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Food safety


Food safety kitchen & restaurant guide for starters F&B4U By Andrea Boyes What is Food Hygiene? Food safety is the condition and practices that ensure the quality of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food safety

  • Food safety
  • kitchen restaurant guide for starters
  • FB4U
  • By
  • Andrea Boyes

What is Food Hygiene?
  • Food safety is the condition and practices that
    ensure the quality of food to prevent
    contamination and food poisoning
  • It involves taking all necessary precautions to
    ensure the safety and wholesomeness of food
    during preparation, coking and storage

Types of contamination
  • Physical (foreign bodies)
  • Jewellery, nails, nuts bolts, glass, broken
    tiles, mouse droppings, bones, etc
  • Micro biological
  • Bacteria, viruses, mould fungi
  • Chemical
  • Pesticides, cleaning chemical residue,
    lubricating oils, additives, fertiliser
  • Allergens
  • Nuts, mustard seeds, shellfish, strawberries, etc

  • Good bacteria
  • Some bacteria are used for making cheese
  • They are found all over soil, dust, pets, pests,
    on humans, clothing, raw food etc.
  • Some moulds are used in the making of blue cheese
  • Yeast is used to make bread and beer
  • Bad bacteria are known as pathogens
  • They cause food poisoning by growing to high
    numbers in food or by producing toxins in food
  • Pathogens do not change the appearance of food
  • Food looks, tastes and smells normal. It is only
    later that the unpleasant symptoms are realised.

What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Food-
  • Bacteria prefer food which is rich in moisture
  • High risk foods are foods, which will readily
    support bacterial growth and will not go through
    any further cooking or heat processing
  • e.g. cooked rice, cooked meats, cream cakes,
    shellfish, eggs, egg products and ready to eat
    foods like sandwiches and pork pies
  • Moisture-
  • All bacteria need moisture to grow and most
    protein foods are high in moisture

What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Warmth-
  • Bacteria like warmth the best temperature is body
    temperature of 37C
  • Danger zone 5 to 63C
  • This is the range of temperatures at which growth
    of bacteria is possible
  • So always keep food below 5C or above 63C
  • Food being heated up or cooled down must pass
    through the danger zone rapidly.

What do bacteria need to grow??
  • Time-
  • With the right conditions bacteria multiply by
    dividing into two
  • Doubling in number every ten to twenty minutes
  • This is called Binary Fission

Preventing bacteria from growing
  • bacteria like food that is rich in protein and
  • Cold temperatures prevent bacteria from growing
  • Fridge temperature legally ?8C best practice
    1c to 5C
  • Freezer temperature -18C to -22 C

Destruction bacteria
  • Bacteria are killed by high temperatures which
    can be achieved by cooking
  • Food is usually cooked to temperatures of
  • 72C for 2 minutes
  • or gt75C
  • A probe can be used to help produce safe food

Bacteria time limits
  • After cooking food should be put in the fridge
    within 90 mins to stops spores germinating,
    bacteria growing toxin production
  • Food should only be kept at room temperature (in
    the danger zone) for a maximum of 4 hours
  • Food on hot display should be kept above 63C
  • If the temperature drops below 63C it can only
    be left in the danger zone for 2 hours

  • Spores-
  • Some bacteria are capable of forming spores
  • Spores are a survival mechanism when conditions
    are unfavourable eg. Too hot too cold or no
  • Spores are hard to kill and are not destroyed by
    most cooking methods

  • Some bacteria produce poisons known as toxins
  • Toxins cause food poisoning
  • Some toxins are produced in the food during
    bacterial growth these are called exotoxins
  • Bacillus Cereus Staphylococcus Aureus produce
  • They are hard to destroy as they are heat stable
  • Some bacteria produce toxins whist in the body
    these are called endotoxins
  • Some toxins can cause serious illness E. coli
    O157 produces a verocytotoxin which can cause
    serious illness and potentially death

Cross contamination
  • Cross contamination is when bacteria are
    transferred from a contaminated source to an
    uncontaminated source
  • Usually raw to cooked
  • Raw and cooked foods must be stored separately
    wherever possible
  • If raw and cooked foods are stored in the same
    fridge raw should always be below cooked
  • Colour coded chopping boards should be used to
    help reduce the risk of cross contamination

What is food poisoning??
  • Food poisoning is an illness with some of these
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pains
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Worst case scenario death

