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The Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution Ms. McKenna The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
  • Ms. McKenna

The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped
making stuff at home and started making stuff in
  • Standard WHII.9 The student will demonstrate
    knowledge of the effects of the Industrial
    Revolution during the 19th century by
  • citing scientific, technological, and industrial
    developments and explaining how they brought
    about urbanization and social and environmental
  • explaining the emergence of capitalism as a
    dominant economic pattern, and the subsequent
    development of socialism and communism
  • describing the evolution of the nature of work
    and the labor force, including its effects on
    families, the status of women and children, the
    slave trade, and the labor union movement

  • The Industrial Revolution was a period from the
    18th to the 19th century where major changes in
    agriculture, manufacturing, mining,
    transportation, and technology had a profound
    effect on the socioeconomic and cultural
    conditions of the times
  • Industrialization a shift from an agricultural
    (farming) economy to one based on industry

Key Terms
  • Industrialization a shift from an agricultural
    economy (farming) to one based on industry
  • Manufacturing the use of machines, tools, and
    labor to make things for use or sale
  • Rural farming or country life villages
    (sparsely populated)
  • Urban city life (densely populated)
  • Urbanization the movement of people to cities
  • Tenement a substandard, multi-family dwelling
    usually old and occupied by the poor
  • Free market a market in which there is no
    economic intervention and regulation by the state
  • Capitalism private ownership of means of
  • Socialism society (not the individual) owns and
    operates the means of production


Turning Points in History Industrial Revolution
  • Introduction
  • http// (331)

Preview Reading Questions
  • As a quick preview to the Industrial Revolution,
    read each passage and answer the questions that
  • Overview Topics
  • What is a Revolution?
  • What Caused the American Industrial Revolution?
  • Horrors of the Workplace
  • The Beginning of Child Labor
  • Working Conditions
  • Life in the City
  • The Assembly Line

Pre-Industrial Revolution
  • Village life dominated families were nearly
  • Most villagers were farmers

Making Cloth Before Machines
  • Cottage Industry
  • Slow process
  • Business involving people who worked at home

Causes of the Industrial Revolution
  • Agricultural Revolution improved the quality
    and quantity of food
  • Farmers mixed different kinds of soil or tried
    new crop rotation to get higher yields
  • This led to a surplus of food fewer people died
    from hunger rapid growth in population
  • Rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure the
    process of taking over and consolidating land
    once shared by peasant farmers (farm output and
    profits rose)
  • New technologies and new sources of energy and
    materials (e.g., James Watts steam engine became
    a key source of power)

Rapid Population Growth
Population of Britain in 1750 6 million
Population of Britain in 1851 21 million
Population of London in 1750 500,000
Population of London in 1851 3 million
Families in agriculture in 1750 65 of population
Families in agriculture in 1851 25 of population
When we get to the end of this lesson, we will
complete a Causes Effects of the Industrial
Revolution Graphic Organizer
  • Causes
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • Effects
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

? ? ? ?
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution Begins In Great Britain
  • Stable Government
  • No wars
  • Had capital (money) to invest in businesses
  • Had overseas markets (colonial empire)
  • Natural Resources
  • Coal (energy for machines)
  • Iron ore (for tools)
  • Large network of rivers to move products
  • Labor Supply
  • Growing population
  • Ready workforce
  • New Technology
  • Invention and improvement of steam engine

Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and the
United States
The Enclosure Movement
  • The process of taking over and consolidating land
    formerly shared by peasant farmers
  • Landowners gained
  • More land for pastures
  • Larger fields for crops
  • Laborers lost
  • Forced off their lands
  • Moved to growing cities

Enclosure One thing Led to Another
  • Farmers gained pasture land for animals
  • Raised more sheep
  • Wool output increased
  • Larger fields
  • Able to cultivate product more efficiently
  • Farm out-put increased
  • Profits rose

Land Enclosure in England
Push FactorsWhere did all the people go?
  • Fewer worker needed on the lands
  • Farmers forced off their lands
  • Small owners could not compete
  • Villages shrank
  • Cities grew and GREW!!

Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows
the densely populated and polluted environments
created in the new industrial cities
Migration to Cities
First Major Industry to Form
  • The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to
    compete with others for the supplies to make it.
    This raised a problem for the consumer because
    the products were at a higher cost. The solution
    was to use machinery, which was cheaper then
    products made by hand (which took a long time to
    create), therefore allowing the cloth to be
    cheaper to the consumer.
  • Remember the Spinning Jenny? It
    reduced the amount of time and work
    needed to produce yarn (increased

Textile Factory Workers in England
1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers
1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers
1850 224, 000 looms gt1 million workers
Growth of Industry
  • Growth of factories
  • As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with
    new machines (e.g., flying shuttle, spinning
  • To house these new machines, manufacturers built
    the first factories
  • New machines and factories increased production
  • By the 1850s, factories began to be powered by
    coal and steam engines

Technological Advances that Produced the
Industrial Revolution
  • Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves
  • Steam Engine James Watt
  • Cotton Gin Eli Whitney
  • Process for making Steel Henry Bessemer

Spinning Jenny 1764
  • Invented by James Hargreaves
  • At the time, cotton production could not keep up
    with demand
  • This machine spun many threads at the same time,
    thus reducing the amount of work needed to
    produce yarn (increased productivity produced
    yarn quickly)

Modern Steam Engine 1763-1775
  • Improved by James Watt
  • Offered a dramatic
    increase in fuel
  • Could be used to
    drive many different
    types of machinery
    (by the 1850s, most
    factories were powered by the steam
  • Increased the demand for coal to heat the water
    to produce steam (and the need for coal miners)

Cotton Gin 1793
  • Invented by Eli Whitney to mechanize the cleaning
    of cotton
  • A machine that quickly and easily separates the
    cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously
    done by hand
  • Led to the demand for
    more slaves

(No Transcript)
(Henry) Bessemer Process for the Manufacture of
Steel 1856
  • Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air
    blown through molten pig iron to burn off the
    impurities and thus create steel
  • Lowered the cost of steel production, leading to
    steel being widely substituted for cast iron
  • Steel used for the production of guns and railway
    structures such as bridges and tracks

  • The Industrial Revolution was built on rapid
    advances in technology
  • Which of these three inventions most changed the
    way that raw materials, goods, and people moved?

The Impact of the Railroad
  • Transportation innovation that most changed the
    way raw materials, goods, and people moved
  • Allowed communication and trade between places
    previously deemed too far

Factories and Factory Towns
  • Where employees worked
  • Major change from cottage industry
  • Had to leave home to work (travel to cities)
  • Working in a factory
  • No safety codes dangerous work for all
  • Poor factory conditions (e.g., no heat or a/c,
    dirty, smelly, cramped)
  • Long workdays (12-14 hours)
  • Little pay (men compete with women and children
    for wages)
  • Child labor kept costs of production low and
    profits high
  • Mind-numbing monotony (doing the same thing all
    day every day)
  • Owners of mines and factories exercised control
    over lives of laborers
  • Life in factory towns
  • Towns grew up around factories and coal mines
  • Pollution, poor sanitation, no health codes
  • Rapid population growth
  • Poor lived in crowded tiny rooms in tenements
    (multistory buildings divided into apartments)

Conditions in Factories
Dangerous Machinery
Cramped spaces
  • Young women in the textile mills of Massachusetts
    died at an average age of 26, constantly inhaling
    cotton dust, working long hours in unventilated
    rooms lit by oil lamps

Testimonials on Labor Conditions
  • Testimony of William Cooper, a witness before the
    Sadler Commission in 1832

Child Labor
  • Young children
  • Long hours
  • Poor treatment
  • Dangerous conditions

