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Part 1: Judaism Part 2: Christianity


Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. V. Honor thy father and thy mother. VI. ... Black September terrorist at Munich. Yom Kippur War, 1973 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part 1: Judaism Part 2: Christianity

Part 1 Judaism Part 2 Christianity
  • Lesson 14

Part 1 Judaism Theme Religion and Conflict
  • Lesson 14

  • Abraham, Canaan, covenant, diaspora, Joshua,
    Kingdom of David, Kingdom of Solomon, Moses,
    Passover, Talmud, Temple, Ten Commandments,
    Torah, Yahweh, Yom Kippur

  • Originally from the Sumerian city of Ur (a
    polytheistic place)
  • Migrated to Palestine around 1850 B.C. on Gods
    command (Genesis 121)
  • God established a covenant with Abraham (Genesis
  • I will establish my covenant as an everlasting
    covenant between me and you and your descendants
    after you for the generations to come, to be your
    God and the God of your descendants after you.
    The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an
    alien, I will give as an everlasting possession
    to you and your descendants after you and I will
    be their God.
  • It is from this passage that modern Jews claim
    Israel belongs to them

  • Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt to
    Canaan, the land God had promised them (Exodus
    12 31)
  • Along the way, God gave Moses the Ten
    Commandments (Exodus 20 1-17)

Statue of Moses by Michelangelo
Ten Commandments
  • I. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
  • II. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven
  • III. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord
    thy God in vain.
  • IV. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
  • V. Honor thy father and thy mother.
  • VI. Thou shalt not kill.
  • VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
  • VIII. Thou shalt not steal.
  • IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness against
    thy neighbor.
  • X. Thou shalt not covet anything that is thy

  • The God of Abraham and Moses was Yahweh
  • The only god all others were false imposters
  • A personal god who expected the Israelites to
    worship him alone and to observe high moral and
    ethical standards

  • Between 1000 and 400 B.C., Israelite religious
    leaders compiled Yahwehs teachings into the
  • Part of what Christians call the Old Testament
  • Yahweh would punish or reward both the
    individuals and the community based on how well
    they observed his commandments
  • Many would see the exile imposed by the New
    Babylonian Empire in 586 B.C. as an example of
    Yahwehs punishment

  • Rabbi means teacher or master
  • They are Jewish religious officials trained in
    Jewish law, ritual, and tradition
  • The synagogue is the Jewish place of assembly for
    prayer and study
  • It is not required for a synagogue to have a
    rabbi, but if it does, he is appointed by the lay

  • An authoritative record of rabbinic discussions
    on Jewish laws, Jewish ethics, customs, legends
    and stories
  • Fundamental source of legislation, customs, case
    histories and moral exhortations
  • For example, the Torah does not prohibit
    pronouncing the name of God, but the Talmud does
    (Talmud, Sanhedrin 90a)

  • Joshua succeeded Moses as the one to lead the
    Israelites into the Promised Land
  • A series of battles occurred between the invading
    Israelites and the native Canaanites
  • Jericho (Joshua 513627)
  • Ai and Bethel (Joshua 81-29)
  • Against an alliance of southern cities (Joshua
  • Against an alliance of northern cities (Joshua

Conquest of Canaan
  • Formative event in Israels history
  • Now the Israelites could describe themselves as
    the inhabitants of the land God had promised to
    their forefathers.
  • Israel is now a land, not just a people
  • But this event will also set up continuing
    conflict between the Jews who claim the land is
    given them by God and the Palestinians who are
    displaced from it

  • Kingdom of David (1000-970 B.C.)
  • Extended the kingdom by war
  • Made Jerusalem the political capital
  • Drew up plans for the Temple
  • Kingdom of Solomon (970-930 B.C.)
  • Asserted federal power over tribal power
  • Divided the country into 12 taxable units
  • Centralization
  • Preserved the kingdom by peace (David had
    extended it by war)

  • Under King Solomon, the Jews built an elaborate
    temple in their new capital of Jerusalem
  • Housed the Ark of the Covenant and the Ten
  • Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 A.D.
  • In 638 A.D., Muslim invaders captured Jerusalem
    and eventually built two mosques on the site of
    the old Jewish temple, including the Dome of the

Jerusalem A Divided City
  • The Dome of the Rock is the holiest Islamic
    shrine in Jerusalem.
  • It stands over the rock from which Muslims
    believe Muhammad rose to heaven.
  • For Jews, the shrine stands on the traditional
    location of the Temple of Solomon.
  • Jews believe the site to be where Abraham
    prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac.

