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Art History

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David Marat at his Last Breathe (1793) byJaques Louis David De Stijl 1917 -1944 Founder members of the group included the painter Mondrian, the sculptor Vantongerloo ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Art History


1
Art History
David Marat at his Last Breathe (1793) byJaques
Louis David
2
(No Transcript)
3
Art History Timeline
Ancient Civilization 3000Bc - 330BC Classic
Civilization 800BC - 340AD Middle Age 370 -
1440AD Renaissance 1400 - 1800AD Pre Modernism
1800 - 1880 AD Modernism 1880 - 1945 AD Post
Modernism 1945 - Present  
4
MIDDLE AGES 373 - 1453 AD Celtic, Saxon,
Hiberno 200 - 732 Byzantine Art 400 - 1453
Justinian 527 - 565 Islamic Art 622 - 900
Carolingian Art 732 - 900 Ottonian Art 900 -
1050 Romanesque Style 1000 - 1140 Gothic Style
1140 - 1500 RENAISSANCE 1400 - 1800 AD
Renaissance Italy 1400 - 1600 ADRenaissance
Europe 1500 - 1600 ADBaroque 1600 - 1700
ADRococo 1700 - 1750 AD PRE-MODERN 1800 - 1880
AD Neo-Classicism 1750 - 1880 ADRomanticism
1800 - 1880 AD
ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 3000 BC - 331 BC Egyptian
Art 3200 - 1070 Amarna Art 1370 - 1340
Mesopotamian Art 3500 - 331 Sumerian/Akkadian
3500 - 1750 Assyrian/Neo-Babylonian 1000 - 539
Persian 539 - 331 Aegean Art 3000 - 1100
Minoan (Crete) 3000 - 1475 Mycenean (Greece)
1650 - 1100 Greek Art 800 - 323 CLASSIC
CIVILIZATIONS 800 BC - 337 AD Hellenistic Art
323-150 BCEtruscan Art 6th - 5th century
BCRoman Art 509 BC - 337 AD
Ho hum boring what has this got to do with me,
Im here?
5
Appropriation
6
Prehistoric Art before 3000 BC
Ancient Civilization Art 3000 BC - 331BC
Classic Civilization Art 800BC - 337 AD
Prehistoric Art before 3000 BC
Prehistoric Art before 3000 BC
7
Renaissance 1400 - 1800
Middle Ages 373 - 1453 AD
Baroque
8
Romanticism 1800- 1880
9
MODERNISM 1880 - 1950 AD Realism 1830's -
1850's ADImpressionism 1870's - 1890's
AD Sybolism 1860 1910 Post Impressionism 1880 -
1900Nabis 1889 -1899 Fauvism 1905 onward Cubism
1907 - 1925 Expressionism 1908 onward Orphism
1909 -1914 Futurism 1909 -1920 Suprematism or
Russsian Constructivism1913 -1918 Dada 1916
-1922 De Stijl 1917 1944 Bauhaus 1920s
onwardSurrealism 1924- 1939 Abstract
Expressionism 1947 onwardPOSTMODERNISM 1945 AD
- Present  
10
Postmodernism Conceptualism -1960s
onwards) Performance - Early 1960s
onwardsInstallation - 1960s onwards Video -
1960s onwardsMinimalism - 1960s
onwardsPhoto-Realism - 1960s, 1970sEarthworks -
mid-1960sSupports-Surfaces - 1966-72Post-Minimal
ism - 1971 onwardsNew Subjectivity
-1970sGraffiti Art -1970s onwardsNeo-Expressioni
sm - 1979 onwardsYoung British Artists/ Britart
-1980sNeo-Pop Art -late 1980s onwardsStuckism
-1999 onwards New Leipzig School - .2000 onwards 
11
Suicide By Modernism, 2005 by Mark Kostabi Oil
on canvas
Modernism Timeline
ART HISTORY MODERNISM (1850 1950)
