheppard, A.W., Shaw, R.H. Sforza, R.
(2006) Classical biological control of European
exotic environmental weeds The top 20 potential
targets and the constraints. Weed Research 46
pp93-118
114
Himalayan knotweed
Rapidly spreading in UK and N. America and very
hard to control. Recent surveys in Pakistan
revealed very promising agents
115
Unidentified weevil and rust on Himalayan
knotweed in Pakistan
About PowerShow.com