  • After King Solomon, tribal tensions led to a
    division of the larger kingdom into Israel in the
    north and Judah in the south
  • Eventually both Israel and Judah came under
    foreign domination
  • As a result of these various conquests, the
    Jewish people were displaced from their homeland
  • Babylonian, Archaemenid, Alexandrian, Seleucid,
    and Roman regimes all ruled over the Jewish

  • All these regimes embraced many different ethnic
    and religious groups and mostly tolerated the
    cultural preferences of their subjects so long as
    the communities paid their taxes and refrained
    from rebellion
  • However they sometimes created state cults which
    honored their emperors as gods
  • This created a problem for the monotheistic Jews

18th Century icon of Shadraeh, Meshaeh, and
Abed-nego in the furnace (Daniel 38-12) and
Daniel in the lions den (Daniel 610-13)
Jewish Rebellions
  • Relations between the Jews and Romans were
    especially tense as the Romans expanded their
    empire into the eastern Mediterranean
  • Between the 3rd Century B.C. and the 1st Century
    A.D., the Jews mounted several rebellions, but
    were decisively defeated in the Jewish War of 66
    to 70 A.D.

Conquered Jerusalem
  • 324 Byzantine rule
  • The Roman Empire, including Jerusalem, became
    Christian under Emperor Constantine and
  • 614 - 638 Jerusalem fell to the Persians (614),
    Byzantines (629) and Arab Muslims (638)
  • 688 - 691 Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa built 
  • 1099 First Crusaders captured Jerusalem (Well
    discuss the Crusades in Lesson 22)

The UN Partition Plan, 1947
  • Some 6 million Jews were killed during the
  • Led to demands for a Jewish homeland
  • On November 29, 1947, the United Nations voted
    to partition western Palestine into a Jewish and
    an Arab state

Israeli War of Independence, 1948
  • On the day Israel declared its independence,
    combined Arab forces attacked
  • Israel defeated the attacks

  • The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was
    established in 1964 as a political and
    paramilitary organization of Palestinians
    dedicated to the establishment of an independent
    Palestinian state
  • Palestinians fought intifada against Israeli
    forces into the early 1990s

The Six Day War, 1967
  • Israel launched a preemptive strike against Arab
    armies and ended up occupying the Sinai, the Gaza
    Strip, the Golan Heights and the West Bank

  • At the 1972 Munich Olympics, five Arab terrorists
    killed 11 Israeli athletes
  • Arab terrorists repeatedly used suicide attacks
    against Israeli civilian targets
  • Israel responded with air strikes against Syria
    which it accuses of supporting Islamic Jihad and
    Hamas terrorists

Black September terrorist at Munich
Yom Kippur War, 1973
  • Egypt and Syria attacked on the Jewish holy day
    other Arab states joined in
  • Israel militarily recovered from the initial
    surprise, but diplomatically it was an Arab
    victory because Israel agreed to give up
    territory it had previously seized

Camp David Accords, 1979
  • Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai
  • Represented the controversial Israeli philosophy
    of land for peace
  • The Multinational Force and Observers was
    established to supervise the implementation of
    the security provisions of the peace treaty

Egyptian President Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister
Begin, and US President Carter celebrate the
peace agreement
Attempts at Peace and More Fighting
  • In 2005, Israel completed a unilateral withdrawal
    of civilian settlements and military personnel
    from the Gaza strip and the northern West Bank
  • In 2006, Israel attacked Hezbollah forces in
    Lebanon in response to the kidnapping of two
    Israeli soldiers

Major Jewish Holy Days
  • Passover
  • Celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people
    from slavery in Egypt
  • Chanukah
  • Commemorates the successful revolt against the
    Seleucids and rededication of the Temple in
  • Rosh Hashanah
  • First of the year
  • Begins the Days of Awe which are a time of
    introspection culminating in Yom Kippur
  • Yom Kippur
  • Day of Atonement for sins man commits against

Major World Religions Source About, Inc
  • Religion Members
  • Christianity 2 Billion
  • Islam 1.2 Billion 
  • Hinduism 785 Million 
  • Buddhism 360 Million 
  • Judaism 17 Million 
  • Sikhism 16 Million
  • Bahai 5 Million
  • Confucianism 5 Million
  • Jainism 4 Million
  • Shintoism 3 Million
  • Wicca .7 Million
  • Zoroastrianism .2 Million

Divisions of Judaism Today
  • Orthodox
  • Jewish law comes from God and cannot be changed
  • Torah is the fundamental text and study of the
    Talmud is stressed
  • Conservative
  • Accept the binding nature of Jewish law but
    believe that the law can change
  • Use the Talmud along with the Torah, but are more
    flexible about the texts than Orthodox Jews are
  • Reformed
  • Most liberal (i. e., open to change)
  • The process of reinterpretation of the Torah to
    the language of today is ongoing, and that every
    Jew has a stake and a role in that restatement
    and extension.

