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Differential Reinforcement

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Chapter 15 Differential Reinforcement Types of Differential Reinforcement DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) DRO (differential reinforcement of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differential Reinforcement


1
Chapter 15
  • Differential Reinforcement

2
Types of Differential Reinforcement
  • DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative
    behavior)
  • DRO (differential reinforcement of other
    behavior)
  • DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates of
    responding)

3
DRA - Differential Reinforcement of
Alternative Behavior
  • Reinforcer is delivered for desirable behavior
  • Extinction for the problem behavior

4
Variations of DRA
  • DRI Differential reinforcement of incompatible
    behavior
  • DRC Differential reinforcement of communication
    (functional communication training)

5
Examples of DRA
  • A childs good table manners are reinforced with
    praise and by passing the requested food. The
    childs bad table manners are extinguished by
    ignoring and not passing food.
  • Punching the correct code numbers in the ATM is
    reinforced with cash. Punching the wrong numbers
    in the ATM is extinguished by getting no cash.
  • Reinforce playing or sharing to replace fighting
    in children.
  • Reinforce lying quietly in the dentists chair to
    replace disruptive behavior.
  • Reinforce an assertive response to replace
    aggressive behavior.

6
When to Use DRA
  • 1. You want to increase a desirable behavior
    and/or decrease undesirable behaviors.
  • 2. The desirable behavior already occurs at
    least occasionally.
  • 3. You have a reinforcer you can use.

7
Using DRA
  • 1. Define the target behavior to increase and
    the undesirable competing behavior(s) to decrease
  • 2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem
    behavior
  • 3. Choose a reinforcer for the desirable
    behavior
  • 4. Reinforce desirable behavior immediately and
    consistently
  • - prompt the desirable behavior if necessary
  • - the desirable behavior should require less
    response effort than the problem behavior
  • 5. Eliminate (or minimize) the reinforcer for
    the undesirable behavior(s)
  • 6. Use intermittent reinforcement for
    maintenance

8
Considerations in the Use of DRA
  • Consider establishing operations to make the
    reinforcer more potent
  • Consider the use of rules or instructions
  • Fade artificial reinforcers to natural
    reinforcers to help maintain the behavior
  • Consider using the Premack principle

9
How to choose reinforcers
  • Ask
  • Observe
  • Test

10
Differential Negative Reinforcement of
Alternative Behavior
  • Desirable behavior produces escape or avoidance
    of aversive stimulus
  • Undesirable behavior does not produce
    escape/avoidance

11
DRO - Differential Reinforcement of Other
Behavior
  • Also called differential reinforcement of zero
    rate of behavior
  • Reinforcer is delivered for the absence of the
    problem behavior in intervals of time
  • Intervals are chosen based on the baseline level
    of the problem behavior
  • Extinction for the occurrence of the problem
    behavior
  • If the problem behavior occurs, the interval is
    reset

12
Examples of DRO
  • Attention delivered every 15 sec without SIB
  • Breaks from academic tasks delivered every 20
    minutes for the absence of problem behaviors
  • Access to a favorite toy given each ½ hour for
    the absence of fighting with siblings

13
Whole Interval vs Momentary DRO
  • Whole interval DRO - the problem must be absent
    for the whole interval for reinforcement
    (referred to simply as DRO)
  • Momentary DRO - the problem must be absent at the
    end of the interval for reinforcement

14
Implementing DRO
  • 1. Identify the reinforcer for the problem
    behavior
  • 2. Identify the reinforcer to use in DRO
  • 3. Choose the DRO interval
  • 4. Use extinction for the problem behavior
  • (or minimize the reinforcement for the problem)
  • 5. Deliver the reinforcer for the absence of the
    problem behavior in each interval
  • 6. The occurrence of the problem behavior resets
    the interval for delivery of the reinforcer
  • 7. Gradually increase the DRO interval
  • 8. Use instructions when applicable

15
DRL - Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of
Responding
  • Used to get a behavior to occur less (not
    necessarily to eliminate the behavior)
  • Two types of DRL
  • - Full session DRL
  • - Spaced responding DRL

16
Full Session DRL
  • The reinforcer is delivered when fewer than a
    specified number of responses occurs per time
    period (session)
  • The reinforcer is delivered at the end of the
    session
  • The timing of responses in the session is not
    important

17
Spaced Responding DRL
  • The reinforcer is delivered for a response when
    it is separated from the previous response by a
    specified interval of time
  • If a response occurs before the end of the
    interval, the interval is reset
  • Individual responses are reinforced when the IRT
    is greater than X
  • The timing of responses is important

18
Examples of DRL
  • Full session DRL
  • Reward given for smoking fewer than 5 cigarettes
    per day
  • Dessert given if the child gets up from the table
    fewer than 3 times during supper
  • Spaced responding DRL
  • Child called on to answer in class only if it has
    been 10 minutes since he last raised his hand
  • Person with MR allowed to take a bite of food
    only if 15 sec since last bite of food

19
Implementing DRL
  • 1. Is DRL the appropriate procedure?
  • - Do you want to decrease but not eliminate the
    behavior?
  • 2. Determine the acceptable level of the
    behavior
  • 3. Decide on full session DRL or spaced
    responding DRL
  • 4. Inform the client of the criterion for
    reinforcement
  • 5. Use a procedure to give the client feedback
    on number of responses or timing of responses
  • 6. Use intermediate goals if necessary

20
Comparing DRO and Spaced Responding DRL
  • DRO - at the end of the interval, the reinforcer
    is delivered for the absence of the behavior
  • DRL - at the end of the interval, the reinforcer
    is delivered for the first response
  • In DRO and DRL, a response before the end of the
    interval resets the interval
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