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Common Illnesses of babies Part3


Common illnesses of babies like mouth problems, feeding problems, elimination problems, cradle cap, etc are discussed in this presentation. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Common Illnesses of babies Part3

Common Illnesses of Infants and Children Part 3
  • P.Naina Mohamed
  • Pharmacologist

  • Illnesses discussed in this presentation
  • Mouth Problems
  • Feeding Problems
  • Elimination Problems
  • Cradle Cap
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Pink Eye
  • Fifth Disease
  • Eczema

Mouth Problems
  • Children are more prone to develop throat and
    mouth problems during their early growth and
    development phase.
  • Throat and mouth problem in kids can become
    severe if not diagnosed and treated at an early
  • Common Throat and Mouth Problems in Children
  • Baby bottle tooth decay
  • Teething Problems
  • Thumb Sucking
  • Tongue Thrusting
  • Lip Sucking
  • Early Tooth Loss
  • Epiglottitis (Supraglottitis)

Baby bottle tooth decay
  • Also called early childhood caries, nursing
    caries, and nursing bottle syndrome.
  • Bacteria in the mouth
  • Feed on the sugars from drinks (milk, formula,
  • Tooth decay
  • Untreated
  • Pain and difficulty to Permanent teeth
    Abscessed tooth
  • chew and eat into improper
  • crowded or crooked permanent teeth
    Infection spreading elsewhere in the body

Baby bottle tooth decay
  • Prevention
  • Avoid sugary drinks
  • Give plain water (Too much water is harmful to a
    baby) or a pacifier to sooth baby.
  • Never dip baby's pacifier in sugar, honey, or any
    sugary liquid.
  • Avoid to put baby on bed with a bottle filled
    with sugary drinks.
  • Make sure you remove your breast from baby's
    mouth when she falls asleep.
  • Don't add sugar to baby's food.
  • Use a wet cloth or gauze to wipe baby's teeth and
    gums after each feeding.
  • If drinking water is not fluoridated, fluoride
    supplements or fluoride treatments may be needed.
  • "sippy cup" lowers the teeth's exposure to
    sugars, but constant sipping from the cup can
    still result in decay unless it is filled with
    plain water.

Teething Problems
  • Teething induces the infants drooling or wanting
    to chew on things.
  • The first tooth appears during the first 6-8
  • By the age of three, 20 teeth should appear in
    the child s mouth.
  • Both the earlier and the delayed appearance of
    teeth is usually hereditary and is not
    necessarily related to any problems. 
  • Consult your paediatric dentist, if the baby,
    does not have any teeth by the 12th month of its
  • symptoms related to teething
  • Red and swollen gums
  • Increased quantity of saliva ( salivation )
  • Anxiety and grumbling
  • A change in nutritional habits
  • Lack of appetite
  • Difficulty in sleep
  • Best ways to soothe painful gums
  • Use teething rings
  • Let the baby chew on a wet washcloth.
  • Rub the baby's gums with a clean finger.
  • Wipe off drool to prevent rashes on the baby's
  • Use children's acetaminophen to relieve
  • Call the doctor if the baby develops a fever.

Thumb Sucking
  • It's normal and healthy for infants to suck their
    thumbs, fingers, pacifiers, or toys.
  • Object sucking gives children a sense of
    emotional security and comfort.
  • Thumb sucking (beyond the age of 5)
  • Teeth can be pushed Difficulty with the correct
    Misalignment of
  • out of alignment pronunciation of words
    upper and lower jaws
  • Protruding of teeth
  • Create an overbite Malformation
    of roof of the mouth

Thumb Sucking
  • Tips to Help the Child Stop Thumb Sucking
  • Encourage the child to stop thumb sucking.
  • Scolding, nagging, or punishments make children
    defensive and drive them back to the habit.
  • Give praise or rewards for time successfully
    avoiding the habit.
  • Cover the finger or thumb with a band-aid as a
  • Take the thumb or finger out of the mouth after
    the child falls asleep.
  • Find out what stresses the child faces and try to
    correct the situation.
  • Use dental appliances the child can wear in the
    mouth to prevent sucking. These appliances are
    cemented to the upper teeth, sit on the roof of
    the mouth, and make thumb sucking harder and less