  • Incubation12 36 hours
  • Duration of illness 1 7 days
  • Symptoms Abdominal Pain,
  • Diarrhoea, Vomiting
  • Sources
  • Eggs, raw poultry, contaminated water, human
  • Associated foods
  • Raw or undercooked eggs or poultry
  • Foods containing raw or lightly cooked egg e.g.
    mayonnaise, mousse
  • Controls
  • Effective cleaning
  • Used pasteurised egg wherever possible
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Exclude infected Food Handlers

Staphylococcus aureus
  • Incubation 1 7 hours
  • Duration of illness 6 24 hours
  • Symptoms abdominal pain , nausea vomiting
  • Sources
  • Human mouth, nose, cuts boils,
  • Lots of people unknowingly carry staph aureus on
    their bodies
  • Associated foods
  • Most foods that have been handled
  • Controls
  • High standards of personal hygiene
  • Particular attention to hand washing before
    handling food items
  • Exclude staff with skin problems from food
  • Avoid cross contamination

Bacillus Cereus
  • Incubation 1-5 hours
  • Duration of illness 6 24 hours
  • Symptoms Nausea, Vomiting, abdominal pain
  • Sources
  • Cereals especially rice, cornflour, spices, dust
  • Associated foods
  • Reheated rice dishes
  • Foods containing spices
  • cornflour
  • Controls
  • Avoid Re-heating rice if possible
  • Limit time in ambient temperature
  • Eat rice immediately after cooking
  • Limit the time in the danger zone by cooling

Clostridium Perfringens
  • Incubation 8 22 Hours
  • Duration of illness 12 48 hours
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea,
  • vomiting is rare
  • Associated foods
  • Stocks, sauces, gravy, moist pie fillings, large
    pans of stew , casseroles etc
  • Controls
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Use ready prepared vegetables to avoid soil in
    the kitchen
  • Cool hot foods rapidly
  • High standards of personal hygiene

Listeria Monocytogenes
  • Incubation 1 70 days
  • Duration varies in each case
  • Symptoms fever, diarrhoea, colds flu type
    symptoms, can cause miscarriage in pregnant women
  • Sources
  • It is widely distributed in the environment
  • Associated foods
  • Soft cheese pate, bagged salad
  • Controls
  • Do not eat food passed its use by date
  • Strict cleaning and disinfection of chilling
  • Pregnant women should avoid eating certain foods

  • Controls
  • Good hygiene practices, take particular care with
    hand washing
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Ensure food is cooked thoroughly
  • Incubation 2 5 days
  • Duration 1-4 days
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache,
    fever, blood in faeces
  • Sources
  • untreated water, raw poultry, sewage birds
  • Associated Foods
  • Bottled doorstep milk pecked by birds
  • Raw poultry
  • Contaminated water

E.Coli 0157
  • Incubation 1-14 days, usually 3-4 days
  • Duration 5-10 days unless problems occur
  • Symptoms abdominal pain, diarrhoea (may be
    bloody), nausea, can develop into haemolytic
    uraemic syndrome
  • Can be fatal to high risk groups
  • Sources
  • Raw milk, raw beef lamb, intestines of cattle
    sheep sprayed crops
  • Associated foods
  • Undercooked beef burgers
  • Unpasteurised cheese
  • Bean sprouts
  • Cooked foods that has been cross contaminated
    with infected raw food
  • Many more foods as a result of poor handling

E.Coli 0157
  • Controls
  • Strict segregation of raw and cooked meat
  • Thorough cooking of minced beef products
  • Wash all salad, fruit and veg
  • pasteurisation of milk and apple juice
  • Good staff training food safety practices
  • Cook bean sprouts
  • Bean sprouts have been causing problems in recent

Clostridium Botulinum
  • Incubation 2-5 days
  • Duration 12-36 hours
  • Can take a long time to recover
  • Symptoms difficulty swallowing breathing,
    diarrhoea followed by constipation
  • Can be fatal
  • Produces heat sensitive neurotoxin
  • The toxin affects the central nervous system
  • Sources
  • soil, vegetables, fish meat
  • Associated foods
  • Low acid canned foods
  • Vacuum packed meat and fish

Clostridium Botulinum
  • Controls
  • Strict control in production of low acid canned
  • Never use blown or dented cans
  • Destruction of spores is to heat to 121ºC. for
    times to suit product pack size
  • Ensure care is taken vacuum pack seal is formed