Ideas Unifying Judaism
  • One people (Abraham is their forefather)
  • The Chosen People (holy people)
  • Covenant relationship (Promised Land)
  • Temple/synagogue
  • Torah and Talmud

Jewish Concept of the Messiah
  • Hebrew word is moshiach (annointed)
  • The moshiach will be chosen by God to put an end
    to all evil in the world, rebuild the Temple,
    bring the exiles back to Israel, and usher in the
    world to come.
  • I believe with perfect faith in the coming of
    the moshiach, and though he may tarry, still I
    await him every day. (Principle 12 of Rambams
    13 Principles of Faith)
  • Rambam is Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, one of the
    greatest medieval Jewish scholars

  • Olam Ha-Ba is Hebrew for the World to Come and
    also the term used to refer to the spiritual
  • When the moshiach comes to initiate the perfect
    world of peace and prosperity, the righteous dead
    will be brought back to life and given the
    opportunity to experience the perfected world
    that their righteousness helped to create.
  • The wicked dead will not be resurrected.
  • Jews prepare for the Olam Ha-Ba through study of
    the Torah and good deeds

Part 2 Christianity Theme How religions grow
and spread
  • Lesson 14

  • Calvin, epistles, Gentiles, Hermensen (Arminius),
    Jesus, Luther, New Testament, Paul (Saul),
    Pharisees, Reformation, salvation by faith,
    spread of early Christianity, St. Augustine

  • Born sometime before 4 B.C. in Bethlehem
  • Virgin birth as the Son of God (Luke 134-35)
  • John the Baptist began preaching before Jesus and
    Jesus began his ministry with a message of
    repentance similar to Johns
  • Called Twelve Apostles to assist him

Jesus Ministry
  • Met resistance from Jewish authorities who
    considered his claims to be the Messiah blasphemy
    and Roman authorities who considered his call for
    the kingdom of God to be a political threat
  • Jews brought Jesus before the Roman authorities
    who acquiesced to the Jews demands to crucify

  • Jesus followers proclaimed he had risen from the
    dead and that his death and resurrection served
    as a sacrifice to offset their sins
  • Now they too can survive death and live eternally
    in heaven
  • Jesus followers called him Christ which means
    the anointed one and they became known as
    Christians (Acts 1126)

New Testament
  • Christians compiled a body of writings including
    accounts of Jesus life, reports of his
    followers works, and letters outlining Christian
  • Becomes known as the New Testament and
    Christians refer to the Jews Hebrew scriptures
    as the Old Testament

  • The Christians were subjected to persecutions
    from Jews who disagreed with the new faith
  • One of the chief persecutors was Saul
  • Zealous Pharisee
  • Held the peoples coats while Stephen was being
    stoned (Acts 458)
  • Was on his way to Damascus to see whether there
    is any Christian influence in the synagogue there
    when God encountered him
  • Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? (Acts 94)

  • God made Saul a chosen vessel unto me, to bear
    my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the
    children of Israel (Acts 915)
  • Came to be known as Paul
  • Greatest theologian of the early Church
  • Apostle to the greatest sphere of Christian
    missionary expansion to the Gentile world to the

Pauls Mission Trips
Pauls Method
  • The cities in which Paul established churches
    were politically, culturally, and economically
  • They were also located on the main thoroughfares
    of the Roman Empire, ensuring mobility of the
  • Christianity would radiate from these major
    cities to others and eventually to the

Factors Aiding the Spread of Christianity
  • Paul wrote in Greek
  • The conquests of Alexander had introduced Greek
    as the common language from Italy to India (Well
    study Alexander in Lesson 18)
  • Roman system of good roads and the lack of piracy
    or serious crime (Pax Romana)
  • Allowed Paul to travel and preach throughout Asia
    Minor, Thrace, Greece, and Italy

Factors Aiding the Spread of Christianity
  • Presence of the synagogue
  • Gave Paul a forum to preach, dispute with the
    Jews, and attract converts
  • Roman toleration of religion
  • Paul and the other missionaries were able to
    freely debate the cause of Christianity, provided
    they said nothing subversive to Romes political

Factors Aiding the Spread of Christianity
  • Degenerate nature of Roman society
  • Romes idle, lascivious aristocracy amused itself
    with such pursuits as mortal combat for
    entertainment and created a spiritual void that
    needed to be filled
  • Broad Appeal
  • Open to lower classes, urban populations, and
  • Accorded honor and dignity to individuals who did
    not enjoy high standing in Roman society

