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The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video

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Title: The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video


1

The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video
Grace Agnew August 1, 2005 National Library of
Medicine
2
Definition of Metadata
  • Data about Data
  • Data that describes, defines or manages data

Pure metadata has meaning only in relation to
the primary data that is being described.
3
METADATA MAY BE
  • auto-generated
  • automatically harvested from the resource
  • human-created
  • end user
  • metadata creator/manager
  • computer application/program

AUDIENCE MAY BE
4
  • Data Model
  • Abstract characterization or World View of the
    data
  • -- relationships between objects in the model
  • -- living dataevents occur in the lifecycle of
    each object in the model
  • --context independentso that any context can be
    supported

5
ORGANIZATIONS INFORMATION MODEL
ENTITIES
Metadata - Educational Objects - Metadata
Creators - Users
ATTRIBUTES
Identify, Define Entities
RELATIONSHIPS
One to one One to Many Parent, child, sibling
Inheritance
MODEL
Relationships between Entities within a Domain
6
The Structure of Information (IFLA)
Work
Distinct intellectual or artistic creation
Intellectual or artistic realization of a work
(interpretation)
Expression
Expression
Physical manifestation of an expression. May
differ in physical format, but not in content or
interpretation
Manifestation
Manifestation
Manifestation
Unique physical instance of a manifestation.
Item
7
WORK
A B S T R A C T I O N
GONE WITH THE WIND
Intellectual / artistic content
Novel
Movie
Script
EXPRESSION
Interpretation
70 MM Film
MANIFESTATION
Paper
Physical recording of content
35 MM Film
PDF
DVD
HTML
MPEG2
ITEM
Copy in Blockbuster, Atlanta, GA
Single physical representation of a recording
24 Reels of film, MGM Archive
8
OAIS INFORMATION MODEL
P r o d u c e r
C O N S U M E R
Descriptive Info

DI
DI
DIP
SIP
SIP
Ingest
Access/ Dissemination
AIP
AIP
Archival Storage
OAIS - Reference Model for an Open Archival
Information System
From CCSDS 650.0-R-1 Reference Model for an
Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Red
Book. Issue 1. May 1999. PDF.Available at
http//ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/overview.htm
l
9
End - to - End Metadata Implementation
Record Structure
Database Population
Data Element Registration
Data Model
Data interchange (other repositories)
Repository Design
Dissemination to Users
10
Inside the Digital Information Repository
Persistent Objects Manage objects through
changes to hardware, software, players,
searchretrieval systems, etc.
Persistent Metadata Manage metadata through
schema and data element versioning changes, new
metadata formats, IR changes, hardware
database migrations.
11
  • Key Issue for Preservation
  • Authenticity

-- integrity digital document must be whole and
undisturbed --provenance must be tightly
associated with its creator and act of creation
In the analog space Object in hand is compared
with a conceptual (canonical) historical version
Gladney and Bennett. What do we mean by
authentic? http//www.dlib.org/dlib/july03/gladney
/07gladney.html
12
  • Authenticity
  • In the digital space
  • -- Fidelity to the source artifact
  • -- Identical (true/false) to the
    digital
  • canonical master
  • --accompanied by a true provenance
  • statement
  • --Proof digital signature verifying
    that canonical object is unchanged. Digital
    audit trail documenting provenance and any
    changes to artifact or chain of provenance

13
Metadata Managing the Resource
  • Administrative metadata
  • provenance, fixity, context, reference, and
    lifecycle management. Rights MD may be a subset.
  • Technical Metadata
  • physical characteristics of the resource. Used
    to manage digital preservation and display of
    resource. May be a subset of Administrative MD.
    Also called Preservation Metadata
  • Descriptive Metadata
  • - information to discover, identify, select
    and obtain the resource

14
Metadata Managing the Resource
  • Structural metadata
  • - Information about the structured relationship
    between components of a complex object. May be a
    subset of Administrative MD.
  • Meta metadata
  • metadata that describes and manages the metadata
    record. Can add intelligence to metadata.

Repository design concatenates all types of
metadata to support preservation and access to
objects in the repository
15
METADATA SCHEMA COMPONENTS
  • Data Element - Atomic Unit of Meaning- Community
    Defined
  • Attribute - Refines, Extends, Interprets data
    element
  • Value - Information unique to each data element
    instance
  • Constraint - Order imposed on data element
    expression for consistency semantic viability
  • Label - contextual instance of data element
    name. How the data element displays on the web
    for the end user.

