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Measuring Women in Poverty and Access to Resources The Philippine Experience

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Title: Measuring Women in Poverty and Access to Resources The Philippine Experience


1
Measuring Women in Poverty and Access to
Resources The Philippine Experience
Presented by Jessamyn O. Encarnacion
Global Forum on Gender Statistics Rome,
Italy 10-12 December 2007
2
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction
  • Women in Poverty
  • Womens Access to Resources
  • Other NSCB Initiatives
  • Other Efforts of the PSS
  • Philippine Gross National Happiness Index (by sex)

3
I. Introduction
  • From 2000 to 2003, women accounted for the second
    largest number of poor population (after the
    children)
  • Gender differential still remains as an issue in
    economic participation
  • Economic participation - 80 for men versus 50
    for women in 2006
  • Employment rate - 74 for men versus 46 for
    women in 2005
  • Poses a challenge to the country in achieving
    Goal 3 of the MDGs!

4
I. Introduction
About the NSCB
  • The Philippine Statistical System is a
    decentralized statistical system
  • Many agencies of government generate statistics
  • NSO
  • Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
  • Bureau of Labor Employment Statistics
  • BSP
  • DENR, DOT, DepED, CHED, DOH, DOST, etc.
  • Need for coordinating agency

5
I. Introduction
About the NSCB
Executive Order 121 Reorganizing the Philippine
Statistical System and for Other Purposes
  • Issued on January 30, 1987
  • Created the National Statistical Coordination
    Board (NSCB) as the highest policy-making and
    coordinating body on statistical matters in the
    country

6
I. Introduction
About the NSCB
Our Products
  • Compiles the National Accounts of the Philippines
  • Estimates GDP, GNP
  • Generates Official Poverty Statistics
  • Poverty Threshold
  • Poverty Incidence
  • Philippine Statistical Yearbook
  • Leading economic index, foreign direct
    investments, etc.
  • Satellite accounts for tourism, health, education
  • Other economic and social statistics

7
I. Introduction
About the NSCB
Our Services
  • Coordination services
  • Inter-agency concerns
  • Survey review system
  • Designation of statistics
  • Subnational statistical system
  • Online statistical service
  • Technical services (including data requests and
    advocacy for statistical awareness)
  • Administers the NATIONAL STATISTICAL INFORMATION
    CENTER
  • http//www.nscb.gov.ph

8
II. Women in Poverty
Official Poverty Statistics
  • Until 2007, official poverty estimates compiled
    by the NSCB are disaggregated by geographical
    location
  • - National
  • - Regional
  • - Provincial
  • Still, one of the demands is poverty statistics
    at lower levels and sectoral disaggregation

9
II. Women in Poverty
  • Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA
    8425)
  • Declared that the State should adopt an
    area-based sectoral and focused intervention to
    poverty alleviation
  • Defined the basic sectors as the disadvantaged
    sectors of Philippine society

10
II. Women in Poverty
14 Basic Sectors
  • Farmer-peasant
  • Artisanal fisherfolk
  • Workers in the formal sector and migrant workers
  • WOMEN
  • Senior citizens
  • Youth and students
  • Children
  • Urban poor
  • Workers in the informal sectors
  • Indigenous peoples and cultural communities
  • Differently-abled persons
  • Victims of calamities and disasters
  • Cooperatives
  • Non-government organizations

11
II. Women in Poverty
Poverty statistics for the basic sectors
  • NSCB Resolution No. 11, Series of 2007,
    Approving the Methodology for the Generation of
    Poverty Statistics for the Basic Sectors
  • As an off-shoot of the NSCB project funded by the
    UNDP on the Development of Poverty Statistics
    for the Basic Sectors Project

12
II. Women in Poverty
Data sources
  • 2000 and 2003 Family Income and Expenditures
    Survey (FIES)
  • 4th quarter 2000 and 2003 round of the Labor
    Force Survey (LFS) undertaken in January 2004
  • 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH)
  • 2000 and 2003 Philippine Poverty Statistics

13
II. Women in Poverty
14
II. Women in Poverty
  • Both FIES and LFS follow the Integrated Survey of
    Households (ISH) sampling scheme, making the
    estimation of poverty incidence straightforward.
    For example, the poverty incidence for women is

Number of poor women Poverty incidence
women ----------------------------------
Total number of women
15
II. Women in Poverty
  • Distribution of the basic sectors

16
II. Women in Poverty
Poverty incidence among the eight sectors
Poverty Incidence among the Population (Phils.
2003) 30.0
Highlights
  • The poverty incidence for all sectors decreased
    from 2000 to 2003. The Senior Citizens, Fishermen
    and Farmers sectors exhibited the largest
    decreases.
  • Three sectors were worse off than the countrys
    poverty incidence among the population of 30.0.
    These are the Children, Farmers and Fishermen
    sectors.
  • In terms of magnitude of poor population, the
    Children, Women and Urban Sectors are the
    largest.

