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Introduction to Pharmacognosy

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Title: Introduction to Pharmacognosy


1
Introduction to Pharmacognosy
2
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD YOU CLASSIFY A HERB?
  • Carrot
  • Lettuce
  • Cucumber
  • Cornsilk
  • Butternut
  • Celery
  • Oats
  • Melons
  • Chillies
  • Coriander
  • Cardamom
  • Nasturtium
  • Rose
  • Hibiscus
  • Agapanthus
  • Pine
  • Plantain
  • Garlic

3
  • Fennel
  • All spice
  • Flaxseed
  • Turmeric
  • Nutmeg
  • Cinnamon
  • Bay
  • Clove
  • Cumin
  • Ginger
  • Onion

4
DEFINITIONS IN PHARMACONGNsyY
  • Pharmakon A Drug
  • Gignosco To acquire a Knowledge of a
    Structure, Function Geographical habits of a
    Plant

5
SUBJECTS INVOLVED IN PHARMACOLOGY
  • BOTANY The Science of or Study of Plants
  • PHYTOTHERAPY The study of herbs and its
    application for holistic healing.
  • BIOCHEMISTRY To Understand the Chemical
    Composition of the plant.

6
  • PHARMACOLOGY The study of drugs, their sources,
    nature, and properties, and the body's reaction
    to these drugs.
  • COMMERCE The buying and selling of goods,
    especially on a large scale, as between cities or
    nations. The exchange of commodity for commodity
  • GENETICS A branch of biology involving the
    study of the structure, location, effects
    abnormalities of genes (physical unit of heredity)

7
  • Enzymology Branch of biochemistry concerned
    with the structure Fx of enzymes co-enzymes.
  • Plant Chemistry Chemistry specific to plant
    function structure.
  • Horticulture The science/art of cultivating
    fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants or
    herbs.
  • Quality Control A procedure for keeping
    quality of inputs or outputs to specifications.
    The operational techniques and the activities
    used to fulfil and verify requirements of
    quality.

8
  • Ethnobotany The plant lore of a race or people
    also the systematic study of such lore.
  • Ethnopharmacology The study of biologically
    active plant constituents, traditionally employed
    or observed by man for healing.

9
  • Aim of Pharmacognosy
  • Development of Pharmacognosy

10
Herbal Glossary
  • Abortifacient
  • Can stimulate a miscarriage (see Emmenogogue).
  • E.g. Hydrastis cannadensis used to for
    digestive disorders.
  • Adaptogen
  • Increases the bodys resistance to stress (helps
    the body adapt).
  • E.g. Ashwaganda

11
  • Adrenal tonic
  • Strengthens and nourishes the adrenal glands.
  • E.g. borago exam stress
  • Alterative
  • Herbs that gradually alters ones condition,
    normalizes body functions and increases health
    and vitality.
  • Galium aperine

12
  • Analgesic, Anodyne
  • Reduce pain
  • e.g. Papaver somniferum opium poppy
  • Anti-helmentic
  • removes worms from body most are toxic in high
    dosage.
  • Artemissia afra Wormwood and Garlic.

13
  • Anti-bilous
  • helps remove excess bile
  • e.g.Hydrastis Canadensis
  • Anti-catarrhal
  • helps the body remove excess catarrhal or mucous
    buildups In the sinuses and other parts of
    body.
  • E.g. Garlic and Golden seal Hydrastis
    Canadensis

14
  • Anti-emetic
  • Herbs that reduce the feeling of nausea and can
    help relieve or prevent vomiting.
  • E.g. Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis
    (works better than pharmaceutical anti-emetics).
  • Anti-lithic
  • A herb that helps prevent the formation of
    stones or gravel in the UT and helps the body
    with their removal.
  • E.g. Gravel Root, Stone Root, Carrot, Parsley

15
  • Anti-microbial
  • herb that helps the body destroy or prevent
    pathogenic micro-organisms.
  • E.g. Garlic, allium sativum
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Prevent or ease spasms and cramps in the body.
  • E.g. Cramp bark

16
  • Aperient
  • mild laxative herbs.
  • E.g. Apricots, Prune juice, Linum usitassimum
  • Aromatic
  • Aromatic herbs have a strong and often pleasant
    odour and can be used to stimulate the digestive
    system. They are often used to add aroma and
    taste to other medicines.
  • E.g. Mentha piperita (peppermint).

