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Taxonomy Phylum Chordata

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Taxonomy Phylum Chordata Phylum Chordata Invertebrate chordates & vertebrate chordates share some characteristics 4 anatomical structures appear at some point during ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Taxonomy Phylum Chordata


1
TaxonomyPhylum Chordata
2
Phylum ChordataInvertebrate chordates
vertebrate chordates share some characteristics
  • 4 anatomical structures appear at some point
    during animal's life time
  • Notochord-longitudinal, flexible rod located
    between gut and nerve cord.
  • Throughout life in some invertebrate
  • chordates and primitive vertebrates.
  • In most advanced vertebrates, retained
  • only as remnants.
  • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
  • Pharyngeal gill slits-region just posterior to
    mouth which opens to outside of the animal
    through several pairs of slits.
  • Suspension-feeding devices-invertebrate
    chordates.
  • Modified for gas exchange and other functions
    during vertebrate evolution.
  • Post-anal tail-extension of the spinal column
    past the anus.
  • Provides propulsive force in many aquatic
    species.

3
  • Other characteristics typical of chordates
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Endoskeleton
  • Deuterostomes
  • Triploblastic
  • Ventral heart
  • Separate sexes
  • Thermal regulation strategies highly diverse.
  • Ectothermic(heat derived from outside the body).
  • Poikilothermic (variable body T determined by
    environment).
  • Endothermic (heat derived from animal's oxidative
    metabolism).
  • Homeothermic (must maintain a constant body
    temperature).

4
Subphylum Urochordatatunicates or sea squirts
  • Exhibit the four main characteristics of all
    chordates.
  • Encased by tough layer of skin-tunic-(cellulose-li
    ke carbohydrate).
  • Larval form looks like chordate-adult form only
    retains gill slits.

5
Subphylum Cephalochordatalancelets
  • All four main characteristics of chordates
    through adult stage

6
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Anterior head containing main sensory organs and
    mouth.
  • Elongated trunk-exhibits bilateral symmetry.
  • 2 pairs of appendages-can be greatly modified
    (wings, fins) or undeveloped (lamprey).
  • Postanal tail (modified or absent in some
    groups).
  • in most, notochord is later replaced by spinal
    column.
  • Endoskeleton (bony or cartilaginous) does not
    limit growth
  • Well developed body cavity (coelom) containing
    visceral systems
  • Digestive system with large glands (liver, and
    pancreas).
  • Ventral 2-4 chambered heart (near abdomen/lower
    surface).
  • Blood contains RBCs, hemoglobin, and WBCs.
  • Paired kidneys with ducts to drain waste to
    exterior.
  • 2 divisions skin-often modified-hair/scales/feathe
    rs/glands/horns.
  • Muscular, perforated pharynx-site of gills in
    fishes, much reduced in adult land-dwelling
    forms.
  • Most vertebrates with two separate sexes, each
    with paired gonads.

7
Ostracodermsfirst vertebratesfirst fishes
8
FishFirst class of 7 vertebrate classes
  • Ectotherms.
  • Gills covered by operculum (can breathe without
    breathing-except Chondrichthyes).
  • Scales cover and protect body fish. (not
    Agnatha).
  • Paired fins help propel, steer and balance fish
    (not Agnatha).
  • Single loop circulation-2-chambered heart.
  • Blood flows into the gills, picks up oxygen goes
    to the body (capillaries) and then returns to the
    heart.
  • Maintain water balance-kidneys.
  • Lateral Line System-line of sensory organs down
    side that detect very small changes in water
    P/vibrations-orientate fish in water.
  • Swim Bladder-gas filled sac for buoyancy (not
    Chondrichthyes).

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Class Agnatha-jawless fishlamprey, hagfish

  • No jaws.
  • Paired fins generally absent.
  • Most have skeleton cartilaginous-embryonic
    notochord in adult.



11
Placodermsfirst jawed cartilaginous fishmaybe
related to Chondrichthyes
12
Class Chondrichthyescartilaginous fishessharks,
skates, rays
  • Flexible skeleton made of cartilage.
  • Mouths are located underneath-jaws.
  • Resemble bony fish and terrestrial vertebrates in
    having
  • Hinged jaws support gill slits (5-7 pairs but no
    operculum).
  • Paired appendages-fins.
  • Inner ear with three semicircular canals.
  • Paired nasal cavities-good sense of smell.
  • Skin with toothlike scales, mucous glands.
  • No swim bladder.
  • Lateral line system-compensates for poor
    eyesight.
  • Countershading-upper surface dark colored, lower
    surface light.