17
II. Women in Poverty
Poverty incidence by sector and region, 2000
and 2003
Poverty Incidence among Women (Phils. 2003) 29.0
Highlights
  • Region VII exhibited the largest decrease in
    poverty incidence while Region IX showed the
    largest increase from 2000 to 2003.
  • CAR, ARMM, CARAGA, Regions I, IV-B, V, VI,
    VIII, IX, X, XI and XII were worse off than the
    national poverty incidence for the women sector.
  • In terms of magnitude of poor women population,
    Regions IV-A, V and VI are the largest.

18
II. Women in Poverty
  • Summary of findings

1 / Excludes NCR in 2000 due to high CV (with CV
gt 50 percent) 2/ Excludes CAR in 2000 due to high
CV (with CV gt 50 percent)
19
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Observed gender inequality in economic
    participation
  • Hence, men have greater economic visibility
    and higher contribution to the economy, more
    participation in making economic decisions, and
    more access to credit
  • Economic undercount of women thus puts them in a
    situation that can perpetuate, if not outright
    worsen the inequity between men and women
  • Need for information on womens and mens
    contribution to the economy

20
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Efforts on the generation of satellite accounts
  • a. Measuring The Contribution of Women To The
  • Philippine Economy by Romulo A. Virola and
    Sylvia M. de Perio (1998)
  • b. Womens Contribution To The Economy by
    Romulo
  • A. Virola (1999)
  • c. Do Women Contribute Less Than Men to Nation
    Building by Romulo A. Virola, Jessamyn
    O. Encarnacion, Armyl G. Zaguirre,
    Raymond S. Perez (2007)

21
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Taking off from the methodology used by Virola
    and de Perio in 1998
  • Using updated parameters from the results of the
    2000 TUS.

a/ Used in the 1998 study of Virola and de
Perio b/ Used in this study c/ Details of the
original were 1) rescaled to add up to 24
hours (1 day) and 2) weighted using urban (for
Quezon City) and rural (for Batangas) population
as weights.
22
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Unpaid work adds 66.2 percent to GDP!

23
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Womens share to GDP increased by 8 percentage
    points!

24
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Women account for 59.6 percent of the total hours
    of unpaid work!

25
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Women not in the labor force account for more
    than half of the total value of unpaid work of
    women!

26
III. Womens Access to Resources
  • Other findings of the study
  • Women accounted for only 27.4 percent of the
    total Net Factor Income from Abroad (NFIA)
  • Women contributed 46.2 percent of the adjusted
    Gross National Product (GNP) from 38.0 percent
    when unpaid work was not included

27
IV. Other NSCB Initiatives
Core GAD Indicators Data Framework
? contains the key macroeconomic impact
indicators needed to monitor and assess the state
of gender and development in the country
? serves as reference for government and
non-government organizations in the formulation
of indicators for monitoring and assessment of
outputs and impact of their GAD activities
28
IV. Other NSCB Initiatives
Core GAD Indicators Data Framework
  • the 20 core GAD indicators cover the PFA areas of
    concern
  • education and training
  • economy
  • health
  • poverty
  • institutional mechanism
  • media
  • power and decision-making
  • environment
  • violence against women
  • girl child
  • armed conflict and
  • human rights

29
IV. Other NSCB Initiatives
The Philippine Statistical Handbook on Women and
Men
  • compilation of latest available statistics
    highlighting the differences between women and
    men
  • focuses on the situation of women relative to men
    in the ff areas
  • Population and Families
  • Work
  • Economic Participation
  • Agriculture
  • Education
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Social Welfare
  • 8. Public Life
  • 9. Migration
  • 10. Peace and Human Rights
  • Violence Against Women and Children
  • Environment
  • Millennium Development Goal

30
IV. Other NSCB Initiatives
Coordination mechanisms
? creation of the Interagency Committee (IAC)
on Gender Statistics to serve as a strategic
mechanism to sustain the efforts and initiatives
in the generation and improvement of gender
statistics and institutionalize the
implementation of the GAD
31
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
National Demographic and Health Survey
  • Conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO)
    every five years
  • Designed to provide information on population,
    family planning, and health to assist
    policymakers and program managers in evaluating
    and designing strategies for improving health and
    family planning services in the country