  • Incubation 12-48 hours
  • 1-3 days, high risk groups can last 4-6 days
  • Symptoms diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea stomach
  • pain
  • Sources
  • Sewage, infected food handlers, contaminated
  • Associated foods
  • Produce, shellfish, ready-to-eat foods touched by
    infected food handlers

  • Controls
  • Strict personal hygiene for food handlers
  • Thorough cleaning and disinfection of infected
  • Wash food thoroughly
  • Use oysters from a reputable supplier
  • Infected food handlers should not handle food
  • Effective hand hygiene is vital to prevent the
    spread of Norovirus !!

Good hygiene practice
  • Keeping within the food laws
  • Better working conditions
  • Satisfied customers
  • Reduced wastage of food
  • Staff morale
  • Higher profits
  • Reduction of food poisoning cases

Personal hygiene
  • Food handlers need to be trained in personal
    hygiene matters and have an understanding of how
    bacteria are capable of being passed onto food
    through poor handling practices
  • Food handlers have legal and moral obligations to
    maintain food safety
  • Everyone working with food must have high
    standards of personal hygiene
  • The aim of protective clothing is to protect the
    food from the handler and any bacteria or other
    contaminants they may be carrying.
  • Food handlers must wear protective clothing and
    must dispose of it in the appropriate manner
    after use

Personal hygiene
  • Jewellery should be removed before preparing food
  • Bacteria can survive on clothing
  • Strong smelling perfumes and aftershaves should
    not be worn
  • Nail polish and false nails should not be worn,
    nails must be clean and short
  • Hands are responsible for transferring bacteria
    onto food, therefore good hygiene is essential.
    It is imperative that hands are washed properly!!

Personal hygiene
  • Hands must be washed regularly especially
  • After going to the toilet
  • When entering a food room
  • After handling rubbish
  • After cleaning
  • Between handling different foods especially raw
  • After eating, smoking
  • After breaks
  • After removing disposable gloves
  • After coughing sneezing
  • When they are dirty!!

Personal hygiene
  • The water should be between 40 and 45C
  • Liquid antibacterial soap should be used
  • To ensure hands are washed properly they should
    be wet first then soap should be applied, a good
    lather should be achieved
  • special attention should be given to the
    fingertips, nails, around the thumb, wrists and
    between the fingers
  • It should take approximately 40 seconds to wash
    your hands properly and remove sufficient
  • They should be thoroughly dried preferably using
    a paper towel.

Personal hygiene
  • Cuts and grazes have germs in them, so they must
    be covered properly to stop the bacteria from the
    cut getting on the food
  • Blue plasters should be worn because they are
    waterproof and they are highly visible, fabric
    plasters harbour bacteria and will assist with
    the transfer of bacteria onto food

Personal hygiene
  • Named diseases
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Infected cuts boils
  • Heavy colds
  • Ear, eye throat infections
  • If you have diarrhoea and vomiting you must stay
    off work for 48 hours after the symptoms have
  • If you are ill with any of the named disease you
    must report it and stay off work

Personal hygiene
  • Smoking in a food room is banned
  • Food handlers if caught smoking can be fined
    5000 business owners that allow smoking

Design construction of food premises
  • food rooms should have a linear work flow this
    means foods travel in a forward direction from
  • raw to cooked
  • This helps to prevent cross contamination
  • Floors, wall and ceilings must be
  • easy to clean
  • non-absorbent do not absorb water or liquid
  • light in colour usually white
  • Durable long lasting
  • Lighting
  • must be adequate for safe working
  • help in cleaning efficiently
  • It should be fitted with a diffuser
  • Ventilation
  • must remove smells, steam and bacteria
  • provide cooler and less humid working conditions

Design construction of food premises
  • Equipment
  • All equipment and work surfaces must be easy to
    clean and non-absorbent
  • Food grade stainless steel should be used
  • Wood should not be used as it is porous and cant
    be cleaned and disinfected properly and they
    could splinter
  • If possible, equipment should be raised above the
  • or be moveable
  • This helps cleaning
  • and prevents pest infestation

Stock rotation control
  • Goods must be used in date order to prevent
    wastage and maintain food safety
  • The newest products must be put to the backa nd
    the oldest brought forward to be used first
  • FIFO
  • First in first out
  • LILO
  • Last in last out
  • After this date Pathogenic bacteria may be
  • After this date the quality deteriorates