(No Transcript)
Children of the Industrial Revolution
  • Video
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    fvwrel (Music 600)
  • http//
    related (Documentary 958)
  • Pictures
  • http//

Testimony from Child Labor in the Mines
  • The Ashley Mines Investigation of 1842
  • Children James Pearce (12), William Drury (10),
    and Patience Kershaw (17)
  • Mine Manager Edward Potter
  • Mine Owner William Newbould

Life in Factory Towns
Rapid Population Growth
Cramped Tenements
Poor Sanitation
  • Tenement a substandard,
    multi-family dwelling, usually old
    and occupied by the poor
  • Built cheaply
  • Multiple stories
  • No running water
  • No toilet
  • Sewer down the middle of street
  • Trash thrown out into street
  • Crowded (5 people living in
    one room)
  • Breeding grounds for diseases
  • Pollution from factory smoke

Factories and Mass Production
The factory system changed the world of
work Mass Production the production of large
amounts of standardized products, especially on
assembly lines
Assembly Line
  • Workers on an assembly line add parts to a
    product that moves along the belt from one work
    station to the next
  • A different person performs each task along the
    assembly line
  • This division of labor made production faster and
    cheaper, lowering the price of goods

First Assembly LineHenry Ford - Automobiles
Rise of Labor Unions
  • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand
    increased wages and improved working conditions
  • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers,
    including women and children
  • Wanted workers rights and collective bargaining
    between labor and management

The JungleUpton Sinclair
  • Written in 1906 to point out the troubles of the
    working class and the corruption of the American
    meatpacking industry in the early 20th Century
  • Depicts poverty, absence of social programs,
    unpleasant living and working conditions, and
    hopelessness prevalent among the working class,
    which is contrasted with the deeply-rooted
    corruption of those in power

The Jungle
  • Jurgis Rudkus http//
    BWfSPik (246)
  • Documentary http//
    jBF7Afeaturerelated (952)

The Jungle
  • Your Job
  • Read About Upton Sinclair, author of The Jungle
  • Read The Jungle Plot Overview
  • Read Brief Chapter Introduction for Chapter 3 of
    The Jungle
  • Read Chapter 3 of The Jungle
  • Read Extra Sinclairs The Jungle Turns 100
  • On a separate sheet of paper, answer the
    Comprehension Questions

Legislation Resulting from The Jungle
  • Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (sanitary standards)
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (food and drug tests,
    labels on food products)

Extension Activity
  • Your Job Pretend that you are one of the
    following people working in a factory during the
    Industrial Revolution
  • 12-year old boy/girl
  • Mother of four with no husband to support the
  • Immigrant father from Lithuania
  • Research the living conditions and working
    conditions that you faced during the Industrial
  • Write a 2-page journal entry depicting your
    struggles, fears, frustrations, and hopes for the

Consider these issues when writing your journal
Growth of cities and migration Living conditions no safety codes Working conditions unfair labor practices Class tensions the rise of the middle class

Large Gaps between Rich Poor
The HAVE-NOTS The Poor, The Over-Worked, and
the Destitute
  • The HAVES
  • Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the
    Industrial Revolution

Upstairs/Downstairs Life
New Ways of ThinkingEconomic PatternsCapitalis
m vs. Socialism
  • Economic system in which the means of production
    are privately owned and operated for a private
  • Free-market economy decisions regarding supply,
    demand, price, distribution, and investments are
    made by private actors
  • Profit goes to owners who invest in the business
  • Wages are paid to workers employed by companies
    and businesses

Stereotype of the Factory Owner
The Socialists Utopians Marxists
  • People as a society would operate and own
    themeans of production, not individuals
  • Their goal was a society that benefited
    everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few
  • Tried to build perfect communities utopias

Karl Marx Communism
  • Wrote The Communist Manifesto, 1848
  • A response to the injustices of capitalism
    argued that capitalism would produce internal
    tensions which would lead to its destruction
  • Communism a political philosophy that aims for
    a classless and stateless society structured upon
    common ownership of the means of production and
    an end to private property
  • Class struggle between employers and employees
    is inevitable. Instead of capitalism with its
    emphasis on greediness and selfishness, the new
    society ruled by the proletariat (working class)
    will ensure social, economic, and political
    equality for everyone.

