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Food safety

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Food safety kitchen & restaurant guide for starters F&B4U By Andrea Boyes What is Food Hygiene? Food safety is the condition and practices that ensure the quality of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food safety


1
  • Food safety
  • kitchen restaurant guide for starters
  • FB4U
  • By
  • Andrea Boyes

2
What is Food Hygiene?
  • Food safety is the condition and practices that
    ensure the quality of food to prevent
    contamination and food poisoning
  • It involves taking all necessary precautions to
    ensure the safety and wholesomeness of food
    during preparation, coking and storage

3
Types of contamination
  • Physical (foreign bodies)
  • Jewellery, nails, nuts bolts, glass, broken
    tiles, mouse droppings, bones, etc
  • Micro biological
  • Bacteria, viruses, mould fungi
  • Chemical
  • Pesticides, cleaning chemical residue,
    lubricating oils, additives, fertiliser
  • Allergens
  • Nuts, mustard seeds, shellfish, strawberries, etc

4
Bacteria
  • Good bacteria
  • Some bacteria are used for making cheese
    yoghurt
  • They are found all over soil, dust, pets, pests,
    on humans, clothing, raw food etc.
  • Some moulds are used in the making of blue cheese
  • Yeast is used to make bread and beer
  • Bad bacteria are known as pathogens
  • They cause food poisoning by growing to high
    numbers in food or by producing toxins in food
  • Pathogens do not change the appearance of food
  • Food looks, tastes and smells normal. It is only
    later that the unpleasant symptoms are realised.

5
What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Food-
  • Bacteria prefer food which is rich in moisture
    protein
  • High risk foods are foods, which will readily
    support bacterial growth and will not go through
    any further cooking or heat processing
  • e.g. cooked rice, cooked meats, cream cakes,
    shellfish, eggs, egg products and ready to eat
    foods like sandwiches and pork pies
  • Moisture-
  • All bacteria need moisture to grow and most
    protein foods are high in moisture

6
What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Warmth-
  • Bacteria like warmth the best temperature is body
    temperature of 37C
  • Danger zone 5 to 63C
  • This is the range of temperatures at which growth
    of bacteria is possible
  • So always keep food below 5C or above 63C
  • Food being heated up or cooled down must pass
    through the danger zone rapidly.

7
What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Time-
  • With the right conditions bacteria multiply by
    dividing into two
  • Doubling in number every ten to twenty minutes
  • This is called Binary Fission

8
Preventing bacteria from growing
  • bacteria like food that is rich in protein and
    moisture
  • Cold temperatures prevent bacteria from growing
  • Fridge temperature legally ?8C best practice
    1c to 5C
  • Freezer temperature -18C to -22 C

9
Destruction bacteria
  • Bacteria are killed by high temperatures which
    can be achieved by cooking
  • Food is usually cooked to temperatures of
  • 72C for 2 minutes
  • or gt75C
  • A probe can be used to help produce safe food

10
Bacteria time limits
  • After cooking food should be put in the fridge
    within 90 mins to stops spores germinating,
    bacteria growing toxin production
  • Food should only be kept at room temperature (in
    the danger zone) for a maximum of 4 hours
  • Food on hot display should be kept above 63C
  • If the temperature drops below 63C it can only
    be left in the danger zone for 2 hours

11
Spores
  • Spores-
  • Some bacteria are capable of forming spores
  • Spores are a survival mechanism when conditions
    are unfavourable eg. Too hot too cold or no
    moisture
  • Spores are hard to kill and are not destroyed by
    most cooking methods

12
Toxins
  • Some bacteria produce poisons known as toxins
  • Toxins cause food poisoning
  • Some toxins are produced in the food during
    bacterial growth these are called exotoxins
  • Bacillus Cereus Staphylococcus Aureus produce
    exotoxins
  • They are hard to destroy as they are heat stable
  • Some bacteria produce toxins whist in the body
    these are called endotoxins
  • Some toxins can cause serious illness E. coli
    O157 produces a verocytotoxin which can cause
    serious illness and potentially death

13
Cross contamination
  • Cross contamination is when bacteria are
    transferred from a contaminated source to an
    uncontaminated source
  • Usually raw to cooked
  • Raw and cooked foods must be stored separately
    wherever possible
  • If raw and cooked foods are stored in the same
    fridge raw should always be below cooked
  • Colour coded chopping boards should be used to
    help reduce the risk of cross contamination

14
What is food poisoning??
  • Food poisoning is an illness with some of these
    symptoms
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pains
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Worst case scenario death