ART HISTORY MODERNISM (1850 1950)
ART HISTORY MODERNISM (1850 1950)
ART HISTORY MODERNISM (1850 1950)
1850 1860 1870
1880 1890
1900 1910 1920
1930 1940 1950
1960
1850 1860 1870
1880 1890
1900 1910 1920
1930 1940 1950
1960
Realism (1850 1880)
1850 1860 1870
1880 1890
1900 1910 1920
1930 1940 1950
1960
Realism (1850 1880)
1850 1860 1870
1880 1890
1900 1910 1920
1930 1940 1950
1960
Symbolism (1860 1910)
Realism (1850 1880)
Symbolism (1860 1910)
Realism (1850 1880)
Impressionism (1870-1890)
Symbolism (1860 1910)
Impressionism (1870-1890)
Symbolism (1860 1910)
Post-Impressionism (1880 onward)
Impressionism (1870-1890)
Post-Impressionism (1880 onward)
Impressionism (1870-1890)
Post-Impressionism (1880 onward)
Nabis (1889 1899)
Post-Impressionism (1880 onward)
Nabis (1889 1899)
Fauvism (1905 onward)
Nabis (1889 1899)
Fauvism (1905 onward)
Nabis (1889 1899)
Cubism (1907 1925)
Fauvism (1905 onward)
Cubism (1907 1925)
Fauvism (1905 onward)
Expressionism (1908 onward)
Cubism (1907 1925)
Expressionism (1908 onward)
Cubism (1907 1925)
Orphism (1909 1914)
Expressionism (1908 onward)
Orphism (1909 1914)
Expressionism (1908 onward)
Orphism (1909 1914)
Futurism (1909 1920)
Orphism (1909 1914)
Futurism (1909 1920)
Suprematism or Russian Constructivism (1913
1918)
Futurism (1909 1920)
Suprematism or Russian Constructivism (1913
1918)
Futurism (1909 1920)
Dada (1916 1922)
Suprematism or Russian Constructivism (1913
1918)
Dada (1916 1922)
Suprematism or Russian Constructivism (1913
1918)
Neo Plasticism or De Stijl (1917 1944)
Dada (1916 1922)
Neo Plasticism or De Stijl (1917 1944)
Dada (1916 1922)
Bauhaus (1919 onward
Neo Plasticism or De Stijl (1917 1944)
Bauhaus (1919 onward
Neo Plasticism or De Stijl (1917 1944)
Surrealism (1924 1939)
Bauhaus (1919 onward
Surrealism (1924 1939)
Bauhaus (1919 onward
American Abstract Expressionism (1947 onward)
Surrealism (1924 1939)
American Abstract Expressionism (1947 onward)
Surrealism (1924 1939)
American Abstract Expressionism (1947 onward)
American Abstract Expressionism (1947 onward)
12
MODERNISM 1880 - 1950 AD Realism 1850
1880 Impressionism 1870 1890 Sybolism 1860
1910 Post Impressionism 1880 - 1900Nabis 1889
-1899 Fauvism 1905 onward Cubism 1907 - 1925
Expressionism 1908 onward Orphism 1909
-1914 Futurism 1909 -1920 Supermatism or Russsian
Constructivism1913 -1918 Dada 1916 -1922 De Stijl
1917 1944 Bauhaus 1920s onwardSurrealism 1924-
1939 Abstract Expressionism 1947 onward
13
Modernism 1850 - 1950
Modernism represents a radical break with the
past and a search for new forms of expression. It
fostered a period of experimentation in the arts
from the late 19th century to the mid-20th
century, particularly in the years following
World War 1 (1914-1918).
14
In an era characterised by industrialisation,
rapid social changes, advances in science and the
social sciences (eg , Marxism, Darwinism,
Freudian theory), Modernists felt a growing
alienation with Victorian morality, optimism and
convention.
