The highway transportation system is a sub-system of the National Transportation System (HTS), composed of many man/machine/environment combinations interacting in a loosely coordinated fashion. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The highway transportation system is a sub-system of the National Transportation System (HTS), composed of many man/machine/environment combinations interacting in a loosely coordinated fashion. PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3f42ef-N2YzO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The highway transportation system is a sub-system of the National Transportation System (HTS), composed of many man/machine/environment combinations interacting in a loosely coordinated fashion.

Description:

The highway transportation system is a sub-system of the National Transportation System (HTS), composed of many man/machine/environment combinations interacting in a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:103
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: shra3
Learn more at: http://www.ecu.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The highway transportation system is a sub-system of the National Transportation System (HTS), composed of many man/machine/environment combinations interacting in a loosely coordinated fashion.


1
The highway transportation system is a sub-system
of the National Transportation System (HTS),
composed of many man/machine/environment
combinations interacting in a loosely coordinated
fashion.
2
Seven Sub-systems are
  • Highway
  • Rail
  • Water
  • Air
  • Pipeline
  • Transit
  • Statistics

3
The Goal of the HTS?
  • To provide safe, rapid and efficient
    transportation of persons and goods to a desired
    destination, in an environmentally sound
    fashion.

4
Balance is Key
  • There has to be a balance between safe, rapid,
    and efficient. There is a balance between speed
    and safety, the faster we allow people to drive,
    the most speed related deaths. The more left turn
    yield traffic lights, the most accidents at those
    intersections. Right turn on red produces more
    accidents.
  • The HTS must decide what is the "acceptable"
    accident/injury/death rate for each.

5
Outside reading
  • Assignment Go to the internet, and find articles
    regarding speed limits, accidents and resulting
    deaths.
  • www.highwaysafety.org
  • What is the purpose of enforcing the speed limits?

6
Death rate per miles traveled
  • In traffic, we judge ourselves by how safe the
    system is by the number of accidents and deaths
    per 100 million miles traveled.
  • We are currently near 1.3 deaths per 100 million
    miles traveled. (2008)
  • This is down from 4.7 deaths, 40 years ago. Much
    of this decrease is due to seat belts laws ,
    airbags and stricter DWI enforcement. There are
    many other factors we will address later.
  • Question. What else has contributed?

7
What does it mean?
  • We kill about 34,000 people on the highways each
    year.
  • We injure millions more and spend hundreds of
    Billions on this issue.
  • If this were an illness, the CDC would be going
    crazy trying to stop it. It is an epidemic.
  • The number one killer of teens.
  • Question. What are numbers two and three?

8
Other numbers
  • Of the 34,000 motor vehicle related deaths, about
    13,000 were alcohol related. (38 with any
    alcohol and 28 with .10 BAC)
  • Drugs other than alcohol are now involved in
    about 18 of fatal accidents. Alcohol is
    involved in 96 of these. That is not a
    misprint.
  • Question. Why is this number so high?

9
There are many users the HTS
  • Cars
  • SUVs
  • Trucks
  • Busses
  • Bicycles
  • Motorcycles (the only one that has more deaths
    than 10 years ago)
  • Tractors
  • RVs
  • Pedestrians
  • Emergency vehicles
  • Even military vehicles.
  • Question. Which of these is the safest user?

10
Quite a MIX
  • All of these users want safe, rapid and efficient
    use of the system.
  • Variations in size and speed can create real
    problems. In identifying them and in the physics
    of a collision.
  • Hit a pedestrian with a 3,000 lb car at 30 mph
    and you will probably kill them. That is a
    physics problem, not a design issue.
  • Question. Can we improve vehicle design to help
    this?

11
Whats all the fuss?
  • SUVs are bigger, higher and usually safer for
    there occupants. But they are deadly for the
    smaller, lower vehicles that they run into (or
    over).
  • The new SUVs weight 7,000 lbs. compared to most
    small carsweighing between 2000-3000 lbs. In
    accidents, the bigger, wins.
  • The problems of SUVs include high center of
    gravity, causing them to roll over, and gas
    mileage.
  • The new full size SUV gets about ten miles per
    gallon. With gas at 4 and rising, the fuel
    consumption of these vehicles will become even
    more of an issue.
  • The federal government is looking into ways to
    reduce size, height, rigidity of these SUVs. The
    purpose is make them safer for the OTHER vehicle.
  • Question. What should the government do about
    these?
  • www.highwaysafety.org has several articles about
    these issues.

12
What about 18 wheelers?
  • Large trucks create problems too. Although they
    account for only 3 of registered vehicles, they
    account for 7 of the miles traveled, and 11 of
    the fatal accidents. (5000 deaths in 2005).
  • When cars and large trucks collide, a very small
    percentage (3) of those killed are the truck
    driver. Again, bigger wins. Trucks can weigh in
    excess of 80,000 lbs.
  • Although alcohol involvement in fatal truck
    crashes is only about 4, marijuana use in fatal
    truck crashes, is reported around 23. (Not a
    misprint)
  • Watch out for doped drivers! It only takes one
    to ruin your day.
  • Question. Why marijuana?