16
OAIS Preservation and Access File Encoding and
Transport
  • METS Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard
  • XML document format for encoding metadata for
    resource description and management.
  • wrapper that concatenates digital object(s) in
    multiple formats, metadata, a structure map
    documenting the organization of the digital
    object(s), as well as behaviors that act upon
    digital object(s)
  • standardized transmission of METS package
    between repositories and applications

17
METS Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard
METS Document has seven major sections
METS Header minimal descriptive metadata about
the METS document itself Descriptive Metadata
metadata describing the digital object, to enable
discovery and evaluation.
Administrative Metadata metadata about the
creation, use and provenance of the digital
object(s). Includes four subtypes technical,
source, rights and digital provenance metadata
18
METS Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard
File Section Includes one or more ltfileGrpgt
elements, to group together related files, such
as the different digital manifestations of a
file, e.g.,the uncompressed digital master, mpeg4
and Quicktime access files, for a video
title. Structural Map Outlines hierarchical
structure of a digital object and links the
elements of that structure to relevant content
files and metadata
19
METS Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard
Structural Links Contains a single element,
ltsmLinkgt. Used to record the existence of
hyperlinks between items within the structural
map. Behavior Used to associate executable
behaviors with content within the METS document.
For example, a behavior could automatically
launch a video player application when a digital
video file is selected for display.
20
FEDORA
  • Background
  • Flexible, Extensible Digital Object Repository
    Architecture
  • Developed by Cornell University and University
    of Virginia via a Mellon Foundation Grant.
  • Utilizes METS (v 2.0 FOXML (Interoperable with
    METS)
  • http//www.fedora.info/

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24
  • PREMIS Data Dictionary
  • Sponsored by OCLC and RLG
  • Defines a core set of preservation metadata
    elements
  • Provides a data dictionary supporting the
    preservation of digital information

25
PREMIS Data Model
Intellectual Entities
Rights
Agents
Objects
Events
http//www.oclc.org/research/projects/pmwg/
26
MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework
  • Transparent management and use of digital
    multimedia resources, from creation through
    consumption.
  • Key concept is the Digital Item Declaration,
    which includes structure, resources and metadata
    bundled in the item.
  • Repository architectureLANLs aDORemodular
    digital object repository architecture modeled on
    MPEG21.
  • http//public.lanl.gov/herbertv/papers/aDORe_20050
    128_submission.pdf

27
MXF Multimedia Exchange Format
  • Open file format targeted at the interchange of
    audiovisual material, with associated data and
    metadata.
  • Intended to support file interoperability
    between content creation devices, servers and
    workstations. Supports integration of file-based
    and streaming resource formats.
  • Maintains the documentation chain for metadata
    about audiovisual essences throughout the
    resource lifecyclecreation, broadcast, storage,
    re-use

28
MXF Multimedia Exchange Format
Example Video footage of hurricane activity in
the field has automatic GPS, date/time and
duration capture as captions on the footage. MXF
can maintain the essence and the metadata
captured simultaneously by the camera for use in
production, archiving and reuse, without the need
to recatalog the information.
Example Footage of jaguar hunting in Brazil is
captioned in the field, transferred with captions
to production facility, where it is packaged into
a program, The Vanishing Rainforest. Footage
is licensed to a travelog production company.
Footage of jaguar on the DVD, This is Brazil
has online attribution to The Vanishing
Rainforest, from metadata added in production,
as well as attribution to the the field
cinematographer, location, date and time of
capture, from the original captions, with no
recreation of metadata.
29
MXF Multimedia Exchange Format
Header partition pack
Header metadata
Essence Container
Footer partition pack
File Body
File Header
Every item in MXF File is KLV (Key Length Value)
encodedidentified by a unique 16-byte key and by
its length. Anything that is not understood or
needed (unrecognized keys) can be ignored and
skipped over
File Footer
30
MXF Multimedia Exchange Format
  • Header Metadata
  • Metadata (DMS-1 or other schema)
  • Timing and synchronization parameters
  • Synchronization and Description of the Essence
    through three packages
  • Material Package Output timeline of the file
    (tracks and sequence)
  • File Package the essence itself
  • Source Package Derivation of the essence
    (source film stock descriptions, etc.

31
DESCRIPTIVE METADATA SCHEMAS
Dublin Core
Every element is optional, repeatable, with
rules for format and values
From Description of Dublin Core
Elements http//purl.oclc.org/metadata/dublin_cor
e_elements
32
DUBLIN CORE
  • Provides a great deal of flexibility.
  • Easy to learn.
  • Ensures interoperability with other schemes.
  • Good transport protocol when expressed as XML

  • Lacks support for multiple formats
  • Lacks support for seriality
  • Technical description (formats, containers,
    extent, etc.) is weak and not standardized.

-
33
PBCore
Intended to address description, preservation and
access needs of television, radio, and associated
web activities. Based on Dublin Corequalifies
and expands the 15 Dublin Core data elements. 58
Data Elements (30 mandatory) V 1.0 available free
of charge for use, via the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting. Maps readily to other schema
(Dublin Core, MPEG-7, MODS, etc.)
34
PBCore
35
PBCore
  • Data elements address descriptive and technical
    metadata for access and management
  • Simple linear data model is easy to apply
  • Like Dublin Core, does not address issue of
    multiple manifestations (Although both can be
    used within METS to address this issue).