17
  • Astringent
  • Herbs that contract tissues by precipitating
    proteins and therefore reduce secretions and
    discharges.
  • All astringents contain tannins. E.g. Catechu
  • Bitter
  • A herb that has a bitter taste that acts as a
    stimulating tonic for digestion.
  • e.g. Wormwood

18
  • Cardiac Tonic
  • Affect the heart. Affect heart in different
    ways depending on the specific herb.
  • E.g. Crataegus monogyna.
  • Carminative
  • Stimulate peristalsis, relax the stomach and
    support digestion.
  • E.g. Fennel Foeniculum vulgare, Peppermint

19
  • Chologogue
  • Herbs that stimulate the release of bile. Also
    have a laxative effect
  • E.g. Hydrastis Canadensis Golden Seal
  • Demulcent
  • Herbs rich in mucilage which soothe and protect
    irritated and inflamed internal tissue.
  • E.g Glycerrhiza glabra.

20
  • Diaphoretic
  • Promote perspiration and aid elimination of
    toxins via the skin.
  • E.g. Zingiber officinalis Ginger
  • Diuretic
  • Increases the secretion and elimination of urine.
  • E.g. Galium aperine, Clivers, Cleavers

21
  • Emetic
  • Herbs that cause vomiting. Most herbs are only
    emetic in very high doses.
  • e.g. Lobelia inflate and Blood root
  • Emmenogogue
  • Stimulate and normalize the menstrual cycle.
  • E.g. False unicorn root, Raspberry, Red Sage,
    Thyme, True Unicorn Root, Wormwood, Squaw vine,
    Rosemary

22
  • Febrifuge, anti-pyretic
  • Helps reduce fevers
  • E.g. Peppermint Red sage, Thyme,
  • Galactogogue
  • Help stimulate the flow of breast milk
  • e.g. Brewers yeast, Fennel, Raspberry

23
  • Hepatic
  • Aid the liver.
  • E.g. Black root, Blue flag, Celery, Fennel
  • Hypnotic
  • Herbs that induce sleep (not a hypnotic trance).
    Also called a soporific.
  • E.g. Wild lettuce, hops

24
  • Laxative
  • Promote the evacuation of the bowels
  • E.g. Aloe, Senna
  • Mucilage
  • Mucilaginous herbs act as demulcents and
    emollients
  • e.g. Slippery Elm, Iceland moss, Marshmallow

25
  • Nervine
  • Herb that has a beneficial effect on the nervous
    system. Some act as stimulants, others as
    sedatives.
  • e.g. Chamomile, Ginseng, Lavender, Rosemary,
    Peppermint, Wormwood, Wild Lettuce
  • Ocytocic
  • Stimulate the contraction of the uterus and aid
    in childbirth.
  • e.g. Squaw vine

26
  • Pectoral
  • Strengthening and healing effect on the
    respiratory system.
  • e.g. Comfrey, Symphytum officinalis
  • Rubefacient
  • when applied to the skin they mild local
    irritation and stimulate the dilation of the
    capillaries, increasing circulation to the skin.
    Blood is drawn from deeper parts of the body into
    the skin, removing or relieving pain.
  • e.g Cayenne, Garlic, Ginger, Mustard, Peppermint,
    Rosemary.