15
Realism 1850 -1880 Realism represents a shift in
the subject matter of art, from ancient and
medieval history, literature and religion to
subjects from everyday life
16
Barbizon School - Jean Baptiste Corot, The
Woodgatherer, c. 1870, oil on canvas, 33 x 42 cm
17
Barbizon School - Jean François Millet, The
Gleaners, 1848, oil on canvas, 54 x 66 cm
18
Impressionism 1870s 1890s
Impressionist painting flourishing during the
period between 1870 and 1886 and is
distinguished by the following characteristics S
tress on the effects of natural light
landscapes were not painted in the studio but in
the open air (plein air) Contemporary, natural
subjects from everyday life and momentary
appearances were sought with immediacy and
spontaneity New colour theories the real colour
of an object is modified by reflections
from other objects and the nature of the
atmosphere in which it is viewed and the
adjoining colours are intensified by
juxtaposition with the opposite colour in the
spectrum (complementary) Rapid brushwork each
stroke had to catch a momentary colour nuance or
reflection of light so that eventually rhe
painting became a series of small dabs of colour,
which, when viewed from a distance, the eye
blended. Informal composition as Impressionism
depended on momentary effect, painting directly
from life, the tedious effort exerted in the
studio to achieve a balanced or formal
composition was eliminated. The snap-shot
composition was favoured, which gave a more
dynamic effect to the painting.
Claude Monet, Haystacks at Sunset, Frosty
Weather, 1891, oil on canvas, 64.8 x 95.8 cm
19
Pierre-Auguste Renior, Le Moulin de la Galette,
1876, Oil on canvas, 131 x 175cm
20
Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise, 1872, Oil on
canvas, 48 x 63 cm
21
  • Symbolism 1860 -1910
  • Rejected the purely visual realism of the
    Impressionists, and the rationality of the
    Industrial Age, in order to depict the symbols of
    ideas.
  • An idealistic movement, created by artists
  • discontented with their culture.
  • Dreams were a perfect vehicle for the Symbolists
    to present their own idealistic visions.
  • Major French artist Odilon Redon
  • Major English artist Gabriel Dante Rossetti
    Pre-Raphaelite

22
Odilon Redon, The Cyclops, c.1898 - 1900, Oil on
wood, 64 x 51 cm
23
Post-Impressionism 1880- onward
Post-Impressionism refers to the several styles
that followed Impressionism after 1885.
Post-Impressionism refers to various reactions
to Impressionism rather than a single style.
Post-Impressionists were influenced by
Impressionists colours, brush strokes and
subject matter. The Post-Impressionist group
includes Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Vincent
Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin
24
Georges Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Ile de la
Grande Jatte, 1884-1886, Oil on canvas, 206.4 x
305.4 cm
25
Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889, Oil on
canvas, 73.7 x 92.1 cm
26
The Nabis 1889 - 1899
  • Parisian group of around 12 diverse
    Post-Impressionist artists
  • and illustrators
  • The core of Les Nabis were Frenchmen, Pierre
    Bonnard,
  • Maurice Denis and Édouard Vuillard
  • Nabis is the Hebrew word for prophet
  • The group held its first exhibition in 1892
  • Influenced by Gauguin
  • Developed a style characterized by flat areas of
    boldly juxtaposed
  • but muted colours and heavily outlined surface
    patterns
  • Were unified by the decorative character of their
    work and
  • their dislike of Impressionism
  • After a successful show in 1899, the group
    gradually disbanded

27
Pierre Bonnard, Siesta (La Sieste) 1900 oil on
canvas, 109.0 x 132.0 cm National Gallery of
Victoria, Melbourne
28
Pierre Bonnard, Woman Undressing, c. 1907 oil on
canvas
29
Pierre Bonnard, Woman with Cat, 1912 Oil on
canvas, 78.0 x 77.0 cm
30
Fauvism 1905 onward
If you like squeezing toothpaste out of a tube,
you could have been an artist who painted in the
style of Fauvism. These excitable artists would
have been excellent in toothpaste commercials.
They used bright blobs of paint right out of the
tube to create explosions on their canvases and
in the world of art.
Henri Matisse (1869-1954) Raoul Dufy
(1877-1953) André Derain (1880-1954) Maurice de
Vlaminck (1876-1958)
Their paintings had wild colours. They used blobs
of paint and unusual brushstrokes. Critics called
their paintings primitive, brutal, and violent.
One art critic compared the paintings to "fauves"
which was French for wild beasts. The paintings
were displayed in Room 7 which became known as
the "cage for the wild beasts." This art style
became known as Fauvism even though the Fauves
never used the term.
