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Particles: Nanoparticles, Fullerenes and Carbon Nano Tubes


Particles: Nanoparticles, Fullerenes and Carbon Nano Tubes Margarethe Hofmann MAT SEARCH, Pully President SVMT Topics of the Workshop Environmental Aspects ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Particles: Nanoparticles, Fullerenes and Carbon Nano Tubes

Particles Nanoparticles, Fullerenes and Carbon
Nano Tubes
  • Margarethe Hofmann
  • MAT SEARCH, Pully
  • President SVMT

Topics of the Workshop
  •  Environmental Aspects  latest research
  •  Material Safety Standards  - required for
    safety of producers and consumers
  • nearly or insoluble particles

Properties of Nanoparticles (lt 100 nm)
  • Aerosol formation processes
  • Heterogeneous homogeneous nucleation
  • Combustion, photochemical reactions etc.
  • Growth by coagulation, shrinkage
  • Chemical formation processes
  • Polymerization (Emulsion)
  • Precipitation, Crystallization
  • Growth by coagulation, shrinkage

After Wolfgang G. Kreyling, GSF
Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit,
Current and Emerging Applications for
Investors, Industrials, Scientists
  • U.S. venture capital firm Draper Fisher
    Jurvetson It would not invest in a nanotech
    business unless the products had already been
    proven safe.
  • Germany-based Munich Re Group Up to now, losses
    involving dangerous products were on a relatively
    manageable scale, whereas, taken to extremes,
    nanotechnology products can even cause ecological
    damage which is difficult to contain .
  • Patricia Pineau, a LOreal research adviser At
    each step of the product development from the
    raw materials to the final formula we evaluate
    the safety in vitro and then, only if the
    previous test is negative, in vivo on human
    volunteers .
  • Ken Donaldson of the University of Edinburgh
    Medical School A new way of classifying
    nano-particles needs to be created, that takes
    more than size into account, but also the full
    spectrum of toxicities that might arise from
    nanoparticles of different compositions.

Nanotechnology views of Scientists and Engineers
  • Regulation
  • Currently, dosage of particles for regulation
    purposes is defined by mass per unit volume,
    however this does not take into account particle
    size. Hence it is clear that agglomeration,
    particle size and surface reactivity will now
    have to be taken into account when deciding the
    regulation of nanoparticles.
  • The point was made however that there are many
    types of nanoparticles and that they should not
    be treated as a general case when deciding
    regulation. To resolve this issue, further
    toxicological studies must be performed in order
    to effectively inform regulators.
  • The point was also made that regulations may
    differ between locales e.g. in the USA sun creams
    are categorised as drugs for regulation, while
    in the UK they are regulated as cosmetics.

Report of a workshop held as part of the
Nanotechnology study (http//

  • Insoluble or nearly insoluble nano- or ultrafine
  • Research for developing standards together with
  • Example 3R Foundation reducing animal

  • Define the hot spots of danger coming from
    nanoparticles risk assessment
  • Road map amount of particles on the market,
    exposure, uptake
  • Road map for particles in research nanotubes,
    CdSe etc.
  • Develop models (in-vitro and in-vivo) for
    interaction with the human body
  • toxicity, biodistribution, allergies

  • Life Cycle assessment for chemicals adapted to
  • Define component by nanoparticle relevant

  • Further detailed recommendation
  • Need more information from responsibles in
    industry and related researchers, toxicologists,
    risk assessment
  • Workshop SVMT-SATW-TOP NANO 21 on  Safety
    aspects of nanoparticles  November 2004

  • Ultrafine- or nanoparticles, colloids, aerosols
    are smaller than 100 nm.
  • In comparison with their source materials, such
    nanoparticles have different optical, electrical,
    mechanical, and chemical properties.
  • They are not only unique to this field of
    hi-tech they are present in our everyday lives
    and at various conventional workplaces.