15
Salmonella
  • Incubation12 36 hours
  • Duration of illness 1 7 days
  • Symptoms Abdominal Pain,
  • Diarrhoea, Vomiting
  • Sources
  • Eggs, raw poultry, contaminated water, human
    carriers
  • Associated foods
  • Raw or undercooked eggs or poultry
  • Foods containing raw or lightly cooked egg e.g.
    mayonnaise, mousse
  • Controls
  • Effective cleaning
  • Used pasteurised egg wherever possible
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Exclude infected Food Handlers

16
Staphylococcus aureus
  • Incubation 1 7 hours
  • Duration of illness 6 24 hours
  • Symptoms abdominal pain , nausea vomiting
  • Sources
  • Human mouth, nose, cuts boils,
  • Lots of people unknowingly carry staph aureus on
    their bodies
  • Associated foods
  • Most foods that have been handled
  • Controls
  • High standards of personal hygiene
  • Particular attention to hand washing before
    handling food items
  • Exclude staff with skin problems from food
    contact
  • Avoid cross contamination

17
Bacillus Cereus
  • Incubation 1-5 hours
  • Duration of illness 6 24 hours
  • Symptoms Nausea, Vomiting, abdominal pain
    diarrhoea
  • Sources
  • Cereals especially rice, cornflour, spices, dust
    soil
  • Associated foods
  • Reheated rice dishes
  • Foods containing spices
  • cornflour
  • Controls
  • Avoid Re-heating rice if possible
  • Limit time in ambient temperature
  • Eat rice immediately after cooking
  • Limit the time in the danger zone by cooling
    rapidly

18
Clostridium Perfringens
  • Incubation 8 22 Hours
  • Duration of illness 12 48 hours
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea,
  • vomiting is rare
  • Associated foods
  • Stocks, sauces, gravy, moist pie fillings, large
    pans of stew , casseroles etc
  • Controls
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Use ready prepared vegetables to avoid soil in
    the kitchen
  • Cool hot foods rapidly
  • High standards of personal hygiene

19
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • Incubation 1 70 days
  • Duration varies in each case
  • Symptoms fever, diarrhoea, colds flu type
    symptoms, can cause miscarriage in pregnant women
  • Sources
  • It is widely distributed in the environment
  • Associated foods
  • Soft cheese pate, bagged salad
  • Controls
  • Do not eat food passed its use by date
  • Strict cleaning and disinfection of chilling
    equipment
  • Pregnant women should avoid eating certain foods

20
Campylobacter
  • Controls
  • Good hygiene practices, take particular care with
    hand washing
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Ensure food is cooked thoroughly
  • Incubation 2 5 days
  • Duration 1-4 days
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache,
    fever, blood in faeces
  • Sources
  • untreated water, raw poultry, sewage birds
  • Associated Foods
  • Bottled doorstep milk pecked by birds
  • Raw poultry
  • Contaminated water

21
E.Coli 0157
  • Incubation 1-14 days, usually 3-4 days
  • Duration 5-10 days unless problems occur
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea (may be
    bloody), nausea, can develop into haemolytic
    uraemic syndrome
  • Can be fatal to high risk groups
  • Sources
  • Raw milk, raw beef lamb, intestines of cattle
    sheep sprayed crops
  • Associated foods
  • Undercooked beef burgers
  • Unpasteurised cheese
  • Bean sprouts
  • Cooked foods that has been cross contaminated
    with infected raw food
  • Many more foods as a result of poor handling

22
E.Coli 0157
  • Controls
  • Strict segregation of raw and cooked meat
  • Thorough cooking of minced beef products
  • Wash all salad, fruit and veg
  • pasteurisation of milk and apple juice
  • Good staff training food safety practices
  • Cook bean sprouts
  • Bean sprouts have been causing problems in recent
    months

23
Clostridium Botulinum
  • Incubation 2-5 days
  • Duration 12-36 hours
  • Can take a long time to recover
  • Symptoms difficulty swallowing breathing,
    diarrhoea followed by constipation
  • Can be fatal
  • Produces heat sensitive neurotoxin
  • The toxin affects the central nervous system
  • Sources
  • soil, vegetables, fish meat
  • Associated foods
  • Low acid canned foods
  • Vacuum packed meat and fish

24
Clostridium Botulinum
  • Controls
  • Strict control in production of low acid canned
    foods
  • Never use blown or dented cans
  • Destruction of spores is to heat to 121ºC. for
    times to suit product pack size
  • Ensure care is taken vacuum pack seal is formed
    correctly

25
Norovirus
  • Incubation 12-48 hours
  • 1-3 days, high risk groups can last 4-6 days
  • Symptoms diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea stomach
  • pain
  • Sources
  • Sewage, infected food handlers, contaminated
    water
  • Associated foods
  • Produce, shellfish, ready-to-eat foods touched by
    infected food handlers

26
Norovirus
  • Controls
  • Strict personal hygiene for food handlers
  • Thorough cleaning and disinfection of infected
    areas
  • Wash food thoroughly
  • Use oysters from a reputable supplier
  • Infected food handlers should not handle food
  • Effective hand hygiene is vital to prevent the
    spread of Norovirus !!