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Acanthodiansfirst jawed fishedrelated to
Osteichthyes?
15
Class Osteichthyesbony fishes
  • Skeleton reinforced by calcium salts.
  • Excellent smell (like Chondrichthyes)/acute
    eyesight (unlike Chondrichthyes).
  • Mouth located in front-jaws.
  • Skin with scales (dermal) and mucous glands.
  • Reproduction
  • Most species are oviparous/fertilization is
    external.
  • Some internal fertilization/internal development
    .

16
Lobe-finned fish
  • Long, fleshy muscular fins (lobes) supported by
    bones.
  • Lobes adapted to crawling.
  • Only one species-coelacanth-still lives.
  • Lungfish.
  • Are the sole survivors of group that also gave
    rise to tetrapods-four-legged vertebrates.
  • What made land colonization possible.
  • Thought to be the ancestors of amphibians

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Ray-finned fish
  • Thin, flexible skeletal rays support fins.
  • Adapted for swimming, not crawling.
  • Most bony fish.

20
Amphibians
  • Double life-must live near water-soft skin
    provides little protection against dehydration.
  • Ectotherms-time of day, temperature, humidity
    influences activity
  • Where temperature becomes high/humidity low, or
    during dry seasons, some become
    inactive-aestivation.
  • In cold or temperate regions, some go into
    hibernation and remain inactivity 2-8 months,
    until warm enough again

21
Anatomy of the frog
  • Circulation
  • Heart consists of 2 atria and 1 ventricle
  • RA dips into V-O2-poor blood to bottom of
    ventricle
  • O2-rich blood into left atrium, then ventricle.
  • O2-poor blood holds up O2-rich blood-no mixing.
  • O2-poor goes to lungs and skin to pick up oxygen.
  • O2-rich blood goes into arteries to body.

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  • Respiration-though adult frogs have paired,
    simple, saclike lungs, much of the oxygen they
    receive is through their moist skin.
  • No ribs or diaphragm, and chest muscles not
    involved in breathing-unlike humans
  • Highly developed nervous system that consists of
    a brain, a spinal cord, and nerves.
  • Eye is crude-its fixed lens cannot change its
    focus.
  • Poorly developed eyelids do not move.
  • To close eye, frog draws it into its socket
  • 3rd eyelid (nictitating membrane) drawn over it.
  • No external ear
  • Both eardrums (tympanic membranes) exposed.
  • Only one bone in the frog's middle ear (humans-3)
  • Semicircular canals-maintain balance (like
    humans)

24
Order Anura
  • True frogs
  • Long hind legs.
  • Moist, smooth skin.
  • Toads
  • Shorter legs than frogs.
  • Dry, warty skin.
  • All go through metamorphosis

25
Order Urodela
  • Tailed salamanders
  • Poorly developed legs.
  • Smooth, moist skin.
  • Aquatic urodeles
  • Tiny forelegs, no hind legs or pelvis
  • Feathery gills
  • Scaleless skin
  • Only vertebrates that are able to completely
    regenerate limbs as adults.

26
Order Apodagymnophion
  • Blind
  • Limbless (long,
  • slender bodies)
  • like worms or
  • snakes with
  • scales buried
  • in skin.

27
Metamorphosis
  • Most begin their lives in the water as tadpoles,
    or larvae stage.
  • Breathe through external gills.
  • Lasts from several weeks to one year, depending
    on species and environmental factors (Temperature
    and humidity)
  • Salamanders always remain as larva-neoteny
  • Most reach maturity at 3-4 years-breed for 1st
    time 1 year after metamorphosis.