27
  • Sedative
  • Calm the nervous system and reduce stress and
    nervousness.
  • E.g. St Johns Wort, Wild cherry, Wild lettuce,
    Hops
  • Sialagogue
  • Herbs that stimulate the increase of saliva
    secretion from salivary glands.
  • E.g.Ginger, Cayenne

28
  • Stimulant
  • quickens and enlivens the physiological functions
    of the body.
  • E.g. Cayenne, Rosemary, Garlic
  • Stomachic
  • Strengthens and tones the stomach, reduces
    gas/flatulence and aids digestion (similar but
    not identical to carminative does not stimulate
    peristelsis).
  • E.g. Garlic

29
  • Styptic
  • Reduce or stop bleeding due to astringency.
  • E.g. Plantain
  • Tonic
  • Strengthen and enliven specific organs or the
    whole body.
  • E.g. Garlic, Ginseng, Hawthorn.

30
  • Yang tonic
  • Nourishes and strengthens the fluids of the body.
  • E.g. Daucus carota
  • Yin tonic
  • Nourishes and strengthens the activity of the
    bodys functions
  • E.g. Commiphora molmol

31
  • Vulnerary
  • Aid in healing wounds and cuts
  • E.g. Aloe ferrox, Hypericum perforatum,
    Compositiae Family (Matricaria recutica)

32
DEFINITION OF A HERB?
33
Definition of herb
  • Botanists A small, stemless, seed bearing plant
    with fleshy, rather than woody, parts
    ("herbaceous").
  • Broader defintion addition to herbaceous
    perennials, includes trees, shrubs, annuals,
    vines, primitive plants, such as ferns, mosses,
    algae, lichens, and fungi. They are valued for
    their flavour, fragrance, medicinal, economic and
    industrial uses, pesticidal properties, and
    colouring materials.

34
GROUP ACTIVITY
  • IDENTIFY ALL HERBS ACCORDING TO THE ABOVE
    DEFINITION

35
Carrot Daucus carota HERB!
  • rich in Vit. A and beta carotene, Ca, P, Mg, K
  • raw boosts liver, kidneys GIT
  • alterative (blood tonic)
  • anti-bacterial anti-viral
  • leaves contains significant amounts of
    porphyrins, which stimulate the pituitary gland
    and leads to the release of increased amounts of
    sex-hormones, Worms children (eaten raw)

36
Lactuca sativa LettuceHERB!
  • soporific
  • cleansing
  • tonic to the kidneys
  • Vitamins A, C, Bc, Ca (as much as milk, actually)
  • anti-spasmodic
  • Leaves contain silica strengthens the tissues,
    bones, joints
  • Found to be sedative

37
Cucumis sativus CucumberHERB!
  • aids digestion
  • k, bc, enzyme (erepsin) aids digestion
  • dissolves uric acids that causes kidney bladder
    stones
  • natural laxative (high in fibre)
  • regulates bp (diuretic high water content)

38
Zea mays Corn silk HERB!
  • Diuretic
  • Cystitis
  • Rheumatism arthritis
  • Demulcent UTIs, kidney stones
  • Pollen extracts BPH
  • Pollen weakness appetite loss

39
Butterut Juglans cinerea HERB!
  • Anti-helmintic
  • Alterative
  • Cathertic
  • Anti-microbial
  • Anti-parasitic
  • Cancer
  • Cholesterol
  • Headache
  • Liver stagnation

40
Celery Apium GravelensHERB!
  • Diuretic
  • Slimming Agent
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-acid (rheumatism, arthritis, gout),
  • UTI, cystitis

41
Avena sativa oatsHERB!
  • Cardiac tonic
  • Nervous system tonic
  • Nervous system nutritive
  • Beauty exfoliant, cleanser rejuvenator
  • Hot flushes menopause
  • Tonic thymus gland
  • Nervous exhaustion
  • Depression

42
Cucumis melo MelonsHERB!
  • Vitamins B C
  • Diuretic
  • Kidney tonic
  • High gi, low gl, used for weight loss (same with
    grapes)

43
Corrandrum sativum CorianderHERB!
  • wounds
  • burns
  • sores
  • boils
  • anti-spasmodic ? indigestion, colic, flatulence

