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A Staggered Approach to Realizing the Potential of Civilian UAV Applications Dr. Kelly Cohen School of Aerospace Systems Workshop on Frontiers of Real-World Multi-Robot Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Oct. 10

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Title: A Staggered Approach to Realizing the Potential of Civilian UAV Applications Dr. Kelly Cohen School of Aerospace Systems Workshop on Frontiers of Real-World Multi-Robot Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Oct. 10


1
A Staggered Approach to Realizing the Potential
of Civilian UAV ApplicationsDr. Kelly Cohen
School of Aerospace Systems Workshop on
Frontiers of Real-World Multi-Robot Systems
Challenges and Opportunities Oct. 10 11,
2011
2
  • For several years, there has been much talk about
    civilian UAV applications and yet this immense
    and unquestionable potential has yet to be
    realized in this country.

3
Possible Civilian Applications
  • Public Sector
  • Search and rescue
  • Border Patrol
  • Forest fire surveillance, monitoring, or control
  • Extended range for radio transmission relay for
    emergency operations
  • Private Sector
  • Gas/Oil/Water pipeline and power line monitoring
  • Radio/Communications - low orbiting satellite

4
Realizing Civilian UAVs
Civilian UAV Applications
Operations
Industry
Integration in National Air Space
Airworthiness / Safety
Flight over populated areas
Use of non-segregated airspace
5
Realizing Civilian UAVs
  • HMI
  • Noise Emission
  • Frequency Spectrum
  • Responsibility Hand Over
  • Security
  • Collision Avoidance
  • Equipment
  • Flight Rules
  • Licensing
  • Operator certification
  • Legal Certification Framework
  • Airworthiness Definition
  • UAV System Elements
  • System Safety Objectives and Criteria
  • Tailoring Existing Manned Requirements
  • Emergency recovery
  • Communication Link
  • Autonomy

6
Rising to the Challenge
  • At the urging of the UAV industry, the FAA sought
    to resolve the UAV regulatory issues through the
    use of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee
    (ARAC) process.
  • In 1991, the ARAC Air Traffic Subcommittee
    directed the development of a Notice for Proposed
    Rule Making for UAVs.
  • Over the next few years, the UAV Work Group
    developed four draft ACs (i.e., design criteria,
    maintenance, pilot qualifications and training,
    and operations) that were presented to FAA for
    further inaction.
  • Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4671 -Unmanned
    Aerial Vehicles Systems Airworthiness
    Requirements- (USAR) is the NATO agreement that
    defines the minimum airworthiness standards for
    UAS above 150 kg.

7
References
  • Unmanned aerial vehicles systems airworthiness
    requirements (USAR), STANAG 4671, Edition 1, 3
    September 2009.
  • (Note NATO Standardization Agreements
    for procedures and systems and equipment
    components, known as STANAGs, are developed and
    promulgated by the NATO Standardization Agency in
    conjunction with the Conference of National
    Armaments Directors and other authorities
    concerned)
  • http//www.nato.int/docu/stanag/4671/4671_ed1_e.pd
    f
  • Policy for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
    certification, A-NPA No 16-2005, ADVANCE -NOTICE
    OF PROPOSED AMENDMENT (NPA) No 16/2005
  • http//www.easa.eu.int/ws_prod/r/doc/NPA/NPA_16_20
    05.pdf

8
The Airworthiness Challenge
  • Airworthiness focuses on safety and risks are
    assessed accordingly.
  • As a result, aircraft size, and kinetic energy
    plays an important role in calculating the
    outcome probabilities
  • For example, a certain sub-system for aircraft A
    may have a different impact than the same system
    in aircraft B

9
Definitions - Airworthiness
  • Airworthiness is a term used to describe whether
    an aircraft has been certified as suitable for
    safe flight.
  • JSP553 Military Airworthiness Regulations (2006)
  • The ability of an aircraft or other airborne
    equipment or system to operate without
    significant hazard to aircrew, ground crew,
    passengers (where relevant) or to the general
    public over which such airborne systems are flown
  • This definition applies equally to civil and
    military aircraft.
  • FAA Definition for UAV (2008)
  • For the UAV to be considered airworthy, both the
    aircraft and all of the other associated support
    equipment of the UAV must be in a condition for
    safe operation.
  • If any element of the systems is not in a
    condition for safe operation, then the UAV would
    not be considered airworthy.

