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Introduction to Psychodynamic Therapy

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Introduction to Psychodynamic Therapy Lyn Siegel, MPH, MSW, LCSW 51 Main St. Suite 12 Clinton, NJ 08809 908-586-3254 e-mail lynsiegel_at_patmedia.net – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychodynamic Therapy


1
Introduction to Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Lyn Siegel, MPH, MSW, LCSW
  • 51 Main St. Suite 12
  • Clinton, NJ 08809
  • 908-586-3254
  • e-mail lynsiegel_at_patmedia.net
  • Web www.clintontherapist.citymax.com

2
General Approaches ofPsychological Theories
Cognitive
Behavioral
Psychodynamic
3
Psychotherapy
psychoanalysis
psychodynamic
existential cognitive behavioral cognitive/behavio
ral
4
Sigmund Freuds Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics
  • Structure of Personality ID, EGO, super-ego
  • The most comprehensive theory of personality and
    psychotherapy ever developed
  • Concepts of the conscious, preconscious and the
    unconscious

5
Freuds Structure of Personality
6
Sigmund Freuds Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics
  • Clinical Evidence for postulating the unconscious
    (which can not be studied directly)
  • dreams
  • slips of the tongue
  • forgetting
  • posthypnotic suggestions
  • material from free-association techniques
  • the symbolic content of psychotic symptoms

7
Sigmund Freuds Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Ego-defense mechanisms
  • repression
  • denial
  • reaction formation
  • projection
  • displacement
  • rationalization
  • sublimation
  • regression,
  • introjection
  • identification
  • compensation

8
Sigmund Freuds Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Psychosexual stages
  • oral
  • anal
  • phallic
  • latency
  • genital

9
Sigmund Freuds Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Important to Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Social
    Workers
  • Transference
  • projecting feelings from the past on the
    therapist as a significant figure of the past
  • Counter-transference
  • seeing yourself in a client
  • meeting your own needs through a client

10
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • Other names for Psychodynamic psychotherapy
  • Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
  • Exploratory psychotherapy
  • Insight oriented therapy

11
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • General approach
  • historical focus interpretations or
    observationsare based on the clients history
  • always based on the transference--patient/therapis
    t relationship
  • Its assumptions
  • unconscious mind exists
  • holds painful feelings
  • we avoid thru our defenses
  • Needs, drives and feelings motivate behavior

12
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • Goals
  • make clients problem clear (elucidate)
  • understand defense mechanisms and transference
    responses
  • Techniques used (origins in Freud)
  • therapeutic alliance
  • free association
  • defense and transference interpretation

Bring unconscious conflict to awareness
emotional insight
13
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • Therapists role
  • unconditional acceptance
  • make interpretations

14
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • Duration/frequency
  • months to years
  • longer term open-ended
  • 1-3 x weekly
  • brief therapy techniques growing
  • 1 x week

15
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic
Repressed childhood conflicts, Id content, ego
activity Bringing conflict to conscious awareness
overcome neurosis
Less emphasis on sexual and aggressive
drives Less emphasis on unconscious info
More emphasis on past
relationships
Differences in Assumptions and Focus
16
Overview of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic
Offshoot of the psychoanalytic school Interpretat
ion is main tool Mediator, a conscience, and a
devil
all adult problems can be traced back
to childhood interaction of ego, superego, id

Differences in Assumptions and Focus
17
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • Theory of the mind/psyche (psyche the
    personality as a whole), ego-the organizer of the
    conscious mind
  • Theory of archetypes
  • Theory of dynamics of the psyche principle of
    opposites, principle of equivalence, principle of
    entropy
  • Theory of synchronicity

18
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • Important concepts
  • complexes (a feature of the personal unconscious
    in which groups of contents clump together)
  • individuation (the process by which the
    consciousness of a person becomes individualized
    or differentiated from other people)

19
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • Understanding of the human personality
  • Psychological typology
  • attitudes introversion/extroversion
  • the functions thinking, feeling, sensation, and
    intuition

20
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • Human development, especially in middle age
  • A spiritual approach

21
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • That the personality is also based on who we want
    to become, rather than just the past (movement
    toward self-actualization)
  • Dreams as an attempt to express rather than
    repress

22
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • An archetype is the content of the collective
    unconscious.
  • The persona our public image, a mask (or public
    face) that we wear to protect ourselves.
  • Shadow represents our dark side, the thoughts,
    feelings, and actions that are socially
    reprehensible and that we tend to disown by
    projecting them outward.