Tongue Thrusting
  • Tongue thrusting is the habit of sealing the
    mouth for swallowing by thrusting the top of the
    tongue forward against the lips.
  • Tongue thrusting
  • Exerts pressure against the front teeth
  • Pushing front teeth out of alignment
  • Protruding of front teeth
  • Creating an overbite Interfers
    proper speech development

Tongue Thrusting
  • Causes
  • Artificial nipples used in feeding infants
  • Behaviors like thumb sucking and nail biting
  • Premature loss of "baby" teeth
  • Allergies, nasal congestion and obstructions
    contributing to mouth breathing where the tongue
    learns to stay low
  • Abnormally large tongue, enlarged tonsils and
  • Hereditary factors
  • Symptoms
  • Pursing of the lips and bunching of chin like a
    golf ball when swallowing
  • Difficulty with speech, especially the /s/ and
  • Open mouth posture with a forward tongue
    position, at rest.
  • Consult a speech pathologist, if you notice
    symptoms of tongue thrusting, He can develop a
    treatment plan that helps the child to increase
    the strength of the chewing muscles and develop a
    new swallowing pattern.

Lip sucking
  • Lip sucking involves repeatedly holding the lower
    lip beneath the upper front teeth.
  • Sucking of the lower lip may occur by itself or
    in combination with thumb sucking.
  • Lip Sucking
  • Exerts pressure against the front teeth
  • Pushing front teeth out of alignment
  • Protruding of front teeth
  • Creating an overbite Interfers
    proper speech development
  • Stopping the habit involves the same steps as for
    stopping thumb sucking.

Early Tooth Loss
  • Premature loss of a child's baby teeth typically
    occurs from tooth decay, injury, or lack of jaw
  • Early loss of Teeth
  • Nearby teeth can tip or shift
  • Not enough room for permanent tooth
  • The new tooth may emerge tilted
  • Crooked or misaligned teeth
  • Interfer proper chewing
    Temporomandibular joint problems
  • If the child loses a tooth prematurely, the
    dentist may recommend a space maintainer. A space
    maintainer is a plastic or metal device that
    holds open the space left by the missing tooth.
    The dentist will remove it once the permanent
    teeth begin to erupt.

Epiglottitis (Supraglottitis)
  • Epiglottitis is a life-threatening infection of
    the epiglottis.
  • The epiglottis is the leaf-shaped flap of
    cartilage that covers the windpipe and prevents
    food, drink, and anything else that goes down the
    throat from entering the airway.
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria
  • Infect the epiglottis and other nearby tissues
  • Swelling of the tissues
  • Blockade of the airway and prevention of

Epiglottitis (Supraglottitis)
  • Epiglottitis also caused by organisms such as
    pneumococci or staphylococci.
  • Burns from hot drinks, swallowing foreign
    objects, injury to the epiglottis, and infections
    from chicken pox blisters are other causes of
  • Children with the highest risk are under the age
    of 1.
  • Symptoms
  • Sore throat Within hours, your baby's throat
    will hurt so much that she'll avoid swallowing
    and refuse to eat and drink.
  • Fever Your child will run a fever of 101 degrees
    Fahrenheit or higher.
  • Drooling Even if she's not normally a drooler,
    she'll start drooling profusely because it's so
    hard for her to swallow.
  • Abnormal breathing sound Your baby will make a
    high-pitched noise (called stridor) with each
    inhalation. It sounds much like croup but without
    any coughing.
  • Difficulty breathing As the epiglottis swells,
    your child will have trouble getting air to her
  • Prevention
  • Give the children Hib, varicella, and
    pneumococcal vaccinations.

Feeding Problems
  • Inability or refusal to eat certain foods is
    known as Feeding problem.
  • Feeding problems are estimated to occur in up to
    25 of normally developing children and in up to
    35 of children with neurodevelopmental
  • Problems with feeding may lead to significant
    negative nutritional, developmental and
    psychological sequelae.
  • Because the severity of these sequelae is related
    to the age at onset, degree and duration of the
    feeding problem early recognition and management
    are important.

Feeding Problems
  • In Breast fed Babies
  • Improper Latching, Insufficient milk supply or
    Mouth sore of baby
  • Inadequate feeding
  • Hungry
  • Get tips on how to position your baby for
  • If your baby is still having problems latching
    on, talk to your doctor or to a lactation
  • Frequent feedings or pumping may help increase
    your milk supply. Drinking plenty of fluids may
    also help.
  • If there are sores or white patches in or around
    the baby's mouth, see your baby's doctor.