  • Less than 300 years after the crucifixion,
    Christianity became the most dynamic and
    influential religion in the Mediterranean basin
  • Sometime shortly before 337 A.D., Constantine
    became the first Christian emperor
  • In 380 A.D., Theodosius proclaimed Christianity
    the official religion of the Roman Empire

The baptism of Constantine
Institutional Church
  • In the absence of organized leadership, the
    earliest Christians had generated a wide range of
    sometimes conflicting doctrines
  • To standardize the faith, Christian leaders
    instituted a hierarchy of church officials
  • The bishop in Rome and patriarchs in Jerusalem,
    Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople
  • As Roman imperial authority crumbled, the bishop
    of Rome (known as the pope) emerged as the
    spiritual leader of Christian communities in the
    western part of the empire

Evolving Doctrine
  • In 325 A.D., Constantine called the Council of
    Nicea which brought together Christian leaders to
    consider the views of the Arians
  • Arians taught that Jesus was a mortal man rather
    than God Himself
  • Arianism was condemned as heresy
  • (We talked about this in Lesson 6)

Nicean Creed
  • We believe in one God       the Father, the
    Almighty,       maker of heaven and earth,      
    of all that is, seen and unseen.
  • We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ,       the
    only Son of God,       eternally begotten of the
    Father,       God from God, Light from
    Light,       true God from true God,      
    begotten, not made,       of one Being with the
    Father       through him all things were
    made.       For us and for our salvation          
    he came down from heaven,           was
    incarnate of the Holy Spirit           and the
    Virgin Mary           and became truly
    human.           For our sake he was
    crucified           under Pontius Pilate he
    suffered death and was buried.
  • On the third day he rose
    again           in accordance with the
  • Scriptures  

                          he ascended into
heaven           and is seated at the right
hand           of the Father.           He will
come again in glory           to judge the living
and the dead,           and his kingdom will 
have no end. We believe in the Holy Spirit,
the Lord,           and the giver of life,      
who proceeds from the Father and the Son,      
who with the Father and the Son           is
worshiped and glorified,       who has spoken
through the prophets.       We believe in the one
holy catholic            (Christian) and
apostolic church.       We acknowledge one
baptism           for the forgiveness of
sins.       We look for the resurrection of the
dead,           and the life of the world to
come. Amen.
Added Philosophical Sophistication
  • The earliest Christians had come from the ranks
    of ordinary people
  • Their doctrine seemed unsophisticated to
    intellectual elites
  • Until the 3rd Century Christianity grew as a
    popular religion of salvation favored by the
  • During the 4th Century, intellectual elites began
    to give it a reasoned doctrine of intellectual

St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
  • Well educated and conversant with all the leading
    intellectual currents of his day
  • Converted to Christianity in 387
  • Worked to reconcile Christianity with Greek and
    Roman philosophical traditions, especially
  • Tried to articulate Christianity in terms that
    were familiar to educated classes
  • Wrote Confessions and The City of God

Martin Luther
  • In 1517, Martin Luther distributed his Ninety
    Five Thesis which was a public challenge to
    debate the Church practice of selling indulgences
  • Indulgences were a type of pardon that excused
    individuals from doing penance for their sins and
    facilitated entry into heaven
  • Church officials thought indulgences were great
    encouraged believers to reflect piously on their
    behavior and served as a large source of income

  • In 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
  • Though expelled from the Church, Luther still
    considered himself a Christian and he began to
    attract followers
  • The movement spread from Wittenberg, throughout
    Germany, to Switzerland, and throughout western
  • The printing press was instrumental in spreading
    the word
  • The dissidents became known as Protestants
    because they were protesting against the
    established order

Other Reformers
  • John Calvin
  • Converted to Protestantism in the 1530s and left
    France for Switzerland to escape persecution
  • Founded a model Protestant community in Geneva
    which also served as a missionary center
  • Advanced the doctrine of predestination
  • Great influence on Presbyterianism

Other Reformers
  • Jacob Hermensen (Latinized Arminius)
  • Revolted against strict Calvinism in favor of
    free will
  • Argued that people must make an active choice to
    be saved
  • Profoundly influenced John Wesley and Methodism

Major World Religions Source About, Inc
  • Religion Members
  • Christianity 2 Billion
  • Islam 1.2 Billion 
  • Hinduism 785 Million 
  • Buddhism 360 Million 
  • Judaism 17 Million 
  • Sikhism 16 Million
  • Bahai 5 Million
  • Confucianism 5 Million
  • Jainism 4 Million
  • Shintoism 3 Million
  • Wicca .7 Million
  • Zoroastrianism .2 Million

  • Islam