Capitalism vs. Communism
  • Capitalism
  • an economic and social system in which capital

  • is privately owned
  • labor, goods and capital are traded in markets
  • profits distributed to owners or invested in
    technologies and industries.
  • Communism
  • a social structure in which classes are abolished
  • property is commonly controlled
  • A dictatorship of the workers
  • Capitalism Re-Definitions
  • Communism Re-Definitions

Effects of the Industrial Revolution
How did industrialization change the way of life?
Large gaps between the rich and the poor
Changes brought by industrialization
Size ?
Class Tensions
Working Conditions
The rise of the middle class
Living Conditions
No safety codes
Long hours, Little pay
Dangerous conditions
Positive Effects
  • Increased world productivity
  • Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient
    transportation of goods and people)
  • New entrepreneurs emerged (more money more
  • New inventions improved quality of life for many
  • Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve
    working conditions
  • Laws were enacted to enforce health and safety
    codes in cities and factories
  • New opportunities for women
  • Rise of the middle class size, power, and
    wealth expanded
  • Social structure becomes more flexible

Negative Effects Factory Life
  • Child labor used in factories mines
  • Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous
    (fingers, limbs, lives lost) working conditions
  • Monotonous work with heavy, noisy, repetitive
  • Long working hours six days a week, with little
  • Rigid schedules ruled each day
  • Gas, candle oil lamps created soot and smoke in
  • Diseases such as pneumonia tuberculosis spread
    through factories

Negative Effects Labor Practices Housing Issues
  • Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes
  • Strikes take place
  • Women were paid less than men (were actually
  • Indentured workers
  • Employers had a more impersonal relationship with
  • Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded,
    and cold
  • Human and industrial waste contaminated water
    supplies typhoid and cholera spread

Negative Effects Worldwide
  • Air pollution increased over cities and
    industrial areas
  • Technological changes eroded the balance of power
    in Europe
  • Contributed to the growth of imperialism and
    communism (Marxs Engels theories)
  • Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a
    military advantage over developing nations

Not Necessarily Good or Bad
  • The location of work places changed as more goods
    were produced away from the home environment
  • Educational systems emphasized more science,
    technology, and business
  • A global economy began to emerge (trade)

Individual Assignment
  • Select two effects of the Industrial Revolution
    that you believe were the most significant (ONE
    positive effect and ONE negative effect)
  • Write 3-4 paragraphs answering the following
  • How did the nature of work and the labor force
    evolve from pre-Industrial times through the
    Industrial Revolution?
  • What were the two most significant effects of the
    Industrial Revolution and why?

Directions Complete the Causes Effects of
the Industrial Revolution Graphic Organizer,
identifying at least 3 causes and 3 effects
  • Causes
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • Effects
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

? ? ? ?
The Industrial Revolution
Summary Social Effects
  • Increase in population of cities
  • Women and children enter the workplace as cheap
  • Rise of labor unions
  • Introduction of reforms
  • Laws to protect children in the workplace
  • Minimum wage and maximum hour laws
  • Federal safety and health standards
  • Growth of the middle class
  • Increased production and higher demand for raw
    materials growth of worldwide trade
  • Expansion of education
  • Womens increased demands for suffrage

Advantages of the Industrial Revolution
  • Goods were able to be produced much more cheaply
  • There were greater job opportunities
  • There was an increase in wealth and in general
    quality of life
  • An independent urban manufacturing business force
  • New inventions and innovations occurred
    information spread, making the world smaller
  • Spurred the rise of large cities