Feeding Problems
  • In Bottle fed Babies
  • Too Small or Clogged bottle's nipple or the
    baby's mouth SORE
  • Inadequate feeding
  • Hungry
  • A proper bottle nipple should drip 1 drop per
    second when the bottle is turned upside down. If
    you think the nipple is clogged, unscrew the cap
    to release pressure.
  • If your baby's mouth is sore, see your baby's

Feeding Problems
  • Babies who don't latch on correctly fall alseep
    while nursing. It's not unusual for younger
    babies to fall asleep while nursing.
  • If your baby is not latching on properly,
    carefully break the suction and try repositioning
    your baby.
  • Check your baby for growth and weight gain.

Feeding Problems
  • Enlargement of lower part of the stomach
  • Prevention of food passing in to the intestines
  • Throwing up large amounts of milk with forceful
  • Contact your baby's doctor right away

Feeding Problems
  • Inability to digest lactose (a sugar found in
    milk and other dairy products)
  • Lot of gas and stomach discomfort
  • Ask your baby's doctor if you should switch to a
    soy formula.
  • Toddlers may also have soy or rice milk.

Feeding Problems
  • Baby cry intensely after meals
  • Rubbing your baby's stomach gently, or rocking
    your baby in a rocking chair or cradle may help
    relieve the pain.

Feeding Problems
  • Little interest in food or have a slow weight
  • See your baby's doctor.

Elimination Problems
  • yellow and runny bowel movement (Diarrhea)
  • Many small infants will also have runny bowel
    movements until they build up enough bacteria in
    their large bowel to make formed movements.
  • Don't let your baby drink too many juices, as
    this may also cause diarrhea.

Elimination Problems
    DISEASE (wheat)
  • Diarrhea after the feedings
  • Infants who are lactose intolerant may benefit
    from switching to a soy formula.
  • Toddlers may also have soy or rice milk.
  • Children who have celiac disease should avoid
    cereals that contain gluten.
  • See your baby's doctor.

Elimination Problems
  • Gastrointestinal infection
  • Frequent, watery bowel movements
  • Dehydration
  • Encourage your older child (older than 2) to
    drink water and other clear fluids.
  • Ask your doctor about giving your baby or toddler
    an oral rehydration solution (ORS).
  • Avoid giving your baby too much fruit juice, as
    this may cause diarrhea.
  • See your doctor if your child is younger than 6
    months of age and has diarrhea.
  • Also, see your doctor if your child's diarrhea is
    severe if he or she also has a fever, vomiting
    or severe abdominal pain if his or her stools
    look bloody or slimy or if he or she is

Elimination Problems
  • HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE (a condition that affects
    the wall of the large intestine)
  • Hard, pellet-like stools
  • Strain to have a bowel movement
  • Add more fluids to your child's diet.
  • If your child is an infant, make sure that he or
    she is getting enough formula or breast milk.
  • If your infant takes formula, use a low-iron
  • If you think your child might have Hirschsprung's
    disease, see your doctor.

Elimination Problems
  • Inability to digest wheat (CELIAC DISEASE) or
  • Gas, bloating and diarrhea
  • Eliminate foods that make your child sick from
    his or her diet.
  • Talk to your doctor about treating your child's
    intolerance of milk and dairy products with
    lactose enzyme.
  • Soy formula may be an appropriate substitute for
    infants who have lactose intolerance.

Elimination Problems
  • Pain with bowel movements
  • Child to hold a bowel movement for many days
  • See your doctor if the pain is not better in a
    few days.

Cradle Cap
  • Cradle cap is a yellowish, patchy, greasy, scaly
    and crusty skin rash that occurs on the scalp of
    recently born babies.
  • Cradle Cap also known as infantile or neonatal
    seborrhoeic dermatitis, crusta lactea, milk
    crust, honeycomb disease.
  • Cradle cap most commonly begins sometime in the
    first 3 months.