44
Elletaria cardamomum Cardamom HERB!
  • Anti-septic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Carminative
  • Anorexia
  • Strengthen the heart lungs
  • Spleen tonic
  • Stimulate the mind, impart clarity mental
    alertness
  • Fetal restlessness

45
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium HERB!
  • Anti-viral
  • Anti-fungal
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Diuretic
  • Chologogue

46
Rosa spp. - RoseHERB!
  • astringent
  • menorrhagia
  • skin toner
  • originally comes from Iran.
  • Mildly sedative anti-depressant
  • Rosewater astringent toner sore eyes
  • Rose petals reduce high cholesterol levels.

47
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis HibiscusHERB!
  • mild anti-microbial
  • bladder infections
  • coughs
  • debility
  • diarrhoea
  • fever
  • hypertension
  • liver disorder
  • eye infections
  • itchy skin
  • conditioning shampoo can be made from the leaves
  • anti-inflammatory

48
Agapanthus africanus Agapanthus HERB!
  • Decoction given orally/rectally as an antenatal
    postnatal birth medicine
  • Given to baby immediately after birth
  • Mild purgative
  • Ease difficult labour
  • Ensure the placenta is expelled

49
Pinus sylvestrus PineHERB!
  • colds
  • flu
  • bronchitis
  • sinusitis
  • respiratory disorders
  • digestive complaints
  • diuretic

50
Plantago lanceolata PlantainHERB!
  • Astringent
  • Anti-biotic
  • Heamostyptic
  • Anti-catarrhal
  • Anti-inflammatory

51
Allium sativum GarlicHERB!
  • immune booster
  • decreases cholesterol
  • anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-parasitic
  • anti-spasmodic
  • anti-inflammatory
  • anti-thrombotic
  • anti-platelet
  • alterative
  • mucolytic

52
Chillies capsicum fructesens/minimum HERB!
  • laryngitis
  • sore throat
  • tonsillitis
  • angina
  • bronchitis
  • circulatory disorders
  • colds and flu

53
Fennel Foeniculum vulgareHERB!
  • Indigestion
  • galactogogue
  • flatulence
  • colic
  • intestinal cramps
  • over-indulgence
  • laxative

54
Allspice Pimenta officinalisHERB!
  • proteins, lipids, minerals, Vit A, C, B12
  • digestive stimulant
  • flatulence indigestion
  • diarrhoea
  • tonic /laxative (how its mixed with other herbs)
  • anti-septic
  • stomach settling

55
Linum usitassimum flaxseedHERB!
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-tussive
  • Expectorant
  • Anti-catarrhal
  • Bulk laxative
  • Emollient
  • demulcent

56
Curcuma longa TurmericHERB!
  • Hepatic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-microbial
  • Circulatory stimulant
  • Hypoglycaemic
  • Vulnerary
  • Astringent
  • Carminative
  • Alterative
  • Analgesic

57
Myristica fragrans NutmegHERB!
  • Anti-emetic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Aromatic
  • Astringent
  • Carminative
  • Circulatory stimulant
  • Euphoric
  • Hallucinogen (large doses)

58
Cinamomum zeylanicum Cinnamon HERB!
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Anti-diarrhoeal
  • Astringent
  • Cardiac stimulant
  • Stomachic
  • Anti-viral
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-fungal
  • Expectorant
  • hypoglycaemic

59
Laurus nobilis BayHERB!
  • Anti-fungal (tea soak hands/feet)
  • Astringent
  • Aromatic
  • Carminative
  • Diaphoretic
  • Circulatory stimulant
  • Colic
  • Memory loss
  • Poultice bronchitis, colds, coughs etc.