After BIA-Report 7/2003
Nanoparticle Application 2003
  • Launch-Phase Nanoparticle Applications
  • Fabrics and Fabric Treatments
  • Filtration Systems
  • Dental Products
  • Surface Disinfectants
  • Diesel Fuel Additives
  • Fuel and Explosive Additives
  • Hazardous Chemical Neutralizers
  • Developmental Nanoparticle Applications
  • Recharg. Lithium Ion Batteries
  • Antioxidants
  • Dental-Care Products
  • Established commercial nanoparticle applications
  • Tires, Other Rubber Products
  • Catalytic Converters
  • Photographic Supplies
  • Inks and Pigments
  • Coatings and Adhesives
  • Ultrafine Polishing Compounds
  • UV Absorbers for Sun Screens
  • Synthetic Bone
  • Ferrofluids
  • Optical Fiber Cladding

Nanotube Application 2003
  • Commercial Nanotube Applications
  • Automotive Components
  • Electronics Production/Clean-Room Equipment
  • Scanning Microscope Tips
  • Sports Equipment
  • Launch-Phase Nanotube Applications
  • Field Emission Devices
  • X-Ray Devices
  • Flat-Panel Displays
  • Other Field Emission Applications
  • Developmental Nanotube Applications
  • Semiconductors
  • Drug-Delivery Systems
  • Fuel Cells

Field of Concern in the Environment
  • Behaviour and influence of nanoparticles in the
  • Nanoparticles may influence the biosphere
  • Structural transition by liquids like water
    (biogenic nanoparticles)
  • Chemical/physical transition by recycling
  • Behaviour and influence of nanoparticles in the
    food chain?
  • Filter-feeding organisms such as plankton
    regulate the intake and distribution of these
  • Further uptake by fishes, birds, large animals
  • Biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body?
  • Lung, liver, blood, etc.
  • Manipulation of of cells and/or genes by
  • Transfection
  • Formation/initiation of tumour cells
  • Misfunction of proteins after adsorption

Way of assimilation and incorporation
  • Lung
  • Smoking, diesel soot, tires, rubber products
  • Smoke and exhaust of welding, soldering,
    foundaries, injection molding, grinding and
  • Nanoparticles based ceramics, quantum dots
  • Nanoparticles based medical products (aerosols)
  • Skin
  • Cosmetics, pharmaceutics, paintings
  • Intravenious, intraarticular, systemic
  • Drugs, diagnostic agents, food

Way of assimilation and incorporation
  • Modes of action and mechnisms
  • Lymphatic system
  • Blood system
  • Nervous systems
  • Cells - cell interaction
  • Uptake in the cells and the nucleus

Material Safety Standards
  • No standards exist for nanoparticles
  • FDA list Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)
    applicable to nanosized particles?
  • MAK not applicable for nanoparticles?
  • In-vivo-solubility of nanoparticles no method
  • Nanopathology ?

Classical tests not sufficiently specific and not
adequate for a comprehensive risk assessment of
multiple interactions of NP with biological
After W. G. Kreyling, GSF - Forschungszentrum für
Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut für
Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg
Material Standards
  • Physical standards for surface roughness,
    subsurface properties, form (flatness,
    sphericity, asphericity) glass, ceramics and
    metals are urgently needed.
  • Besides those standards, made of anorganic
    materials, equivalent standards are very desired
    for nanotechnology in all kind of processes
    (manufacture, monitoring, measurement) of organic
    materials including living cells in special

Position paper on The need for measurement and
testing in nanotechnology Compiled by the High
Level Expert Group on Measurement and Testing,
Under the European Framework Programme for
Research and Development 2002 -
Analytic Aspects
  • Analytics (measurement and test engineering)
    air, surface, liquid, body
  • Particle concentration
  • Particles size and form, particle agglomerates
  • Particle surface
  • charge,
  • coating after synthesis, within the environment
  • Dissolution and recombination

Safety Aspects
  • Production
  • New technologies, new particle formulation
  • Production in clean rooms?
  • Filter?
  • Health aspects of employees?
  • Classic production routes
  • Learn from already existing safety standards?

Safety Aspects
  • Environment
  • Functionalized particles
  • Influence on biota internalization of particles
  • Influence on the biosphere
  • Nanoparticles in a matrix
  • Recycling, waste/material combustion
  • Pollution, smoke, dust
  • Reduced size and size distribution, higher

Safety Aspects
  • Public Health
  • Overall air pollution (e.g. cigarettes, diesel
    soot, tires, industrial contamination)
  • How far does nanotechnology boost danger?
  • Need for more epidemiologic research?
  • Daily life body exposure (cosmetics, paint,
    clothing, nutrition)
  • Information of customers?
  • Future requirements for industry?
  • Challenges and requirements for research
    (medical, basic, engineering)
  • Future tailored particles (e.g. in life sciences,
    transport, etc.)
  • Challenges and requirements for research
    (medical, basic, enginering)
  • Support and requirements for industry?
  • Information of customers?

