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Infectious and Communicable Diseases

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Infectious and Communicable Diseases Ball & Bindler Donna Hills APN EdD Clinical Considerations Etiology: bacterial, fungal, viral, or protozoan Cluster of symptoms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infectious and Communicable Diseases


1
Infectious and Communicable Diseases
  • Ball Bindler
  • Donna Hills APN EdD

2
Clinical Considerations
  • Etiology bacterial, fungal, viral, or protozoan
  • Cluster of symptoms are disease specific
  • fever secondary to the release of prostaglandins,
    triggered by the invading organism
  • may be a beneficial physiologic response. Fevers
    lt 101-101.5 may not be treated right away.

3
Clinical Management
  • Fevers gt 101.5 are only treated with
    Acetominophen or Ibuprophennot Aspirin due to
    association with Reyes syndrome
  • Symptomatic relief with viruses
  • Antibiotics with bacterial infection
    (anti-fungal or protozoan as applicable)
  • Prevention of transmission/Isolation of infected
    child.
  • Good handwashing/ bacteriostatic hand gel

4
The Toxic Child
  • exhibits more severe symptomatology of illness
  • high fever, lethargy, poor ability to focus or
    give eye contact, decreased tone, poor perfusion
    (delayed cap refill), hypoventilation or
    hyperventilation, cyanosis, saturation less than
    95 on room air, significantly low temperature in
    a premie or child with neurologic impairment.

5
Evaluating Child with Fever/illness
  • Bodys natural defense against infection
  • Low grade fever may be beneficial to fight off
    organisms or enhance the effect of antibiotics.
  • Antipyretics are usually given for temps gt100 or
    101 Ax (per Dr.s order).
  • Fevers gt102 should be treated
  • Some children experience febrile seizures so may
    treat more rapidly in this case.
  • Acetominophen or Ibuprophen are preferred in
    children no ASA d/t assoc with Reyes Syndr.

6
Case Study 1 month old with a fever
  • Mrs. Carole calls the pediatric office to report
    that her 1 mo old has an axillary temp of 101.
    She is eating a little less than usual but
    otherwise seems fine.
  • What is your response to Mrs. Carole and what is
    your rationale?

7
Otitis Media
  • Used to be a common cause for fever
  • Incidence is now decreased with the use of the
    HIB and PCV vaccines.
  • Some children are still anatomically prone to OM
    due to poor eustachian tube dysfunction with or
    without a URI
  • Treatment with antibiotics Amoxicillin,
    Azithromycin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime.
  • Persistent fluid (SOM) can lead to hearing loss
    over time.

8
Infectious Skin Infestations
  • Lice (Pediculosis Capitis)
  • Common among children of all socioeconomic
    levels ages 3-10yr most common.
  • Nits found on hair shaft
  • Incub for eggs 8-10 days
  • Presents with itching and flaking
  • Rx with Permethrin (Nix) shampoo
  • Lindane is last resort neurotoxic
  • No-nit policy can be diffic for parents not
    recommended by AAP.

9
Scabies
  • Mite infestation Sarcoptes scabei
  • Skin to skin contact household transmission
    common
  • Most common in kids lt2yrs
  • Presents with intense puritis and characteristic
    linear rash (on hands or fingers) or diffuse
    trunkal rash.
  • Rx with scabicide lotion (Permethrin 5).

10
Impetigo
  • Bacterial infection caused by staph or
    streptococcus.
  • Common sites face, around mouth, hands, neck,
    and extremities, intertriginous areas.
  • Irritation or break in the skin serves as an
    entry
  • Presentation as pustule surrounded by
    erythema/edema, erupts with honey colored crust.
  • Bullous impetigo vesicles enlarge, stim by
    release of endotoxin coalesce
  • Spread to face or extr self innoculation.

11
Infectious and Communicable Diseases
  • Review and study table 12-5 pgs 620-635.
  • Complete the worksheet/handout for infectious
    diseases.
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