10
Airworthiness - Severity of Failure Conditions
  • Catastrophic Failure conditions which could
    potentially result in a fatality to UAV crew or
    ground staff.
  • Hazardous Failure conditions which could
    potentially result in serious injury to UAV crew
    or ground staff.
  • Major Failure conditions which could potentially
    result in injury to UAV crew or ground staff.
  • Minor Failure conditions that do not
    significantly reduce UAV System safety and
    involve UAV crew actions that are well within
    their capabilities.
  • No safety effect Failure conditions that have no
    effect on safety.

STANAG 4671, 2009
11
Determining Airworthiness Code for UAVs
  • Alternative I Impact energy method relies on a
    comparison with existing conventional aircraft
    design requirements which contribute to a
    currently accepted level of safety
  • To obtain the indication of the level of
    requirements appropriate to a UAV System the
    following steps are carried out
  • Calculate the kinetic energy of the UAV for each
    scenario.
  • b. Using these values and Figures 1 and 2
    separately (see subsequent slides), determine the
    appropriate code to be applied with the intent of
    preventing the occurrence of each scenario.
  • c. Construct a certification basis which
    addresses the same aspects of the design as the
    existing codes and to the level indicated by the
    kinetic energy comparison.

A-NPA_05nov11_easa_proposedUAVcert_policy.pdf
12
Determining Airworthiness Code for UAVs
A-NPA_05nov11_easa_proposedUAVcert_policy.pdf
13
Determining Airworthiness Code for UAVs
A-NPA_05nov11_easa_proposedUAVcert_policy.pdf
14
Determining Airworthiness Code for UAVs
  • Alternative II UAV Safety Objectives
  • Safety objectives have been used as a means to
    define and justify the civil aircraft
    characteristics.
  • These safety objectives are oriented to on board
    people protection and are defined by the FAR/CS
    25/23 regulations.
  • As there are no people on board of UAV, safety
    objectives criteria for UAV must be redefined and
    oriented to on ground people protection.
  • Air transport statistics for large aircraft
    provide figures of about 50 victims per million
    aircraft flight hour but they are passengers,
    they are aware of the risk.
  • It is suggested to use for UAV the conservative
    criteria of One victim per million UAV flight
    hours.

A-NPA_05nov11_easa_proposedUAVcert_policy.pdf
15
UAV Risk Reference System
STANAG 4671, 2009
16
Media Reports of Terrorist Attempts to Employ UAVs
  • In 1995, Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese terrorist
    group that attacked the Tokyo subway with sarin
    gas, planned to use remote-control helicopters to
    spray dangerous chemicals from the air.1 The
    helicopters crashed during testing.
  • In 2001 Osama bin Laden considered using
    remote-control airplanes packed with explosives
    to kill President George W. Bush and other heads
    of state at the G-8 summit in Genoa, Italy.
  • In June 2002, quoting a German intelligence
    official, the Reuters news agency reported that
    al Qaeda might be planning to attack passenger
    aircraft using model airplanes.

17
September 2011 - Terrorists plan to convert RC
model into a UAV
  • Rezwan Ferdaus, a U.S. citizen from Ashland MA,
    and a physics graduate from Northeastern
    University, was arrested after lengthy monitoring
    and a sting operation by the FBI this week.
  • Ferdaus had acquired three RC jets, an F-86
    Sabre and two F-4 Phantoms, plus explosives and
    cell phones wired like IEDs
  • His intent to use an RC model airplane
    reconfigured as a UAV, similar to a military
    drone, for an explosive-laden attack on the U.S.
    Capitol and Pentagon.

18
Some Observations
  • The road ahead is not easy and it will take a
    while before civilian UAVs have a straight
    forward AW certification process and integration
    in the national air space.
  • In addition to the traditional issues related to
    Air Worthiness/safety and national air space
    integration, two new threats have emerged
  • System Level - Abuse of technology by terrorists
  • Sub-system level Software insurance
    (cyber-warfare)

19
A Staggered Approach
  • The main idea is to make a start in civilian
    applications on a small scale and by focusing on
    it allow for gradual opening of the envelope to
    more UAV classes.
  • Limit these three stages to
  • Emergency first responders like Fire-fighters
  • Local law enforcement authorities
  • Border patrol
  • The main idea to train, certify and enable local
    teams to be independent capability in all
    operational aspects.