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Class Reptilia
  • Ectotherms-animal obtains most of its heat from
    environment and has a body temperature very close
    to that of its environment.
  • Scales, plates, or shields covering them.
  • Dry skin-thicker, provides a greater protection
    against drying out, is keratinized and
    impermeable to water.
  • Most have a nearly four-chambered heart
    (ventricle is partially separated), (except
    crocodiles-a completely four-chambered heart).
  • Lungs-very efficient- expandable rib cage, (not
    turtles).
  • Well-developed kidneys excrete uric acid, so less
    water is lost.
  • Limbs with usually five clawed fingers or toes

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  • First vertebrates to practice internal
    fertilization (copulation) and to lay eggs
    protected by leathery shell, not bound to water
    to lay eggs
  • Oviparous-eggs are laid and incubated outside the
    body.
  • Ovoviviparous-eggs are incubated inside body,
    born live.
  • Viviparous-live birth, no egg (humans).

32
Amniote eggs contain extraembryonic membranes
that are not part of the embryo and are disposed
of after development.
  • They protect the embryo, remove nitrogenous
    wastes, and provide food, oxygen and water.
  • Amnion-it fills with fluid to provide watery
    environment for embryo, cushioning embryo and
    preventing dehydration.
  • Yolk sac-contains food enclosed in sac, attached
    to embryo.
  • Allantois-membranous sac associated with the
    embryos gut, stores nitrogenous wastes.
  • Chorion-membrane that forms around yolk,
    allantois, amnion and embryo and allows O2 to
    enter and CO2 to leave.
  • Albumin-egg white-source of additional food/water.

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Tuatara
  • Arose earlier than the dinosaurs-considered
    oldest living reptiles.
  • Only live in New Zealand today.
  • Two pairs of well-developed limbs and a strong
    tail.
  • Scales.
  • Has a bony arch, low on skull behind eye, not
    found in lizards.
  • Teeth are attached to rim of the
  • jaw rather than inserted in sockets.

35
Turtles and Tortoises
  • Turtles-generally live in water, have flat
    streamlined bodies.
  • Turtles arose earlier than dinosaurs.
  • Tortoises-live on land and have rounded bodies.
  • Owes evolutionary success largely to shell of
    bone covered by horny shields-strong and
    completely protected
  • Bone plates fused with ribs, vertebrae, shoulder
    and hip girdles.
  • Lower shell (plastron) so snugly against upper
    (carapace) that thin knife blade cant be
    inserted between them.

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Crocodiles, Alligators, Caiman
  • Crocodiles which arose along with dinosaurs,
    alligators and caiman are most closely related to
    dinosaurs.
  • Only reptile group to care for young, especially
    female crocs, though some snakes will protect
    eggs before they hatch.
  • Long body with short legs and clawed, webbed
    toes.
  • Tail is long and massive and well suited to rapid
    swimming.
  • Thick, large horny plates over most of body
    generally arranged in regular pattern.
  • Powerful jaws.
  • Crocodiles Alligators
  • Long, pointier snout Long, more rounded snout
  • 4th tooth sticks out 4th tooth fits into socket
  • Usually saltwater Usually freshwater

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Snakes
  • Evidence suggests that snakes evolved from
    lizards that burrowed-retain small leg bones even
    though they have no legs.
  • Able to unhinge jaw, swallow prey much larger
    than them.
  • Adapted to be long and skinny.
  • All of their organs are elongated and compact.
  • The spine can be made of several hundred
    vertebrae
  • Like amphibians and birds, snakes have a cloaca.
  • Jacobson's Organ-located at the roof of the mouth
  • Helps snake process odors-tract food by smell
  • Flick of forked tongue sends chemical signals to
    it
  • Pit organ-located on the head of some snakes
  • It detects heat and is used to track prey in the
    dark

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Lizards
  • Two pairs of legs.
  • External ear openings.
  • Movable eyelids.
  • Brain not totally enclosed in a bony case.
  • Kidneys symmetrical and to rear (snakes-far
    forward).
  • Ribs are never forked, as are one or two pairs in
    the snake.

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Class AvesBirds
  • Descended from dinosaurs-probably closest living
    relative of dinosaurs.
  • Characteristics of the earliest bird include
    small size, clawed fingers, a tail, and teeth
  • Archeopteryx-earliest known bird 150
    mya-feathers but limited flying ability
  • Ancestry of birds is in dispute some biologists
    consider them related to bipedal dinosaurs.
  • Similarities to reptiles include
  • One ossicle unlike 3 in mammals.
  • 5 fused bones make up jaw unlike 1 in mammals.
  • RBCs have nuclei-none in mammals.
  • Egg tooth to break out of shells, same egg
    structures and membranes.