Cradle Cap
  • Antibiotics (Just before delivery or First week
    of life)
  • Kill beneficial bacterias preventing yeast growth
  • Fungal infection on the Scalp (Cradle Cap)

Cradle Cap
  • Mother's hormones still in the baby's circulation
  • Overactive sebaceous glands
  • Release of greasy substance that makes old skin
    cells attach to the scalp

Cradle Cap
  • Home remedies
  • Massage the affected region with coconut oil,
    olive oil, Jojoba oil. Applying these may help
    loosen the scales and make them wear away easily.
  • Gently washing the area with clean water may help
    clear the scales.
  • Apply a baking soda paste (Mix half cup water
    with a teaspoonful of baking soda) on the
    affected region of the skin. Wash it away after
    10 minutes. Then use soft tooth brushes or
    bristle brushes to remove the scales. If they do
    not come away immediately, leave them.
  • Do not prick them or use force. They may come off
    after a day or two.
  • Mild steroid creams or antifungal creams may also
    work well to remove the scales.
  • If there is Cradle Cap on face or around the
    eyelids, use diluted baby shampoo to cleanse the
    area. Pour 3-5 drops of baby shampoo into half
    cup warm water. Use the solution to gently scrub
    the area. You may also use diluted baking soda
    solution as a cure.
  • If there is redness or inflammation in the
    affected area, you may use cortisone creams for
    Cradle Cap cure. These are sold over the counter
    and easily available for use.

Avoid Baby Oil
  • Avoid using baby oil which is mineral oil.
  • It is a very inexpensive product to make and
    doesnt spoil easily, which is why it is used by
  • Baby oil is made from a petrochemical byproduct
    which may harm babys skin.
  • When ingested, its been linked to a multitude of
    serious health problems.
  • Baby Oil (Mineral Oil)
  • Difficult to absorb by the skin
    Inhalation into lungs
  • Clogs pores
    Affects normal functioning of lungs
  • slowing the skins ability
  • to eliminate toxins
    serious respiratory conditions

Hand, Foot, Mouth Disease
  • Hand, Foot, Mouth Disease is Contagious.
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common viral
    illness that most often affects babies and
    children under age 5.
  • Symptoms
  • Fever, mouth sores, and skin rash.
  • How it spreads
  • Viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease
    are passed in saliva, nasal mucus, and fluid from
    mouth blisters of infected people.
  • Your child can also catch it by touching anything
    touched by a person who has it.
  • Prevention
  • Frequent hand washing helps prevent the spread of
    hand, foot, and mouth disease.
  • Your child should also avoid close contact or
    sharing food or utensils with other kids.
  • If an infected child has been to your house, wash
    toys and household surfaces that may harbor the
  • Disinfect them, using 1 tablespoon of bleach to 4
    cups of water.
  • Treatment
  • There is no specific treatment for hand, foot,
    and mouth disease.
  • Give acetaminophen for pain and fever.
  • Analgesic mouthwashes and sprays can numb painful
    mouth sores.
  • If you are concerned about your child's symptoms,
    call the doctor.

  • Pinkeye is Contagious
  • Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, is an irritation of
    the eye and lining of the eyelid.
  • Symptoms
  • Itching, burning, redness, increased tearing or
    discharge, sensitivity to light, and crusting on
    the lids or lashes. 
  • How it spreads
  • Viruses, bacteria, allergens, or irritants can
    cause pinkeye.
  • When a virus or bacteria is the cause, children
    can catch it easily by touching a contaminated
    surface and then touching their eyes.
  • Prevention
  • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water.
  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Do not allow children to share towels, pillows,
    washcloths, or other items with someone who is
  • If somebody at home with pinkeye, wash
    pillowcases, sheets, washcloths, and towels in
    hot water and detergent to avoid spreading it.
  • Treatment
  • Mild conjunctivitis often gets better on its own.
  • Artificial tears and cold packs can help relieve
    dryness and inflammation.
  • If your child has eye pain, fever, vision
    problems, headache or intense redness, or she is
    not better within a couple of days, call her

Fifth Disease
  • Fifth Disease is contagious and is a viral
    illness usually affects school-age children, most
    commonly in winter and spring.
  • It usually begins with low-grade fever, headache,
    and stuffy or runny nose. But the primary symptom
    is a bright red rash that starts on the cheeks
    giving the appearance of slapped cheeks and can
    progress to the trunk, arms, and legs.
  • How it spreads
  • Parvovirus B19, which causes fifth disease, is
    spread through saliva, sputum, and nasal mucus.
  • Prevention
  • Fifth disease is most contagious in the "stuffy
    nose" phase, before the rash begins, so it is
    difficult to prevent.
  • Avoid contact with children who are coughing and
  • Frequent hand washing especially before touching
    their eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Treatment
  • Fifth disease is usually mild and requires no
    treatment other than rest.
  • If needed, acetaminophen or anti-itch medication
    may help relieve symptoms.
  • Parvovirus B19 can cause serious complications in
    people with a weakened immune system or chronic
    anemia, or in women who are pregnant. Then it's
    important to see a doctor.