20
A Staggered Approach
  Safety Integration Cyber-security Terrorism
Stage I A/C lt 2 lb, fixed aircraft configuration, training and certification. No runway requirements Segregated air-space, limited range and envelope Limited Risk assessment/ diagnostics
Stage 2 A/C lt10 lb, fixed aircraft configuration, training and certification. No runway requirements Limited A/W certification Segregated air-space. limited range and envelope Limited Risk assessment/ diagnostics
Stage 3 A/C lt 55 lb, (R/C limit) limited runway requirements for take-off/landing. More comprehensive A/W certification Segregated air-space. Larger airspace, coordination with local More comprehensive Risk assessment/ diagnostics
Assess Lessons and Proceed Assess Lessons and Proceed Assess Lessons and Proceed Assess Lessons and Proceed Assess Lessons and Proceed
21
Stage 1 Microcat Flyer
SAE Aero Design East Competition - International
Competition - Winning team, Micro Class
University of Cincinnati - Competed against 17
other teams in the micro class
Our Design Score is so low because the judges did
not believe the plane only weighed 0.7 lbf. We
were the lightest by 0.42 lbf.
Design team from left to right Marshall
Galbraith, Phillip Italiano, Cody Lafountain
Standings after final flight Standings after final flight Standings after final flight Standings after final flight Standings after final flight
Top 3 teams Design Score Ao Max Flight Score Overall Score
Univ of Cincinnati 43.36 66.7 98.17 197.09
SAE Brazil 45.10 66.7 96.13 195.76
Cedarville Univ 45.29 100 66.61 168.76
22
Design Configuration for SAE Competition
Airframe Span 56 in Aspect
Ratio 8 Length 25 in Empty Weight 0.7
lbf Max Payload 3.1 lbf Propulsion Electric
Motor 31 grams Battery 325 mAh _at_ 33
grams Performance Max Alt. 500 ft Max
Speed 45.7 mph Max Rate of Climb 4.2
mph Takeoff Speed 28.64 mph Max Flight Time
with battery 2 min
23
Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat Current Tactical UAV and Microcat
Developer TOW (lbf) Length (in) Span (in) Celling (ft) Endurance (min) Range (ft)
Microcat UC 2.0 25 56 500 45 63,360 ft
Aladin EMT 8.8 63 59.1 14,764 60 49,213
Bird Eye 500 IAI 11 59.1 78.7 1,001 60 32,808
Carolo P50 Rheinmetall Defence 1.2 19.7 30 1,000
WASP III AeroVironment 1.0 10 28.5 1,000 45 16,404
Desert Hawk Lockheed Martin 7.0 36 48 1,000 75 36,089
24
Structural Refinement for Fire-Fighting-Capable
Micro UAV
  • Ricky Wolf Phillip Italiano
  • Dr. Kelly Cohen

25
Tasks Timeline
26
Ruggedizing the Fuselage
  • Glue EPP foam sheets together
  • Cut out payload box
  • Possibly do before gluing
  • Attach carbon fiber tubes to stiffen bay walls
  • Run carbon fiber tube from tip-to-tail
  • Cut/Sand remaining shape of fuselage
  • Cover bottom with light-weight plastic
    Skid-plate
  • Rounder bottom?

Payload bay (bottom view)
Skid Plate? Rounder?
27
Ideas Wings, Control Surfaces
  • Glue foam sheets together
  • Cut airfoil shape
  • Hotwire
  • Sanding
  • Attach carbon fiber tubes to stiffen
  • Leading Edge
  • 1-2 thicker tubes through fuselage into main
    wings
  • Cut out ailerons, rudder, elevator
  • Add carbon fiber tube(s)
  • Attach to planewith filament tape/hot glue
  • Cut out spots for servos
  • Run wiring

Carbon tubing for support
28
SIERRA PROJECTSurveillance for Intelligent
Emergency Response Robotic Aircraft
University of Cincinnati - College of Engineering
and Applied Science Supervisor Dr. Kelly Cohen,
Dr. Manish Kumar Team Lead Robert
Charvat Members Nick Buhr, Andrew Nels, Nate
Bodenschatz, Bryan Brown, Ted Meyer Mechanical
Eng. Team Memebers Sushil Garg, Balaji Sharma
29
SIERRA Project Mission
Developing the standard for next generation use
of tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Systems(UAV/UAS) specifically dealing with
Emergency Management Data Acquisition and
Analysis.
30
Fundamental problems of Forest Fires
  • Forest Fires are both man and naturally caused
    but grow rapidly due to environmental and wind
    conditions. Though there is no single rule to
    forest fire growth, anytime Oxygen, Fuel, and
    Fire exist at the same time and place, a fire can
    occur

31
Forest Fire Control
  • Every 5 years an area approximately the size of
    Florida is burnt.

32
Master the problem
  • 1 Develop relationships with users who have the
    problem
  • 2 Use academic resource strengths for
    information
  • 3 Train with operational organizations
  • 4 Develop an operational understanding of the
    problems
  • 5 Develop relationships with manufactures and
    industry

33
WV Fire Training
  • During the early summer of 2010 the team became
    certified Wild Land Fire Fighters(FFT2). This
    was essential for safe field research and getting
    hands on experience on how fire fighting was
    conducted.