27
Good hygiene practice
  • Keeping within the food laws
  • Better working conditions
  • Satisfied customers
  • Reduced wastage of food
  • Staff morale
  • Higher profits
  • Reduction of food poisoning cases

28
Personal hygiene
  • Food handlers need to be trained in personal
    hygiene matters and have an understanding of how
    bacteria are capable of being passed onto food
    through poor handling practices
  • Food handlers have legal and moral obligations to
    maintain food safety
  • Everyone working with food must have high
    standards of personal hygiene
  • The aim of protective clothing is to protect the
    food from the handler and any bacteria or other
    contaminants they may be carrying.
  • Food handlers must wear protective clothing and
    must dispose of it in the appropriate manner
    after use

29
Personal hygiene
  • Jewellery should be removed before preparing food
  • Bacteria can survive on clothing
  • Strong smelling perfumes and aftershaves should
    not be worn
  • Nail polish and false nails should not be worn,
    nails must be clean and short
  • Hands are responsible for transferring bacteria
    onto food, therefore good hygiene is essential.
    It is imperative that hands are washed properly!!

30
Personal hygiene
  • Hands must be washed regularly especially
  • After going to the toilet
  • When entering a food room
  • After handling rubbish
  • After cleaning
  • Between handling different foods especially raw
    food
  • After eating, smoking
  • After breaks
  • After removing disposable gloves
  • After coughing sneezing
  • When they are dirty!!

31
Personal hygiene
  • The water should be between 40 and 45C
  • Liquid antibacterial soap should be used
  • To ensure hands are washed properly they should
    be wet first then soap should be applied, a good
    lather should be achieved
  • special attention should be given to the
    fingertips, nails, around the thumb, wrists and
    between the fingers
  • It should take approximately 40 seconds to wash
    your hands properly and remove sufficient
    bacteria
  • They should be thoroughly dried preferably using
    a paper towel.

32
Personal hygiene
  • Cuts and grazes have germs in them, so they must
    be covered properly to stop the bacteria from the
    cut getting on the food
  • Blue plasters should be worn because they are
    waterproof and they are highly visible, fabric
    plasters harbour bacteria and will assist with
    the transfer of bacteria onto food

33
Personal hygiene
  • Named diseases
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Infected cuts boils
  • Heavy colds
  • Ear, eye throat infections
  • If you have diarrhoea and vomiting you must stay
    off work for 48 hours after the symptoms have
    stopped
  • If you are ill with any of the named disease you
    must report it and stay off work

34
Personal hygiene
  • Smoking in a food room is banned
  • Food handlers if caught smoking can be fined
    5000 business owners that allow smoking
    20000!!!

35
Design construction of food premises
  • food rooms should have a linear work flow this
    means foods travel in a forward direction from
  • raw to cooked
  • This helps to prevent cross contamination
  • Floors, wall and ceilings must be
  • easy to clean
  • non-absorbent do not absorb water or liquid
  • light in colour usually white
  • Durable long lasting
  • Lighting
  • must be adequate for safe working
  • help in cleaning efficiently
  • It should be fitted with a diffuser
  • Ventilation
  • must remove smells, steam and bacteria
  • provide cooler and less humid working conditions

36
Design construction of food premises
  • Equipment
  • All equipment and work surfaces must be easy to
    clean and non-absorbent
  • Food grade stainless steel should be used
  • Wood should not be used as it is porous and cant
    be cleaned and disinfected properly and they
    could splinter
  • If possible, equipment should be raised above the
    ground
  • or be moveable
  • This helps cleaning
  • and prevents pest infestation

37
Stock rotation control
  • Goods must be used in date order to prevent
    wastage and maintain food safety
  • The newest products must be put to the backa nd
    the oldest brought forward to be used first
  • FIFO
  • First in first out
  • LILO
  • Last in last out
  • USE BY DATES
  • After this date Pathogenic bacteria may be
    present
  • BEST BEFORE DATES
  • After this date the quality deteriorates