36
PBCore Qualified Dublin Core for
DV
ltFormatFileSizegt296 MB lt/FormatFilesizegt ltFormatIm
ageFrameRategt30 fpslt/FormatImageFrameRategt
ltformatgt296 MBlt/formatgt ltformatgt30 fpslt/formatgt
DC Dumb Down
37
MPEG-7 Multimedia Content Description Interface
  • Synchronization between content and description
  • Textual indexing Creation information,
    subjects, concepts, media profiles.
  • Non-textual indexing - melody and speech
    recognition, color, shape, scene changes, etc.
  • Textual format/Binary Format completely
    equivalent. You can use any functionality in
    textual or nontextual form.

38
MPEG-7 Multimedia Content Description Interface
  • Does not support description of analog or textual
    resources
  • High-level textual description of component
    parts (table of contents) does not exist.
  • Some duplication of descriptive information
    across MPEG7 descriptive schemes
  • Documentation, examples and widespread adoption
    as a descriptive metadata standard is weak.

39
MPEG-7
40
MPEG-7 Content DescriptionLow level Audio
Visual descriptors
41
MPEG-7 Description Tools
Description Schemes (structure) and Descriptors
(features)
42
Dublin Core vs. MPEG7 The Challenges
  • MPEG7 is a structured, hierarchical schema.
  • Work described in CreationInformation DS
  • Manifestation/Item described in
    MediaInformation and UsageInformation DSs
  • Dublin Core is a flat schema that mixes work
    or intellectual content with single
    manifestation/item description
  • (11 principle)

43
MANIFESTATION in DC and MPEG-7
CREATOR
TITLE
CreationInformation
SUBJECT
DATE
MediaProfile UsageAvailability
MediaProfile UsageAvailability
IDENTIFIER
IDENTIFIER
FORMAT
FORMAT
MediaInstance
RIGHTS
RIGHTS
44
MODS Metadata Object Description Schema
  • XML representation of MARC21 data, to enable
    seamless transfer of MARC data to XML.
  • Enables both original description of digital and
    analog resources and mapping of legacy metadata
    in MARC to MODS
  • MODS is represented in application profiles for
    METS Descriptive MD and OAI-PMH for data sharing
    and transport

45
MXF DMS-1
Material Exchange Format Descriptive Metadata
Scheme-1 (SMPTE 380M-2004)
  • Utilizes SMPTE RP 210 Metadata Dictionary
    Registry of Metadata Element Descriptions
  • Data model and core rules are taken from AAF, so
    that DMS-1 can be seen as an Application of AAF.
  • Utilizes a collection of descriptive metadata
    frameworks.
  • Supports migration of DM from one MXF file to
    another when essence is migrated or reused.

46
MXF DMS-1
  • Frameworks grouping of related descriptive
    metadata properties and sets, which describe the
    contents of an MXF file body.
  • Production framework provides identification
    and ownership details of the audio-visual content
    in the file body. Applies to the complete
    input or output of the MXF file as a whole.
  • Clip framework provides capture and creation
    information about the individual audio-visual
    clips in the file body. A clip is a
    continuous essence element, or essence element
    interleave, in the essence container.

47
MXF DMS-1
  • Scene framework describes actions and events
    within individual scenes of the aufio-visual
    content of the file body. Scene is an editorial
    concept and describes a continuous section of
    content in an MXF file.

48
MXF DMS-1
Production framework
Metadata Server Locator
Publication
Event
Titles
Captions Description
Annotation
Identification
Classification
Group Relationship
Annotation
Cue Words
Branding
Setting/Period
Related Material Locator
Award
Contract
Participant
Picture Format
Rights
Project
49
MXF DMS-1
Name-value
Clip framework
Metadata Server Locator
Classification
Annotation
Titles
Cue Words
Related Material Locator
Scripting
Captions Description
Shot
Picture Format
Scripting Locator
Processing
Contract
Device Parameters
Project
Key Point
Participant
Cue Words
Name-value
Rights
50
Name-Value
MXF DMS-1
Scene framework
Metadata Server Locator
Classification
Titles
Cue Words
Annotation
Setting period
Related Material Locator
Shot
Participant
Contacts List
Key Point
Cue Words
51
MXF DMS-1
Participant
Address
Person
Name-value
Organization
Communications
Name-value
Location
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Concatenate moving images for preservation and
access through
  • Union Catalog
  • Archive Directory
  • Education and Outreach Space
  • Cataloging Utility
  • Dynamic, contextual portals

55
MIC Organization Directory
  • Contact information, home page URL, logo
  • Collection descriptions
  • Preservation activities
  • Cataloging activities
  • How to obtain materials
  • Administrative information
  • Shibboleth Authentication/Authorization

56
MIC Organization Directory
  • Intersects with the Union Catalog for
  • pre-selection for union catalog searches
  • provide information about the organization,
    particularly obtaining resources, audience
    served, location, etc.

Union Catalog
Org Directory
OrgID
57
MIC PORTALS
  • Resource and organization descriptions specific
    to community
  • PortalID in both Org Directory and Union Catalog
    retrieves portal-specific information

Union Catalog
Org Directory
PortalID
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