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  • All birds, and only birds, have feathers. 
  • Modified reptilian scales-are keratinized.
  • Lighter than hair and provide more insulation.
  • All birds have horny, toothless beaks.
  • Keratin beaks adapted to kinds of food eaten.
  • Head must be very light-need centralized body
    mass with light extremities (teeth and jaws are
    heavy).
  • All birds have 2 legs and 2 wings. 
  • Wings-may be modified for swimming (penguin) or
    greatly reduced (ostrich). 
  • Most birds have 4 toes. 
  • Nearly all have 3 pointing forward, 1 backward
    (exception-woodpeckers-2 forward/2 backward)
  • A few living only on ground have only 3 toes
    (ostrich)
  • Warm-blooded (Endothermic)-maintain a constant
    body temperature.

48
Birds are adapted to fly
  • Hollow bones-large air pockets connected to
    respiratory system.
  • Fused bones or reduced in size-less
    weight/increase skeleton strength
  • Body mass highly centralized-reduces mass of
    extremities.
  • Greatly enlarged breast bone and breast muscles.
  • Wing feathers divided into different feathers
    with different functions.
  • Greatly enlarged heart and very rapid heartbeat
    compared to other animals of similar size.
  • Unique respiratory system-air sacs extend into
    some larger bones.
  • One-way air flow maximizes gas exchange and
    oxygenation of blood, needed for muscles
  • Lung doesnt expand so there is no change in the
    aerodynamics of a bird in flight
  • Increased ability to withstand metabolic stress.
  • Highest metabolic rate for their size of any
    vertebrate (fastest in smallest
    birds-hummingbirds).
  • High metabolic rates-can fly at very high
    altitudes.
  • Four-chambered heart, double-loop circulatory
    system.
  • Well-developed sense organs and nervous
    system-very acute vision and excellent muscle
    reflexes.

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Certain characteristics are shared by almost all
mammals
  • Possess hair at one point in their life. 
  • Homeothermic-produce heat/maintain constant body
    temperature.
  • Sweat to cool.
  • Lower jawbone is made of one bone and much
    stronger-can produce teeth.
  • Reptiles jaw is made up of 3 and attached
    loosely to skulls
  • Jawbones became mammals ear bones.
  • Have 3 bones (stirrup, anvil and hammer) in
    ear-reptiles have 1.
  • Diaphragm separates abdominal and thoracic
    cavities.
  • All have lungs, 4-chambered hearts and 2-loop
    circulatory system.
  • Produce milk (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) from
    modified sweat glands-mammary glands.

51
  • Placement of eyes often indicates if it is
    predator or prey animal.
  • Predators-have eyes that face forward and field
    of vision for each eye overlaps in front to
    create binocular vision for better depth
    perception.
  • Prey animal-has eyes that face sideways, with
    only a small area of overlap between the field of
    vision for each eye so they can see almost all
    the way around its body.
  • A mammals teeth are specially designed for its
    diet.
  • Carnivores-long, pointed canines for stabbing and
    sharp, scissor-like incisors for slicing through
    flesh. (lower jaw is slender, working like
    scissors)
  • Herbivores use their flat molars and premolars
    for grinding plant material. (lower jaw is thick
    and square)
  • Omnivores, (boars and humans), have a combination
    of both pointed and flat teeth to match their
    varied diet.

52
Monotremesduckbill platypus, spiny anteater
  • Lay hard-shelled eggs and have cloaca like birds.
  • Have pouch formed by swollen mammary glands and
    muscle
  • Egg moves from cloaca to pouch and hatches
  • After hatching, young lick milk seeping from
    modified sweat glands on abdomen of males and
    females.

53
Marsupials-pouched mammals.
  • Yolk-like placenta allows for shorter gestation
    time.
  • Only marsupial in Americas-opossum.
  • All others are found in Australia, New Zealand

54
Placental Mammals
  • Placenta-organ of exchange between maternal and
    fetal blood.
  • Supplies nutrients to and removes wastes from
    blood of developing offspring.
  • Enables young to be born in a relatively advanced
    stage of development.
  • Very active-possess acute senses and a relatively
    large brain.
  • Young go thru long period of dependency on
    parents.
  • Classification of mammals is based on mode of
    locomotion and method of obtaining food.

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