(No Transcript)
Properties of Nanoparticles to be determined
  • Chemistry
  • Surface chemistry, surface charge
  • Combination of elements (transition metals)
  • Dissolution and recombination
  • Adsorption, desorption, catalytic activity .
  • Physics
  • (Quantum) size and form effect
  • Volume - Surface properties
  • Transport ..
  • Biology
  • Uptake histospecific, cellular, subcellular
  • Blood compatibility, rheological effects ..

Material Safety Standards
  • Exposure
  • During manufacturing processing at the
  • Single nanoparticle product (aerosol, colloid)
  • Concentration (air, skin)
  • Exposure periods assessable
  • General population population during use
  • Multiple products at low concentrations (exhaust,
    cosmetics, medical products)
  • Undefined exposure periods and concentration

  • Too often, the exposure part of this equation
    is omitted and hazard is equated with risk. This
    is an important oversight because there can be
    little risk to even hazardous materials provided
    there is no exposure. Thus, the exposure
    component of the risk equation is vital.
  • Example recent toxicity studies have
    demonstrated that high-dose, intratracheally-insti
    lled, single walled carbon nanotubes in the lungs
    of rats may produce unusual foreign-body tissue
  • Physiological relevance occupational exposure
    assessment studies have indicated that aerosol
    exposure levels of carbon nanotubes in the
    workplace were, in this case, negligible.

After David B. Warheit in Materialstoday February
Translocation of Nanoparticles
After W. G. Kreyling, GSF - Forschungszentrum für
Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut für
Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg
Translocation of Nanoparticles
After David B. Warheit in Materialstoday February
Ten Toxic Warnings
  1. 1997 - Titanium dioxide/zinc oxide nanoparticles
    from sunscreen are found to cause free radicals
    in skin cells, damaging DNA. (Oxford University
    and Montreal University) Dunford, Salinaro et al.
  2. March 2002 engineered nanoparticles
    accumulate in the organs of lab animals and are
    taken up by cells Dr. Mark Wiesner
  3. March 2003 - .. studies on effects of nanotubes
    on the lungs of rats produced more toxic response
    than quartz dust. Scientists from DuPont
    Haskell laboratory present varying but still
    worrying findings on nanotube toxicity. Nanotubes
    can be highly toxic." - Dr. Robert Hunter (NASA
  4. March 2003 - Dr. Howard the smaller the
    particle, the higher its likely toxicity and that
    nanoparticles have various routes into the body
    and across membranes such as the blood brain
    barrier. ETC Group
  5. July 2003 - Nature reports on work by CBEN
    scientist Mason Tomson that shows buckyballs can
    travel unhindered through the soil. "Unpublished
    studies by the team show that the nanoparticles
    could easily be absorbed by earthworms, possibly
    allowing them to move up the food-chain and reach
    humans" - Dr. Vicki Colvin, the Center's director.

Ten Toxic Warnings
  1. January 2004 - Dr. Günter Oberdörster
    nanoparticles are able to move easily from the
    nasal passageway to the brain.
  2. January 2004 - Nanosafety researchers from
    University of Leuven, Belgium in Nature
    nanoparticles will require new toxicity tests
    "We consider that producers of nanomaterials have
    a duty to provide relevant toxicity test results
    for any new material, according to prevailing
    international guidelines on risk assessment.
    Peter H. M. Hoet, Abderrrahim Nemmar and Benoit
    Nemery, University of Belgium(14)
  3. January 2004 - Nanotox 2004 Dr. Vyvyan Howard
    presents initial findings that gold nanoparticles
    can move across the placenta from mother to
  4. February 2004 - Scientists at University of
    California, San Diego discover that cadmium
    selenide nanoparticles (quantum dots) can break
    down in the human body potentially causing
    cadmium poisoning. "This is probably something
    the research community doesn't want to hear." -
    Mike Sailor, UC San Diego.(16)
  5. March 2004 - Dr. Eva Oberdörster buckyballs
    (fullerenes) cause brain damage in juvenile fish
    along with changes in gene function. "Given the
    rapid onset of brain damage, it is important to
    further test and assess the risks and benefits of
    this new technology before use becomes even more
    widespread." - Dr. Eva Oberdörster.

Material Safety Standards
  • Exposure to nanoparticles
  • Smoking, diesel soot, tires, rubber products
  • Smoke and exhaust of welding, soldering,
    foundaries, injection molding, grinding and
  • Nanoparticles based ceramics, quantum dots
  • Nanoparticles based medical products (aerosols)
  • Cosmetics, pharmaceutics, paintings
  • Drugs, diagnostic agents, food