60
Syzygium aromaticum CloveHERB!
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-fungal
  • Astringent
  • Anti-microbial
  • Anti-emetic
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Expectorant
  • Rubefacient
  • diaphoretic

61
Cuminum cyminum cuminHERB!
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-septic
  • Carminative
  • Galactogogue
  • Stimulant

62
Zingiber officinalis GingerHERB!
  • Diaphoretic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-spasmodic
  • Circulatory stimulant
  • Anti-microbial
  • Sialogogue

63
ONION Allium cepa HERB!
  • planting between roses enhances the smell,
    insects and aphids are less common
  • boosts the immune system
  • cleanses the blood (alterative)
  • flushes the kidneys (diuretic)
  • reduces spasm and tension in asthma
    (anti-spasmodic)
  • decreases cholesterol
  • removes heavy metals from blood

64
15 minute
65
INFLUENCE OF HERBAL MEDICINE ON YOUR STUDIES
66
Influence of European Herbalism Today
  • increasingly popular in Europe.
  • European Herbal Philosophy World is made up of
    elements Earth, Fire, Water Air.
  • Plants hot dry cold or moist properties
  • Theory of 4 humours
  • Four principal fluids exist within the body
  • Blood
  • choler (yellow bile)
  • Melancholy (black bile)
  • Phlegm
  • Ideally all 4 humours are in balance (normally
    with 1 or 2 predominating)
  • Influences Phytotherapy Unani Tibb
  • NOTE Phytotherapy ? Western Herbal Medicine

67
China
  • TCM herbal medicine developed separately from
    Chinese folk medicine
  • Principle theories Yin Yang, 5 elements,
    effect of nature on Health
  • Living in harmony with these principles key to
    good health.
  • Herbs are said to be Yin or Yang tonics, and also
    to strengthen the organs associated with each
    element.

68
Africa
  • Africa has a greater variety of herbal traditions
    than any other continent.
  • North Africa Papyrus BC 1500 Gentiana lutea,
    Aloe vera, Papaver somnifera with conditions
    ranging from chest pain to croc bites.
  • Nomadic peoples healing is linked to the
    spiritual worlds (largely unchanged from original
    shamanistic beliefs).

69
ENERGETIC CORRESPONDENCES IN HERBAL MEDICINES
  • Involves Asian Theories about the Energy of the
    body
  • The Four Element (Humours) Theories of Ancient
    Greece (Unani Tibb)
  • The Planetary Correspondences of Oriental
    philosophy astrology

70
Flavour
  • Five Categories
  • Sour
  • Bitter
  • Sweet
  • Pungent (spicy)
  • Salty

71
  • TCM associates each taste with a particular organ
    or organ-system within the body.
  • HOW IT WORKS When we experience a flavour,
    taste sensors send messages to the brain ?
    induce physiological effects in the organ system
    affected/linked to the taste.
  • Through flavour, were able to alter affect the
    functions of our bodies

72
Yin Flavours
  • Yin Flavours Cooling
  • Salty, Sour bitter flavours.
  • Yin flavours arise subside quickly.

73
Yang Flavours
  • Yang flavours warming
  • Sweet pungent flavours Yang
  • These tastes are also slower to be sensed and
    remain longer (effect)

74
Drying Energies
  • Sour, bitter pungent drying energy
  • Help regulate imbalances arising from excessive
    dampness
  • E.g. oily skin, oedema, joint swelling, candida,
    fatigue, etc.

75
Moist Energy
  • Sweet Salty Moistening
  • Regulate conditions resulting from fluid
    deficiency
  • E.g. Dry cough, constipation etc.

76
Salty Flavour
  • Cooling, Dry Astringent
  • Normally due to the presence of acids malic,
    citric or ascorbic acids.
  • Stimulates the liver gallbladder salivary
    glands
  • Restricts secretions such as sweat, urine, blood,
    seminal fluid.
  • Carminative, anti-pyretic.
  • Helps cleanse the skin tonify the tissues
  • Pts suffering from hyperacidity, diarrhoea,
    broken capillaries dark circles under their
    eyes should be careful of overdoing the sour
    flavour.