  • Eczema is not Contagious.
  • Eczema, or "atopic dermatitis," affects about one
    in 10 babies and children.
  • It can begin before a child's first birthday and
    almost always by age 5.
  • Eczema begins as an itchy rash on the face,
    elbows, or knees that may spread to other areas
    including the scalp and behind the ears.
  • Cause
  • Genes and environmental factors are believed to
    cause eczema.
  • Prevention
  • Dry skin is a trigger, so moisturize the child's
    skin often, especially after baths.
  • Wear soft clothes in fabrics that "breathe" such
    as cotton.
  • Avoid perfumed soaps or lotions as well as bubble
    baths because they can irritate the skin.
  • Recognize signs of skin infection and treat them
  • Treatment
  • Cool baths can help relieve itching.
  • Corticosteroid creams or ointments, topical
  • Tar preparations,
  • Antihistamines to relieve itching,
  • Oral or topical antibiotics for infections that
    can accompany flares.

Viral Vs Bacterial Infections/Use of Antibiotics
  • Viral Infections
  • The vast majority of the illnesses that the child
    will experience will be caused by viruses. 
  • They are infectious organisms that multiply
    within various cells of the body and they are
    very hard to kill or inhibit while not harming
    the bodys cells at the same time. 
  • Because of the ability of viruses to hide
    within the bodys cells progress toward
    anti-viral therapy has been slow. 
  • There are effective therapies for some serious
    viral infections such as systemic Herpes Simplex
    infections and HIV, but there are no (with the
    exception of Flumadine for Influenza A and
    Tamiflu for Influenza A B) safe and effective
    therapies for the common viral illnesses such as
    colds, tonsillitis, gastroenteritis (vomiting and
    diarrhea), etc. 
  • These viruses are spread from person to person by
    close physical contact, contacts with bodily
    fluids such as stool, vomitus, nasal secretions
    and saliva as well as aerosols generated by
    coughing and sneezing. 
  • The larger the number of people that your child
    has contact with, the greater the likelihood of
    acquiring such an infection. 
  • The bodys immune system recognizes each of these
    unique viruses and generates an immune response
    which ends the infection and renders the child
    immune to that particular strain. 
  • As there are no specific therapies for the
    majority of common viral infections, we are
    currently limited to symptomatic treatments aimed
    at relieving discomfort and supporting the child
    with adequate fluids and calories while we await
    the successful ending of the infection by the
    childs immune system. 

Viral Vs Bacterial Infections/Use of Antibiotics
  • Bacterial infections
  • A smaller number of your childs infections will
    be due to bacteria which can be specifically
    treated with antibiotics. 
  • Antibiotics are selectively toxic to the bacteria
    when used in proper dosage and duration examples
    include middle ear infections (otitis media),
    sinusitis, certain forms of pneumonia, etc. 
  • This distinction between a viral infection and a
    bacterial infection rests on several factors
  • a thorough history of symptoms and exposure
  • a careful physical examination and
  • laboratory tests in selected cases (white blood
    cell count, urine analysis, cultures of blood,
    urine, tonsillar swabs, spinal fluid).
  • Antibiotics given for viral infections are
    totally ineffective and they increase
  • the likelyhood of secondary yeast infections
  • chances of the patient becoming allergic to that
    class of antibiotics 
  • a growing and very serious problem with the
    emergence of multiple resistant organisms caused
    by the overuse of antibiotics.  Infections with
    these organisms are very dangerous, as there is a
    very short list of drugs that are still effective
    against them. 
  • Parents and pediatricians to do their best to
    reach as accurate a diagnosis as possible and use
    antibiotics very cautiously. 

  • CURRENT Diagnosis Treatment Pediatrics, 21e
    William W. Hay, Jr., Myron J. Levin, Robin R.
    Deterding, Mark J. Abzug, Judith M. Sondheimer
  • Pediatric Clinical Advisor Instant Diagnosis
    and Treatment , Second Edition
  • Lynn C. Garfunkel, Jeffrey M. Kaczorowski,
    and Cynthia Christy

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