Food Storage
  • Dry goods should be stored
  • In rodent proof containers
  • Off the floor
  • In dry, cool well ventilated conditions
  • In a clean store
  • In date order
  • Away from cleaning chemicals
  • Perishable goods
  • Should be stored in a cool room of preferably a
  • Frozen foods should be stored in a freezer
    between -18C to -22C

Cleaning disinfection
  • Disinfection
  • The aim of disinfection is to reduce bacteria to
    a safe level so they are not harmful to health
  • Disinfection can be achieved by the use of
    chemical or the use of hot water gt82C
  • Cleaning
  • The aim of cleaning is to remove food particles
  • Cleaning is carried out with the use of washing
    up liquid and hot water
  • Rubbing and scrubbing may also be required

Cleaning disinfection
  • Chemicals used for cleaning
  • and disinfection
  • Detergent -
  • They improve the wetting ability of water
    loosen food waste and remove grease and oil
  • For example washing up liquid
  • Disinfectant-
  • Chemicals or hot water above 82C reduce bacteria
    to a safe level
  • Milton is a food safe disinfectant
  • Sanitiser-
  • Combines the properties of a detergent and a
  • Therefore does light cleaning reduces bacteria
    to a safe level

Cleaning disinfection
  • Articles which require both cleaning and
  • Any surface/equipment which has direct food
  • All hand touch surfaces. eg fridge doors
  • All cleaning equipment. eg scrubbing brushes

Pest control
  • Failure to deal with waste
  • properly will attract pests
  • The area where the outside bins are kept must
    have a well drained surface which is capable of
    being kept clean

Pest control
  • Failure to sweep up food debris in the kitchen
    will attract Cockroaches
  • Failure to keep lids
  • on bins will attract
  • flies

Pest control
  • Leaving waste food on the floor in the bin yard
    will attract rats and mice
  • Leaving bins to overflow and failure to close the
    lids will also attract rats and mice
  • Failure to deal with a pest infestation will
    result in immediate closure of the business by an
    Environmental Health Officer
  • Pest controllers will help with pest problems

Food safety management systems
  • Food safety legislation requires every food
    business to have a food safety management system
  • In food manufacture there is a system called
    HACCP it is an acronym for
  • Hazard analysis critical control points
  • There is another system used widely across the UK
    for catering businesses called SFBB this is an
    acronym for
  • Safer Food Better Business
  • SFBB is a watered down version of HACCP
    designed for catering businesses such as cafés,
    restaurants, etc

  • HACCP is a food safety system that is designed to
    control hazards by putting controls in place to
    either eliminate the hazard completely, or reduce
    it to an acceptable level
  • Commissioned by NASA in 1959
  • Launched publicly in 1971
  • 1990s saw international acceptance
  • SFBB is also a food safety management system for
  • There are 2 parts to the SFBB folders
  • The diary safe methods
  • Safe methods are spilt into the four Cs
  • Cleaning
  • Cooking
  • Chilling
  • Cross contamination

  • Monitoring is required for both systems
  • Both systems have to be presented to the
    Environmental Health Officers during inspection
  • Staff training is required recorded
  • Opening and closing checks have to be carried out
    daily for SFBB
  • HACCP SFBB are proactive
  • In the UK on 1st January 2006 food businesses
    are required to have a food safety management
    system based on the HACCP principles when
    regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of
    foodstuffs became law

  • Both systems are designed to identify hazards to
    food safety and put controls in place to reduce
    the hazard to a safe level or eliminate
  • The hazards are either physical, chemical micro

Food safety legislation
  • What are the aims of food safety legislation?
  • Prevention of sale of food which is either,
    unfit, unsafe or injurious to health
  • Prevention of contamination to food or equipment
  • Control food hygiene in premises, equipment and
    personnel which would include training
  • Control hygiene practices
  • Storage of food at the correct temperature
  • Hazard analysis, including monitoring, control of
    hazards critical to food safety

Food safety legislation
  • Food law in the UK is enforced by Environmental
    Health Officers (EHOs)
  • They inspect premises regularly and issue notices
  • Types of notices
  • Hygiene improvement notice
  • A minimum of 14 days is allowed to rectify the
  • Hygiene emergency prohibition notice
  • The business has to close with immediate effect
  • Served if there is an imminent risk to public