77
Bitter Flavours
  • Cooling, drying, toning, draining (catabolic).
  • Anti-inflammatory anti-bacterial
  • Most bitters contain an alkaloid.
  • Bitters stimulate the intestines, pancreas,
    digestive secretions.
  • Strengthens the heart, lowers cholesterol
    fevers, reduces cravings for sweets, supports fat
    metabolism, helps reduce allergies, eliminates
    heat mucous, especially from the lungs.
  • Can aid weight loss, decrease fat, detoxify the
    blood and clear the mind skin.
  • Herbs include Angelica, chamomile, dandelion
    leaf, green tea yarrow.
  • Energising beneficial for those feeling
    lethargic, pts who are hot aggressive
  • Pts suffering from low energy (chronic), cold
    dry or suffering from ulcers should use bitters
    sparingly.

78
Sweet Flavours
  • Sweet is toning nourishing.
  • Results from the presence of CHOs
  • Helps to slow down acute symptoms, increases
    tolerance to stress pain.
  • Rejuvenating, anabolic, heals tones muscle.
  • Energising calming
  • Sweet nourishes Ying (Fluids of the body),
    strengthening the immune system, especially in
    the frail elderly.
  • Pts who are cold, dry, cold and spacey (Vata)
    benefit especially from sweet foods, such as
    fruit, whole grains sweet herbs e.g. anise,
    fennel, liquorice stevia.

79
Pungent Flavours
  • pungent or spicy is warming dispersing
  • Stimulating induces perspiration, stimulates
    the nerves, relieves nerve pain, clears Qi
    stagnation, promotes circulation, aids digestion
    and clears the skin.
  • Moves internal energy to the surface (e.g.
    ginger)
  • Mostly due to the presence of volatile oils
    (anti-microbial)
  • Pungent is cooling to the interior and worming to
    the exterior of the body.
  • E.g. Basil, cinnamon, ginger mint.
  • Should not be taken in excess by those suffering
    from excess heat.

80
Salty Flavours
  • Cooling, softening, draining diuretic (drying).
  • Indicates the presence of minerals in food/herbs.
  • Helps softens hardened masses within the body
    (tumors).
  • Used in moderation, it has a moistening effect.
  • Beneficial to the nerves, kidneys bladder.
  • Aids fluid metabolism, helps strengthens the
    nerves, opens blocked Qi meridians, improves
    circulation, awakens the mind senses
    strengthens the heart.
  • Excessive salt craving may indicate adrenal
    exhaustion (prolonged stress).
  • Sea vegetables such as kelp and dulse are good
    examples of salty tastes, and herbs such as
    nettle, dandelion leaf and plantain.

81
Temperature
  • In reference to the activity of the plant does
    it heat the body (ginger), or cool it (mint).
  • Indicated by the condition presented by the
    patient
  • E.g. fever or inflammation (hot conditions) ?
    cooling herbs
  • Cold conditions OA, constipation, fatigue or
    poor circulation ? heating herbs.

82
Moisture
  • Excessive dampness dryness are signs of
    imbalance.
  • Dampness swelling, oedema, diarrhoea, infancy
    (natural moisture)
  • Dryness dry cough, dry skin, constipation, old
    age (naturally dry)
  • Moistening plants contain mucilage
  • Drying plants contain tannins
  • Temperament?

83
Polarity
  • Yin and yang exist only in relation to each other
    each contain aspects of the other.
  • Good health results in Ying Yang being in
    constant perfect balance (Homeostasis)
  • Yin plants can be used to correct conditions
    arising from a Ying imbalance, Ying plants can be
    used to correct conditions arising from a Yin
    imbalance
  • Yin plants cooling
  • Yang plants Warming

84
Planets
  • The association between herbs astrology is
    rooted in the Ancient Doctrine of Signatures.
  • In terms of healing observing a plants colour,
    leaf shape, growth habit, habitat all give clues
    to the plants therapeutic uses.
  • Acknowledges that macrocosms such as planets can
    be represented in microcosms such as plants
    (Homeopathy, TCM).