34
1. The Incident Command System
  • Provides for Command Structure of organization
  • Enables for one person to lead all aspects of
    operation

35
  • The Lookout, Communication, Escape Routes, Safety
    Zone System(LCES) is an essential aspect to safe
    Wild Land Fire Fighting, it provides for
    unit(squad) based safety measure implementation

36
Partnering with WV
  • Possibly the most important partnership was with
    the State of West Virginia Forestry. This
    partnership provides for the operational
    environment in which advanced research aspects
    can be addressed.
  • With a partnership formed it was time to address
    the needs of that organization to understand how
    the technology can help.

37
WV Fire Statistics
  • Assuming a 1,000 average value of Forestry, this
    represents a 20 Million dollar loss of Natural
    Resource. This does not include the risk to
    housing, smoke conditions, wild life loss, and
    risk to general public.

38
West Virginia Fire Problems
  • 1. Diverse Terrain Encourages Rapid Fire Growth
    in hard to reach areas
  • 2. Urban Sprawl Citizens move out into less
    inhabited areas in which fire can quickly move to
    consume
  • 3. Underground Coal Fires Fires which have been
    burning for 10's of years from time to time
    surface
  • 4. Overall Situational Awareness Diverse
    Terrain in combination with unknowns make
    command very difficult

39
Problem with ICS and LCES
  • Problems could occur when gaps existed in the
    system or when information does not flow all the
    way up from the bottom, or all the way down from
    the top.

40
Aerial Surveillance
  • Aerial Surveillance is available but is very
    expensive, yearly approaching costs of 6 figures
    only to maintain operational capability, not
    including operational costs.

41
Changing system or adding technology
  • Why it is difficult to change the ICS and LCES
    system?
  • The ICS system is currently employed by millions
    of people in organizations world wide. It is very
    effective in terms of managing emergency
    management situations and changing it would
    require retraining of those individuals.
  • LCES works flawlessly when rules are followed,
    but it is primarily a lack of surveillance,
    communication or information which causes
    problems which have lead to loss of human life.

42
SIERRA Project Mission
  • Easily Integrate to support ICS and LCES
  • Low Cost System
  • Can be operated by ICS/Lookouts

43
SIERRA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Outlook
5-pound, 4½ wingspan UAV, can be hand-launched
and recovered from any small clearing
Click and Fly capability allows users to quickly
change flight paths, fly automated routes, or
loiter over a location
Video and GPS display enables users to view fire
remotely and monitor the fires progress
Integration with fire prediction software will
improve efficiency of response
44
Intelligent Systems Support
  • Improved Situational Awareness

45
Expected Joint Benefits
  • By introducing a UAS system and an Intelligent
    Decision Support System an Incident Commander can
    have a very advanced understanding of the fire
    upon arrival which saves time and improves
    efficiency of units.

46
SIERRA - Concept
47
Expected Benefits
UAS and Intelligent Decision System allows for
Incident Commander to quickly make decisions
48
WV Expected Benefits
  • The addition of a UAS and Decision Making System
    to support operations is expected to make it
    possible to reduce fire size by 10 per year,
    which represents a 2 million dollar savings in
    land using a 1000/acre value. This number
    doesn't include work hours saved, land
    rehabilitation, property damage,

49
Mission Considerations
Demonstration Event (Morgan Town West Virginia)
  • University of Cincinnati, West Virginia Division
    of Forestry, and Marcus UAV
  • Prescribed burn event - 36 acres
  • UAV flyover - Demonstrate surveillance potential
    of technology line
  • Provide GPS coordinates of fire location
  • November 2011

50
West Virginia Operational Problems
  • Successful test demonstrates
  • System is cost effective
  • Capable solution to
  • Searching for coal mine fires
  • First responder support
  • Searching rough terrain
  • Line of sight capabilities

51
Goals Going forward
  • Seek NASA/OSGC support for joint UC/WVFD
    project
  • Purchase of 5 complete systems
  • Develop the following aspects
  • Training and operational doctrines
  • Maintenance repair
  • Back-packable system ground station
  • Landing into a net
  • FAA Requirements

52
Demonstration Videos
UAV Launch http//www.youtube.com/watch?vX4N4I2V
brIsfeatureplayer_embedded GPS Tracking with
Google Earth http//www.youtube.com/watch?v6zyFK
ONL1CUfeatureplayer_embedded Recovery http//w
ww.youtube.com/watch?vqZpjFR_rBDEfeatureplayer_
embedded
53
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