38
Food Storage
  • Dry goods should be stored
  • In rodent proof containers
  • Off the floor
  • In dry, cool well ventilated conditions
  • In a clean store
  • In date order
  • Away from cleaning chemicals
  • Perishable goods
  • Should be stored in a cool room of preferably a
    fridge
  • Frozen foods should be stored in a freezer
    between -18C to -22C

39
Cleaning disinfection
  • Disinfection
  • The aim of disinfection is to reduce bacteria to
    a safe level so they are not harmful to health
  • Disinfection can be achieved by the use of
    chemical or the use of hot water gt82C
  • Cleaning
  • The aim of cleaning is to remove food particles
    grease
  • Cleaning is carried out with the use of washing
    up liquid and hot water
  • Rubbing and scrubbing may also be required

40
Cleaning disinfection
  • Chemicals used for cleaning
  • and disinfection
  • Detergent -
  • They improve the wetting ability of water
    loosen food waste and remove grease and oil
  • For example washing up liquid
  • Disinfectant-
  • Chemicals or hot water above 82C reduce bacteria
    to a safe level
  • Milton is a food safe disinfectant
  • Sanitiser-
  • Combines the properties of a detergent and a
    disinfectant
  • Therefore does light cleaning reduces bacteria
    to a safe level

41
Cleaning disinfection
  • Articles which require both cleaning and
    disinfection
  • Any surface/equipment which has direct food
    contact
  • All hand touch surfaces. eg fridge doors
  • All cleaning equipment. eg scrubbing brushes

42
Pest control
  • Failure to deal with waste
  • properly will attract pests
  • The area where the outside bins are kept must
    have a well drained surface which is capable of
    being kept clean

43
Pest control
  • Failure to sweep up food debris in the kitchen
    will attract Cockroaches
  • Failure to keep lids
  • on bins will attract
  • flies

44
Pest control
  • Leaving waste food on the floor in the bin yard
    will attract rats and mice
  • Leaving bins to overflow and failure to close the
    lids will also attract rats and mice
  • Failure to deal with a pest infestation will
    result in immediate closure of the business by an
    Environmental Health Officer
  • Pest controllers will help with pest problems

45
Food safety management systems
  • Food safety legislation requires every food
    business to have a food safety management system
  • In food manufacture there is a system called
    HACCP it is an acronym for
  • Hazard analysis critical control points
  • There is another system used widely across the UK
    for catering businesses called SFBB this is an
    acronym for
  • Safer Food Better Business
  • SFBB is a watered down version of HACCP
    designed for catering businesses such as cafés,
    restaurants, etc

46
HACCP SFBB
  • HACCP is a food safety system that is designed to
    control hazards by putting controls in place to
    either eliminate the hazard completely, or reduce
    it to an acceptable level
  • Commissioned by NASA in 1959
  • Launched publicly in 1971
  • 1990s saw international acceptance
  • SFBB is also a food safety management system for
    catering
  • There are 2 parts to the SFBB folders
  • The diary safe methods
  • Safe methods are spilt into the four Cs
  • Cleaning
  • Cooking
  • Chilling
  • Cross contamination

47
HACCP SFBB
  • Monitoring is required for both systems
  • Both systems have to be presented to the
    Environmental Health Officers during inspection
  • Staff training is required recorded
  • Opening and closing checks have to be carried out
    daily for SFBB
  • HACCP SFBB are proactive
  • In the UK on 1st January 2006 food businesses
    are required to have a food safety management
    system based on the HACCP principles when
    regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of
    foodstuffs became law

48
HACCP SFBB
  • Both systems are designed to identify hazards to
    food safety and put controls in place to reduce
    the hazard to a safe level or eliminate
    completely
  • The hazards are either physical, chemical micro
    biological

49
Food safety legislation
  • What are the aims of food safety legislation?
  • Prevention of sale of food which is either,
    unfit, unsafe or injurious to health
  • Prevention of contamination to food or equipment
  • Control food hygiene in premises, equipment and
    personnel which would include training
  • Control hygiene practices
  • Storage of food at the correct temperature
  • Hazard analysis, including monitoring, control of
    hazards critical to food safety

50
Food safety legislation
  • Food law in the UK is enforced by Environmental
    Health Officers (EHOs)
  • They inspect premises regularly and issue notices
  • Types of notices
  • Hygiene improvement notice
  • A minimum of 14 days is allowed to rectify the
    problem
  • Hygiene emergency prohibition notice
  • The business has to close with immediate effect
  • Served if there is an imminent risk to public
    health
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