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Fundamentals of Graphic Aids: Charts and Graphs

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Fundamentals of Graphic Aids: Charts and Graphs * To add a graphic to a chart: In the Illustrations section on the Insert tab, select the medium where the graphic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of Graphic Aids: Charts and Graphs


1
Fundamentals of Graphic Aids Charts and Graphs
2
Objectives
  • Explain the value of graphs in reports
  • Describe the criteria for quality graphs
  • Describe the potential for misleading data
  • Choose the correct graph for different data sets
  • Construct bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs

3
Why use charts?
  • To help clarify complex data
  • To supplement text (not substitute text)
  • To help the reader focus on the data
  • To simplify the readers comprehension

4
To clarify, supplement, focus, simplify
Simple ?
5
To clarify, supplement, focus, simplify
Better ?
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1999 2000
6
To clarify, supplement, focus, simplify
BEST !
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1999 2000
7
Criteria for Quality Graphs
  • 1. Shows the data
  • 2. Helps the reader focus on the data rather than
    on the graph itself
  • 3. Avoids misleading the reader or distorting the
    data
  • 4. Simplifies the readers comprehension of the
    data
  • 5. Is consistent with the verbal or numeric
    description of the data.

8
Potential for misleading the reader
9
Two Different Graphs Presenting the Same
Information
XYZ Company Safety Violations, 1996-1998
XYZ Company Safety Violations, 1996-1998
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1986 1987 1988 1989
1986 1987 1988 1989
10
Two Different Graphs Presenting the Same
Information
600
XYZ Company Sales
XYZ Company Sales
500
400
300
200
100
0
Oct Nov Dec
11
You be the judge.
Other
Training Development
5
Material Capital Development
50
10
35
Salaries
12
Column and Bar Charts
13
Simple Vertical Column Chart
14
Simple Horizontal Bar Chart
Western Cable TV
Radio Station WROZ-FM
Radio Station WKDM-AM
0 2 4
6 8 10 Net
Income (millions of dollars)
15
Expenditures for Real Estate Advertising in
Selected Colorado Counties, 1998
Arapahoe County
SCALE BREAK
55
Denver County
3.2 million
El Paso County
75
0 20 40 60
80 100
Thousands of dollars
16
Multiple Column Chart
1999 2000 2001
17
Stacked (segmented or subdivided) Column Chart
18
Bilateral Column Chart
1993 1994 1995 1996
1997 1998 1999 2000
19
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart
  • Situation 1
  • Radkur, Inc. net profit for 8 years
  • 1993 15.2 million
  • 1994 9.0 million
  • 1995 - 3.1 million
  • 1996 - 12.5 million
  • 1997 5.3 million
  • 1998 10.8 million
  • 1999 12.1 million
  • 2000 9.9 million

20
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart
  • Situation 2
  • Provide the correct graph to depict projected
    annual sales for XYZ Company for the next 5
    years
  • Year Projected Sales Revenue
  • 1 10.2 million
  • 2 11.1 million
  • 3 11.9 million
  • 4 12.5million
  • 5 13.5 million

21
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart
  • Situation 3
  • Provide the correct graph to depict projected
    income of three divisions for XYZ Company for the
    next 3 years as follows (in millions)
  • Year Division A Division B Division
    C
  • 1 15.2 5.1 12.7
  • 2 22.4 8.6 14.5
  • 3 26.7 9.5 15.8

22
Pie Charts
23
Line Charts
24
Creating a Chart
  • Six main steps to create a chart
  • Specify the data series
  • Select the range of cells to chart
  • Select the chart type
  • Insert the chart and designate the chart location
  • Choose chart options/add graphics in charts
  • Change the chart location and size

25
Six Steps
  • Specify the data series
  • The rows and/or columns that contain the data you
    want to chart
  • Select the range to chart
  • Can be a single cell, but most often is multiple
    cells
  • Cells may be adjacent or non-adjacent
  • Use Shift key to select adjacent cells use Ctrl
    key to select non-adjacent cells

26
Six Steps (continued)
  • Select the chart type
  • Each type presents data in a different way
  • Pick the type that will best visually illustrate
    the information you want to convey

27
Select a Chart Type
Chart Type Purpose
Column Compares categories, shows changes over time
Bar Shows comparison between independent variables. Not used for time or dates
Pie Shows percentages of a whole. Exploded pie emphasizes a popular category
Line Shows change in a series over categories or time
Doughnut Compares how two or more series contribute to the whole
Scatter Shows correlation between two sets of values
Stock Shows high low stock prices
28
Six Steps (continued)
  • Insert chart and designate location
  • Insert as an embedded object in the worksheet
  • Can print worksheet and chart on one page
  • Insert the chart as a New Sheet
  • Will require you to print the worksheet and chart
    on separate pages
  • You can choose the location to display the chart

29
Six Steps (continued)
  • Choose chart options using the Design, Layout and
    Format tabs
  • The Design tab can be used to display data in
    rows or columns
  • The Layout tab can be used to change the display
    of chart elements
  • The Format tab can be used to apply special
    effects

30
Six Steps (continued)
  • Add graphics to chart
  • May add company logos or representative clip art
    to personalize charts
  • Remember, less is sometimes more, so be sparing
    in use of graphics

31
Add a Graphic
  • To add a graphic to a chart
  • In the Illustrations section on the Insert tab,
    select the medium where the graphic will come
    from (Picture, Clip Art, or Smart Art)
  • Search for and insert the graphic
  • Size and move the graphic on the chart as desired

32
Six Steps (continued)
  • Change the chart location and size
  • Select the chart to reveal sizing handles
  • Drag the sizing handles to achieve desired
    location and size

33
Print Charts
  • You can print a chart
  • Including the worksheet in which it is embedded
  • That is embedded, without printing the worksheet
  • That was placed on a separate worksheet
  • Always Print Preview to ensure you are printing
    what you intended
  • Select Print from the File menu or click the
    Print button on the Standard Toolbar

34
(No Transcript)
35
Hands-On Exercises 1 (p. 201) and 2 (p. 212)
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