32
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
Statistical Tables in the NDHS
  • Household population and housing
    characteristics
  • Characteristics of respondents and womens
    status
  • Fertility
  • Family planning
  • Determinants of fertility
  • Fertility preferences
  • Infant and child Mortality
  • Maternal and child health
  • Infant feeding and supplementation
  • HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted
    infections
  • Tuberculosis
  • General health

33
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS
  • Distribution of women employed in the twelve
    months preceding the survey receiving cash
    earnings by person who decides how earnings are
    to be used by marital status, educational
    attainment, age group
  • Distribution of women who say that they alone
    or jointly have the final say in specific
    decisions, by age group by number of living
    children
  • Distribution of women by person who has the final
    say in making specific decisions, according to
    current marital status and type of decision

34
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS
  • Percentage of women who agree that a husband
    is justified in hitting or beating his wife and
    percentage of women who believe that a wife is
    justified in refusing sex with her husband for
    specific reasons

35
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
Maternal and Child Health Survey
  • Presents data on prenatal and postpartum care,
    protection at birth against neonatal tetanus,
    breastfeeding, and immunization
  • conducted annually by the National Statistics
    Office (NSO) except when years when the NDHS is
    conducted
  • It involved interviewing all female members
    aged 15 to 49 years in the sample households in
    the Labor Force Survey (LFS), who have surviving
    children below three years of age

36
V. Other Efforts of the PSS
Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey
  • provides information on dating, marriage, and
    the onset of sexual activity in the Philippines
  • conducted by the University of the Philippines
    Population Institute

37
Digression
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Measuring Progress of Philippine Society Gross
National Product or Gross National Happiness
by Romulo A. Virola and Jessamyn O. Encarnacion
Presented during the 10th National Convention on
Statistics EDSA Shangri-la Plaza Hotel,
Mandaluyong City, Philippines 1-2 October 2007
38
Digression
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
  • WHY DO WE WORK?
  • WOULD WE RATHER BE RICH OR WOULD WE RATHER BE
    HAPPY?
  • WHAT DO WE REALLY WANT IN LIFE?
  • HOW DO WE MEASURE PROGRESS?
  • SHOULD MEASURES OF NATIONAL PROGRESS CAPTURE
    OUR OWN PERSONAL PROGRESS?

39
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
Phil. Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI)
Philippine Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI)
Philippine Happiness Index (PHI)
Philippine Economic Index (PEI)
40
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
Community participation volunteer work
1. Conceptual Framework
Religion and spiritual work
Cultural activities
Sex life
HI1
Education
Technological know-how
HI2
Family
Work
Friends
Philippine Happiness Index
Economy
Health
Environment
Income and financial security
Government
HI n
Leisure and sports
Politics
Note From 14 (during the pilot) to 17 domains
Others
Love life
41
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
  • Pilot survey ( nonrandom)
  • Private company employees
  • Government office employees
  • Participants in the National Convention on
    Statistics
  • Students in a private university
  • Participants in the 48th ASP Convention

42
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   RESPONDENTS FIND FAMILY, HEALTH AND RELIGION
AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS OF HAPPINESS, POLITICS
AS THE LEAST!
43
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
  • RESPONDENTS ARE HAPPIEST WITH FAMILY, FRIENDS,
    RELIGION, AND LOVE LIFE LEAST HAPPY WITH
    POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ECONOMY!
  • LOVE IS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION FOR PINOYS!

44
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   RESPONDENTS FIND INCOME VERY IMPORTANT BUT
HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS LOW!
45
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   RESPONDENTS FIND SEX LIFE NOT IMPORTANT BUT
HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS HIGH!
46
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   BOTH MEN AND WOMEN FIND FAMILY AND FRIENDS
AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS AND SOURCES OF
HAPPINESS, ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMY, GOVERNMENT AND
POLITICS AS THE LEAST!
47
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   WOMEN FIND LOVE IMPORTANT BUT NOT SEX WHILE
MEN FIND BOTH LOVE SEX IMPORTANT - THERE IS A
MISMATCH !
48
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
   WOMEN ARE HAPPIER WITH SEX THAN MEN!
49
VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Digression
The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index
Based on a single question, WOMEN ARE HAPPIER
THAN MEN! women 75.73 men 63.11
Deriving index from all domains of happiness,
MEN ARE JUST AS HAPPY AS WOMEN! women 67.07
men 67.45
50
Thank you!
visit www. nscb.gov.ph email
jo.encarnacion_at_nscb.gov.ph info_at_nscb.gov.ph
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