85
Sun
  • Corresponds with hot, dry energy
  • Heart of our solar system (governs the heart of
    the body, spinal column eyes)
  • Herbs corresponding to the sun often affect the
    heart, are hot drying.

86
Moon
  • Cool, moist feminine energy.
  • Plants high juice content, mild flavour, soft
    leaves, preference to growing in or near water
    (TAM Indigenous herbs used for labour), pale
    yellow or white flowers fruits.
  • Moon (plants) govern bodys fluids, digestive
    secretions, breasts, glandular mucous membrane
    secretions, affect the subconscious, soothe the
    stomach and aid digestion.

87
Mercury
  • Cool dry energy.
  • Governs the nervous system, communication, senses
    of hearing ( speaking), thyroid, respiratory
    system (incl. lungs, bronchi vocal cords).
  • Facilitates the ability to make associations and
    link concepts.

88
Venus
  • Cool moist energy
  • Associated with love, sensual pleasures, beauty
    and the arts.
  • Related to internal sexual reproductive organs,
    skin, nose and sense of smell, umbilical cord,
    neck, spine palate, thyroid, parathyroid,
    thymus gland kidneys.
  • Help purify the blood, open up the sweat glands,
    calm desire for over-indulgence.

89
Mars
  • hot, pungent dry
  • Affects the adrenal glands, muscles, gallbladder,
    sense of taste, red blood cells, metabolism,
    motor nerves, rectum, eye muscles, head, left
    brain, left ear.
  • Strong, acrid flavour, pungent aroma, prickles
    thorns

90
Jupiter
  • Warm Moist
  • Associated with adventure, social order, morals
    optimism.
  • Organs anterior pituitary gland, liver,
    pancreas, sciatic nerve, subcutaneous fat tissue,
    adrenals, kidneys, spleen, immune system,
    blood-O2 levels, lungs, blood sugar semen.
  • Large forest trees (long-living perennials),
    plants that increase bile flow, help balance the
    pancreas, affect both the mind body. Sweet
    fragrance induce a positive frame of mind.

91
Saturn
  • Cold dry
  • Bitter sour flavours.
  • Affects the bones, teeth, joints, bladder, skin,
    nerves, vagus nerve, spleen, endocardium, ant.
    Pit gland, blood constituents (aging process)

92
Uranus
  • Cold dry
  • Correlates with dramatic, sudden forceful
    energy, originality, genius, independence,
    self-expression a desire to break away from
    tradition.
  • Herbs grow in unusual places differ from
    plant to plant, commonly hybrids easy to
    transplant.

93
Neptune
  • Cold moist
  • CSF, pineal gland, lymph system
  • Obscure, hard to Dx conditions, addiction,
    schizophrenia psychosis.
  • Herbs psychoactive. Often grow close or in
    the ocean (algaes seaweeds).

94
Pluto
  • Associated with the subconscious spiritual
    self
  • Cold Moist
  • Related to excretions, secretions reproduction,
    including the metabolic, genetic chemical
    processes that promote health.
  • Herbs Found in remote places or underground

95
Elements
  • Theory of the four elements (humours) arose in
    ancient Greece.
  • Numerous cultures have similar theories (TCM
    elements UT humours A doshas, etc).
  • Elements Water, Fire, Earth Air.
  • Plants (like individuals), contain all 4
    elements, although one normally dominates.

96
Water
  • ORGANS
  • Kidneys, bladder, sexual energy, willpower
  • SENSE hearing
  • EMOTION fear.

97
Fire
  • ORGANS
  • Heart Small Intestine
  • SENSE Speech
  • EMOTIONS Joy lack of joy

98
Earth
  • ORGANS
  • Stomach Spleen
  • SENSE Taste
  • EMOTIONS Sympathy Obsession

99
Air
  • ORGANS
  • Lungs, large intestines, skin
  • Communication
  • SENSE Smell
  • EMOTION grief

100
Lesson Take-Away
  • All Definitions

101
End of lesson 1
  • THANK YOU!
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