31
Maurice de Vlaminck, Bougival, c.1905, Oil on
canvas, 82.6 x 100.6 cm
32
Henri Matisse, Portrait of Andre Derain,
Collioure, 1905Oil on canvas, 39.4 x 28.9 cm
33
André Derain, London Bridge, 1906 Oil on canvas,
66 x 99 cm
34
Cubism 1907 - 1925
Cubism is unusual. The artist looks at an object
carefully. He or she then recreates the object
using geometric shapes. The artist might use
cubes, cylinders, balls, and cones. He or she
also tries to show the object from different
sides at the same time. This style of art began
in the twentieth century. But it didn't last
long. 
Cubism
 Pablo Picasso started Cubism. He was born in
Spain in 1881. His father trained him in
classical art.
Cubist work emphasised the flat,
two-dimensional, fragmented surface of the
picture plane, rejecting perspective,
foreshortening, modelling, and chiaroscuro in
favour of geometric forms.
35
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907
Oil on canvas, 245 x 235 cm
36
Georges Braques, The Portuguese, 1911, Oil on
canvas, 116.5 x 81.5 cm
37
Expressionism 1908 - onward
The term Expressionism can be used to describe
various art forms but, in its broadest sense, is
used to describe any art that raises subjective
feelings above objective observations. The aim
of painting is to reflect the artists state of
mind rather than the reality of the external
world.
38
Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893, Tempera and
pastel on cardboard, 91 x 74 cm
39
James Ensor, The Entry of Christ into Brussels,
1889 Oil on canvas, 250 x 434 cm
40
James Ensor, The Singular Masks, 1891 Oil on
canvas, 100 x 80 cm
41
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Self Portrait as a
Soldier, 1915 Oil on canvas, 69 x 61 cm
42
 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Five Women in the Street,
1913-15 Oil on canvas, 120 x 90 cm
43
Emil Nolde, Mask Still Life III, 1911Oil on
canvas, 74 x 78 cm
44
Franz Marc, Blue Horses, 1911 Oil on canvas,
103.5 x 179.7
45
Wassily Kandinsky, Autumn in Bavaria, 1908 Oil on
cardboard, 33 x4 5cm
46
Max Beckmann, The Night, 1918-19Oil on canvas,
133.9 x 153.6 cm
47
Käthe Kollwitz, Death Seizes a Woman,1934 Lithogra
ph, 51 x 36.5 cm
48
Orphism 1909 -1914 Robert Delaunay
(18851941) Sonia Delaunay-Terk (18851979)
French art movement developed and derived from
Cubism, focusing more on the application of
colour in painting and influenced by music.
49
Robert Delaunay, Eiffel Tower , 1911 Oil on
Canvas, 202 x 138.4
50
Robert Delaunay, Simultaneous Windows (2nd Motif,
1st Part), 1912 Oil on canvas, 55.2 x 46.3 cm
51
Robert Delaunay, Homage to Bleriot, 1914Oil on
canvas, 194.3 x 128.3 cm
52
Sonia Delaunay-Terk, Electric Prisms, 1914 Oil on
canvas, 250 x 250 cm
53
Futurism 1909 - 1920
  • An artistic movement in Italy around 1910 that
    tried to express the energy and values of the
    machine age
  • These artist believe that the meaning of life
    should be sought in the future.

54
Umberto Boccioni, The Street Penetrates the
Building, 1911, Oil on canvas, 100 x 106.5 cm
55
Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash,
1912, Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 110 cm
56
Umberto Boccioni, Unique Form of Continuity in
Space, 1913Bronze, 126.4 x 89 x 40.6 cm
57
Suprematism or Russian Constructivism 1913 -
1918
Constructivism was a movement that was active
from 1915 to the 1940s. It was a movement
created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly
spread to the rest of the continent.
Constructivist art is committed to complete
abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where
themes are often geometric, experimental and
rarely emotional.
Famous artists of the Constructivist movement
include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich,
Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky.
Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third
International, 1919 Model
58
Vladimir Tatlin, Counter Relief , 1914-15 Iron,
copper, wood, rope 71x118cm
59
Dadaism 1916 -1922
Dada originated in Zürich, Switzerland in 1916
and flourished in New York City, Paris, and the
German cities of Berlin, Cologne, and Hannover in
the early 20th century. The movement grew out
of disgust with bourgeois values and despair over
World War I. The name, French for
hobby-horse, was selected by a chance procedure
and adopted by a group of artists, including Jean
(Hans) Arp, Marcel Duchamp, Hannah Höch and
Francis Picabia to symbolise their emphasis on
the illogical and absurd.
60
The archetypal Dada forms of expression were the
nonsense poem and the ready-made. Dada had
far-reaching effects on the art of the 20th
century the creative techniques of accident and
chance were sustained in Surrealism, Abstract
Expressionism, Conceptual Art and Pop Art.
61
Jean (Hans) Arp, Fleur Marteau, 1916 Oil on wood,
62.2 x 50.1 cm
62
Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase No 2,
1912 oil on canvas, 146 x 89 cm
63
Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1951 (third
version, after lost original of 1913) Assemblage
metal wheel mounted on painted wood stool, 128.2
x 64.7 x 40.6 cm
64
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, (original lost)
readymade, porcelain urinal, height 60 cm
65
Hannah Höch, My Home Mottoes, 1922 Collage and
India ink on paper, 32 x 41.3 cm
66
De Stijl 1917 -1944
De Stijl from the Dutch for "The Style" also
known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic
movement started in 1917.
 Founder members of the group included the
painter Mondrian, the sculptor Vantongerloo, the
architect J.J.P. Oud and the designer and
architect Rietveld. They were eager to develop a
new aesthetic consciousness and an objective art
based on clear principles. The theory behind De
Stijl was aimed at scaling down the formal
components of art - only primary colours and
straight lines.
67
Piet Mondrian, Composition No. II Composition
with Blue and Red, 1929, Oil on canvas, 40.3 x
32.1 cm
68
Picture of a chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld
De Stijl in modern life
69
Bauhaus 1920 -onwards
Bauhaus ("House of Building" or "Building
School") is the common term for a school in
Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts,
and was famous for the approach to design that it
publicised and taught. It operated from 1919 to
1933. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter
Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the
fact that its founder was an architect, the
Bauhaus did not have an architecture department
during the first years of its existence. The
Bauhaus style became one of the most influential
currents in Modernist architecture and modern
design.
70
Barcelona Chair
Wassily Chair
71
Wassily Kandinsky Joyful Arising Color
lithograph from Bauhaus Masters portfolio, 1923.
72
Surrealism 1924 - 1939
According to André Breton (1896-1966) who
published "The Surrealist Manifesto" in 1924,
Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious and
unconscious realms of experience so completely
that the world of dream and fantasy would be
joined to the everyday rational world in "an
absolute reality, a surreality."
73
The first of these, exemplified by the painting
of the Italian Giorgio de Chirico (who preceded
André Breton by more than a decade), the
Belgians, René Magritte and Paul Delvaux,
American Man Ray and French artist Max Ernst,
French/American Yves Tanguy and the Spaniard,
Salvador Dali the German-Swiss, Meret Oppenheim
and the American Dorothea Tanning.
74
The second type of Surrealist practice has no
clear representational function but is, rather,
the use of materials by artists without a clear
representational plan. In this way, the work
of the artist is automatic, the direct
communication of the unconscious mind.
75
Giorgio de Chirico, Piazza, 1913 Oil on canvas,
51.5 x 75.5 cm
76
(This is not a pipe)
René Magritte, The Treachery of Images,
1928/29 Oil on canvas, 62.2 x 81 cm.
77
René Magritte, Voice of Space (La Voix des airs),
1931 Oil on canvas, 72.7 x 54.2 cm.
78
René Magritte, The Human Condition, 1933Oil on
canvas, 100 x 81 cm
79
Max Ernst, The Tottering Woman, 1923, Oil on
canvas, 130.5 x 97.5 cm
80
Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931,
Oil on canvas, 24 x 33 cm
81
Meret Oppenheim, Luncheon in Fur, (Déjeuner en
fourrure) 1936 Fur-covered cup saucer and spoon
82
Salvador Dali, Lobster Telephone 1936 painted
plaster, telephone18.0 x 12.5 x 30.5 cm
National Gallery Australia
83
Abstract Expressionism 1947- onwards
  • Abstract Expressionism is a form of art in which
    the artist expresses him or herself purely
    through the use of
  • form (shape) and colour.
