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Elements of Poetry

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Title: Elements of Poetry


1
Elements of Poetry
2
What is a poem?
  • a composition in verse, especially one that is
    characterized by a highly developed artistic form
    and by the use of heightened language and rhythm
    to express an intensely imaginative
    interpretation of the subject.

3
Terms Found Most Often in Poetry
  • Alliteration
  • Assonance The repetition of the same vowel sound
    in several words in the same line of poetry or
    sentence as in The lazy babies wailed for cake.
  • Consonance The use of the same consonant sound
    in the middle of several words in a line of
    poetry as in the ls in slowly and silently the
    mellow willows dangled their branch-like arms.

4
  • Blank Verse Poetry written in unrhymed iambic
    pentameter. Blank means the poetry is not
    rhymed.
  • Iambic Pentameter means that each line consist
    of five iambs, or metrical feet, consisting of an
    unstressed syllable (v) followed by a stressed
    syllable ().

5
An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed
by a stressed syllable. We could write the rhythm
like this
da DUM
A line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet
in a row
da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM
We can notate this with a '?' mark representing
an unstressed syllable and a '/' mark
representing a stressed syllable1. In this
notation a line of iambic pentameter would look
like this
? / ? / ? / ? / ? /
The following line from John Keats' ode To Autumn
is a straightforward example2 To swell the
gourd, and plump the hazel shells We can notate
the scansion of this as follows
? / ? / ? / ? / ? /
To swell the gourd, and plump the ha- zel shells
6
  • Couplet Two consecutive lines of poetry that
    rhyme.
  • For never was a story of more woe than this of
    Juliet and her Romeo.

7
  • End-stopped line A line of poetry that has
    punctuation at the end (.,)
  • Run-on line A line of poetry that has no
    punctuation at the end.
  • Rhyme Scheme The repetition of accented vowel
    sounds and all the sounds following them in words
    that are close together in a poem.
  • Rhymes that occur at the ends of lines are called
    end rhyme.
  • Rhyme occurring within lines of poetry is called
    internal rhyme.
  • The rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes formed
    by the end rhyme in a poem.

8
  • Refrain a repeated word, phrase, like, or group
    of lines.
  • Meter A generally regular pattern of stressed
    and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.
  • Rhythm The pattern created by arranged stressed
    and unstressed syllables in poetry. Rhythm gives
    poetry a musical sound.
  • Slant Rhymes Words that do not rhyme exactly
    but repeat some sounds such as hollow and
    mellow or look and back.

9
  • Exact Rhymes Words that rhyme exactly. (cat and
    hat)
  • Sonnet A fourteen line poem.
  • Stanza A group of lines forming a unit in a
    poem.
  • Quatrain A four line stanza in a poem.

10
Example of a poem
  • Dreams by Langston Hughes Hold fast to dreams
    For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird
    That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when
    dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with
    snow.

11
  • How to read a poem
  • Read through it once circling and making note of
    anything interesting.
  • Read through it again looking for any imagery
    that is used.
  • Look for any symbolism and decide what it stands
    for.
  • Look at the poem as a whole what is the author
    trying to say?

Langston Hughes
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