23
Carl Jungs Major Contributions to Psychodynamics
  • Archetypes (cont)
  • Anima/ animus
  • Syzygy divine couple. wholeness and integration.
    The opposites of the inner and outer life are
    joined in marriage.
  • Mother the nurturing one

24
Carl Jungs Major Contribution to Psychodynamics
  • Archetypes (cont)
  • Father guide or authority figure
  • Child a pattern related to the hope and promise
    for new beginnings.

25
Other Disciplines in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
  • Adlerian
  • Object relations/ Psychoanalytic self psychology
    (Kohut)
  • Ego psychology
  • Psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy
  • Transactional analysis-Berne

26
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology
  • Underlying is a theory of personality,
    psychopathology, and psychotherapy
  • His theory is connected to a humanistic
    philosophy of living
  • Core premise the extent of feeling of community
    (connectedness) is both an index and goal of
    mental health
  • Holds philosophical ideals as therapeutic goals
    for individuals and groups

27
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology
  • Techniques analysis of birth order, coping
    patterns, early memory work
  • Systems view
  • Within the systems context 3 key life
    tasks-vocation, love, and sex
  • These and our relationships are social challenges
  • First system family-the origin of our world view
    and attitude toward life

28
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology
  • Fictional finalism- a central goal guiding a
    person behaviors
  • Only when I am perfect can I be secure
  • Only when I am important can I be accepted

29
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology
  • Treatment
  • Brief, couple, family
  • Goals Connected-ness, self-development,
    contribute to others welfare
  • Correct mistaken assumptions, attitudes,
    behaviors and feelings about the world
  • Objective redirect self-focused behaviors
    toward social contribution

30
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)
  • Emphasizes empathy
  • Empathy is used to describe an intrapsychic
    process in the therapist by which an
    understanding of the patient, particularly an
    emotional understanding, a capacity to feel what
    the other is feeling is enhanced. Situated
    somewhere between listening and interpreting,
    empathy serves as a precondition for
    both.-Berger 1987

Empathy The power of entering into
the experience of or understanding objects
or emotions outside ourselves
31
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)
  • Understanding and explanation ( interpretative
    process) are offered from the clients
    perspective
  • Prevailing form of psychoanalysis in Europe

32
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)
  • Revolutionary departure from the biological
    model
  • Kohut claimed it would form a framework in which
  • Empathetic, subjective methods were overiding
  • Other methods could be used
  • Distinctions between psychiatry and psychology
    were no longer relevant

33
Ego psychology
  • Groundwork
  • Anna Freud-building blocks of defense theory
  • Erikson-Psychosocial stages
  • Emphasized egos role in development
  • Focuses on social influences throughout the life
    span
  • Deals with early AND later developmental stages

34
Ego psychology
  • Heinz Hartmann-leader of ego therapy
  • Its really structural theory-ego therapist
    interested in all aspects--incl ID
  • the preservation of Freuds drive theory
  • emphasizes the centrality of the ego
  • Focuses on the egos workings in creating
    defenses rather than focusing on the underlying
    id content
  • Engages the patient, less emphasis on uncovering
    hidden secrets, more on psychic structure-i.e the
    relationships between the id, the ego, and
    superego (Mitchell and Black-1995)

35
Ego Psychology
  • Heinz Hartmann the father of Ego Psychology
  • Studiedthe ways in which the Ego organizes
    itself, adapts, and deploys ID drives
  • Contributions
  • neutralization (rather than sublimation)-the ego
    strips the drives of their sexual and aggressive
    qualities changing their nature-e.g like a power
    plant
  • notion of a child born with an innate potential
    that unfolds naturally in a receptive
    environment and average receptive environment-
    Mitchell and Black 1995

36
Sources
  • Brown D, Pedder J, Introduction to Psychotherapy,
    Tavistock/Routledge, 1991
  • Covey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Counseling
    and Psychotherapy Brook/Cole, 2001
  • Mitchell SA and Black MJ, Freud and Beyond-A
    History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought The
    Perseus Books Groups, 1995
  • Ursano RJ, Sonnenberg SM, Lazar SG, Psychodynamic
    Psychotherapy American Psychiatric Press, 1991
  • Hall CS, Nordby SH, A Primer of Jungian
    Psychology Penguin Group, 1973
  • Httppsychcentral.com/therapy.htm
  • http//easyweb.easynet.co.un/simplepsych/204
  • http//www.ni.edu/acad/psych/frauenglass/psychodyn
    amic.html
  • http//meagerlab.tamu.esu/M-Meagher/Intro/TREATMEN
    T.html
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