  • It is non-representational or non-objective art,
    which means that there are no concrete objects
    represented.

Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) Willem de Kooning
(1904-1997) Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) Franz
Kline (1910-1962) Mark Tobey (1890-1976) Philip
Guston (1913-1980) Adolph Gottlieb (1903-1974)
84
Hans Hofmann, To Miz-Pax Vobiscum, 1964Oil on
canvas, 196.5 x 212.4 cm
85
Mark Rothko, Untitled (Violet, Black, Orange,
Yellow on White and Red), 1949Oil on canvas, 207
x 167.6 cm
86
Barnett Newman, Dionysius, 1949oil on canvas,
170.2 x 124.5 cm
87
Adolph Gottlieb, Apaquogue, 1961oil on canvas,
183.5 x 229.2 cm
88
Franz Kline, Painting Number 2, 1954Oil on
canvas, 204.3 x 271.6 cm
89
Willem De Kooning, Woman 1, 1950, Oil on canvas,
192.7 x 147.3 cm
90
Jackson Pollock, Number 1, 1948 Oil on canvas,
172.4 x 264 cm
91
Yves Klein used naked ladies as paintbrushes and
called it Anthropometry
Klein Blue - 1961
92
  • Major factors that fostered Modernism
  • The birth of the modern city the French capital
    city, Paris
  • The growth of the urban, capitalist society
  • The accessible image development of the new
    technology of photography and photomechanical
    reproduction
  • The development of art museums
  • 5. The development of temporary exhibitions

93
Post-Modern Art Movements So far, there have
been no great international art movements during
the postmodernist period. Instead, the era has
been characterized by a number of national
movements along with several brand new artforms.
In addition, there have been dozens of artistic
splinter groups, as well as one or two
anti-postmodernist schools whose members have
endeavoured to produce the sort of art that
Michelangelo or Picasso would have been proud of.
Here is a brief list of the main post-modern
movements, with explanatory comments.
94
Postmodernism
Conceptualism (1960s onwards). See also
Conceptual Art.Original objects of art are
boring it's the idea that counts. Performance
(Early 1960s onwards). See Performance Art and
Happenings.A new way to make art accessible to
the masses. Installation (1960s onwards). See
also Installation Art.A new way to draw
spectators INTO the artwork. Video (1960s
onwards). See also Video Art, and Animation.Art
becomes dynamic, more absorbing, more exciting.
Minimalism (1960s onwards)A refuge of
intellectual painters and sculptors anxious about
"purity" in art. Photo-Realism (1960s,
1970s)Copying photographs is easier and more fun
than learning how to pain portraits. Earthworks
(mid-1960s)No greedy commercial galleries
involved. See also Land Art. Supports-Surfaces
(c.1966-72)Experimental shock tactics to gain
fame. Post-Minimalism (1971 onwards)A fun way
to create objective art that deteriorates. New
Subjectivity (1970s)A halfway-house between
classical art and postmodern anarchy. Fabulous
works! Graffiti Art (1970s onwards)Ultimate
postmodernist movement instant painting, instant
fame. Neo-Expressionism (1979
onwards)Renaissance art strikes back! An
anti-post-modernist movement. Young British
Artists/ Britart (1980s)Combination of
breathtaking business-savvy opportunism and
shocking ideas. An explosion of extreme bad taste
dressed up as art. The public loved it. Neo-Pop
Art (late 1980s onwards)Huge plastic sculptures
of children's toys and lots more in the same
vein. Stuckism (1999 onwards)Stuckists hate
YBAs. Another anti-postmodernist tendency. New
Leipzig School (c.2000 onwards)East German
centre of traditional excellence in painting and
sculpture. No real connection with postmodernism.
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