13
What about murdercycles?
  • Motorcycles are by far the most dangerous form of
    transportation. The death rate for motorcycles is
    about 37 deaths per 100,000,000 miles traveled,
    compared to 1.3 for all motor vehicles. (thats
    about 25 times more)
  • You do not have to be wrong to die on a
    motorcycle, 70 of MC deaths are failure to yield
    to the motorcycle, but the motorcyclist is still
    the one dead.
  • Question. Should we still require helmets?

14
Drunk Bikes!!
  • MOPEDs are a recent addition to the US highways.
    (70s). They are not a bicycle, not a motorcycle.
    They are slow, often operated by persons without
    a driver's license, or insurance. Use great
    caution as you approach them with a motor
    vehicle.
  • Predict the worst.
  • Question. Whats the deal with these new
    unlicensed motorcycles, called mopeds?

15
Farm Vehicles
  • Farm vehicles have a right to use the highways.
    They create problems because they are slow, 15-18
    mph, and often larger than the highway lane. They
    may be operated by unlicensed persons, non
    English speaking or even minors.
  • They can cause drivers to take unnecessary
    chances in passing them.
  • Can you cross a yellow line to pass them?

16
Pedestrians
  • There are about 5200 pedestrian/vehicle deaths
    each year in the US, 18 of all motor vehicle
    deaths.
  • Whats the deal with all these striped
    crosswalks? Are drivers always required to stop
    for pedestrians?

17
Bicycles in Traffic
  • There are about 750 bicycle related deaths in the
    US each year.
  • Although bicycles are required to follow are
    moving motor vehicle laws, they usually dont,
    watch out for them.
  • Vehicles are required to share the road with
    bicycles, even when they ride in groups.
  • Children under 16 are required to wear a helmet.

18
Emergency vehicles
  • It is the responsibility of the driving public to
    yield to emergency vehicles. Emergency vehicles
    do NOT have the right of way, BUT drivers are
    required to yield to them.
  • Each year many deaths are a result of failure to
    yield right of way to emergency vehicles. Of
    further concern is the vehicle the police are
    chasing. They have no lights, siren and seeming
    disregard for the safety of others.
  • Many enforcement agencies are rethinking the need
    to "chase". NEVER assume right of ways at
    intersections, green means go when the way is
    clear.

19
The Driving Task
  • The driving task involves everything it takes to
    operate a motor vehicle. Everything is a lot.

20
The three skills of the driving task
  • . The three skills of the driving task area.
    Physical skill. The person's coordination with
    the vehicle. Although an important part of
    driving, it is often over emphasized. b. Social
    skill. The social interaction with others on the
    highways. Unfortunately, we are not very social
    people. Drivers are often rude and inconsiderate.
    Road rage is on the rise and much of that has to
    do with our unsociable behavior while
    driving.c. Mental skill. Driving is a mental
    skill, sometimes known as decision making. Anyone
    can physically drive a vehicle, but break downs
    in the HTS are usually a lack of mental
    alertness.
  • What is distracted driving?

21
The five mental skills
  • 1. Understanding the motor vehicle. We must
    understand the vehicle, anti-lock brake systems
    are a good example of lack of understanding.
    People pump the brakes instead just push the
    pedal. This will not work with anti-lock
    systems. People still pump the gas pedal with
    fuel injection.
  • 2. Perception based on stored knowledge. The
    brain's interpretation of what the eyes based on
    similar things seen before. No driving situation
    is completely new, it is similar to one we have
    driven before.
  • 3. Understanding traffic laws. You must
    understand what the laws are before you can abide
    by them. Ignorance is never an excuse.
  • 4. Judging time/space relationships. Such as
    judging the speed of oncoming cars when you are
    going to pass another vehicle.
  • 5. Concentration. We are distracted by lots of
    things beyond cell phones.
  • What is the 1 thing that distracts drivers?

22
Six means of management of the Highway
Transportation System
  • a. DMV. The department of motor vehicles
    regulates drivers licenses, truck weights and
    operators, license plates, fees, registration,
    taxes, titles to name a few. All with the intent
    of making the system safer for all users.b.
    Enforcement agencies. Each of the police units,
    highway patrol, sheriff departments help in
    maintaining safe travel.c. Traffic courts. The
    courts help assure proper enforcement of the
    law.d. Engineering1. Highway engineering
    helps to make our HTS the safest system in the
    world. 2. Vehicle engineering helps to make
    vehicles the safest and easiest to operate. (As
    well as the cleanest)e. Medical Aid. The
    emergency response system and trauma centers in
    the US, reduce the losses caused by collisions.
    f. Education. PSAs, high school driver
    education, truck drivers education, alcohol drugs
    education treatment schools, etc.

23
Three goals of driver education
  • a. Provide entry level competencies (abilities)
    for beginning drivers.b. Knowledge and thought
    processes.c. Motivate students to be
    better/safer drivers.

24
30 and 6
  • Try to achieve this in 30 hours of classroom and
    6 hours of behind the wheel.
About PowerShow.com